This is a half credit seminar course taken over the spring semester, and comprises of thirty six contact hours. This course is attractive to students majoring in art history, but it is also designed to include those students from an arts and humanities background who wish to explore an in depth analysis of the development of French nineteenth century modernity.
The content of the course centers initially on the rebuilding of Paris during the Second Empire and explores how these structural and social changes determined the subject matter and choices made by the avant-garde artists at this time. The impact of Baudelaire’s request for a painter of modern life is addressed, and how this manifested itself in the role of the artist-flaneur. In the 1870s, the complexity of Impressionism from both a male and female perspective is evaluated, and the ways in which gender and class may have determined viewpoint and perception.
The avant-gardes of the 1880s and 1890s are studied, and the move away from city to country, heralded by Van Gogh, Cézanne and Gauguin are discussed in terms of their individual exploration of Modernist values. The alternative art practices of the American and English Post-Impressonists Whistler and Sickert are also addressed in the context of their French counterparts. The classes at Herstmonceux are reinforced by two days in Paris after the mid-term trip visiting the Musée D’Orsay and the Orangerie, where Monet painted his Waterlilies.
COURSE PREREQUISITES: Permission of the instructor. Relevant previous study in one or more of the areas covered by the course – art history, history, literature, the French language, philosophy, women’s studies or urban geography.
COURSE OBJECTIVES: The student is asked to question the values of the society that provided the basis for these paintings, and through the study of French cultural politics and social history, the student can address issues that relate to these images with an increased visual awareness and a stronger critical focus.
EVALUATION:During the semester, students are expected to lead one seminar, worth 30% of the term’s mark, and write one mid term research paper also worth 30%. There will be an end of term slide test worth 20% and a participation mark of 20% based on class reading, contribution and discussion.
REQUIRED TEXT: R.L.Herbert: Impressionism, Art Leisure and Parisian Society (Yale 1988)
|WEEK 1||Class 1: Introduction to the Course|
Class 2: Manet and Baudelaire’s Painter of Modern Life
Reading: P. Smith Impressionism Chapter 1 Manet, Baudelaire & the Artist as Flaneurpp.33-57
Issues to discuss: What is history painting? Why is it no longer relevant to the paintings of modern life?
Class 3: Haussmann's Paries - Strategic Beautification, Paris Transformed
Reading: R. Herbert Impressionism Chapter 1 Paris Transformed pp.1-32
R. Herbert Impressionism Chapter 2 Impressionism & Naturalism pp.33-57
Issues to discuss: In what ways did the new architecture of Paris define Impressionist subject matter?
Class 4: DVD of Le bal au Moulin de la Galette followed by a discussion of the issues of Renoir’s idealized vision of modernity. Can it be argued that it was valid?
Class 1: Issues of Prostitution
Reading: T.A.Gronberg Femmes de Brasserie Art History, September 1984
Further Reading: E. Lipton Looking into Degas Chapter 4 The Bathers, modernity & Prostitution pp.151-186
P. Smith Impressionism Degas and Women pp.77-81
T.J Clarke The Painting of Modern Life Chapter 2 Olympia’s Choicepp.79-146
Hollis Clayson Painted Love (London 1997)
Class 2: Van Gogh - his work in Holland and Paris
Reading: Richard Raskin On The Vincent Signature & the Values Embodied in the Potato Eaters (online)
Further Reading: Van Gogh Exhibition Catalogue Amsterdam 1990 (paintings)
Walter & Metzger Van Gogh, the Complete Paintings A Dutchman in Paris: 1886 pp.221-80,Far East on his Doorstep pp.283-299
Class 3: Van Gogh in Arles and Remy
Reading: V. Jirat-Wasiutynski Vincent Van Gogh’s Paintings of Olive Tress & Cypresses from St Remy The Art Bulletin Dec.1993 Vol. LXXV No 4. (ARTH 222 online)
Further Reading: Van Gogh Exhibition Catalogue Amsterdam 1990 (paintings)
Walter & Metzger Van Gogh, the Complete Paintings St.Remy pp.503-561 &
Auvers to the end On Dr. Gachet’s Territory pp.635-667
Class 4: The late Series Paintings and the Waterlilies by Monet
In preparation for the Orangerie in Paris
The Late Monet Series Paintings: 1886-c.1900
Reading: P. Tucker Monet in the 90s Monet & the challenges to Impressionism in the 1880s pp.17-39
Further Reading: P. Smith Impressionism Chapter 3 Monet and the moment of art pp.83-111
Class 1: Student Presentations
Presentation1: Impressionism in the 1870s - Parisian Suburban Leisure - Monet
Presentation 2: Impressionmism and Suburban Leisure - Renoir
Reading: R. Herbert Impressionism Chapter 6 Suburban Leisure pp.195-263
Further reading: P. Smith Impressionism Impressionism & the impression pp.19-31
& Chapter 3 Monet & the moment of Art pp.83-111
P. Tucker Monet at Argenteuil
J. House Renoir Hayward Gallery 1986
Class 2: Student Presentations
Presentation 3: Degas, Manet and Public spectacle - the Café and Brasserie
Reading: R. Herbert Impressionism Chapter 3 Café and Café-Concert pp.59-91
Further Reading: A. Gronberg Femmes de Brasserie Art History, Sept 1984
Issues to discuss: what is the difference between official and clandestine prostitution?
Presentation 4: Manet and Degas - The Café Concert
Reading: Chapter 3, as above
M.Shapiro Degas & the Siamese Twins of the Café-Concert , Gazette des Beaux-Arts 1982 (online ARTH 222 readings)
Class 3: Student Presentations
Presentation 4: The Impressionists and the Opera, Degas and the Ballet
Reading: R. Herbert Impressionism Chapter 4 Theatre Opera and Dancepp.93-139
Further reading: E. Lipton Looking into Degas Chapter 2 At the Ballet, the disintegration of glamour pp73-115
R. Kendall Beyond Impressionism Chapters 4 and 5
L. Nochlin The Politics of Vision Chapter 5 Manet’s Masked Ball at the opera pp.75-94
C. Armstrong Degas, Odd Man Out pp.43-72
Followed by Lecture: On Impressionist Portraiture
Reading: R. Herbert Chapter 2 Impressionism and Naturalismpp.33-57
Class 4: The Women Impressionists - Berthe Morisot and Mary Cassatt
Presentation 5: Berthe Morisot - The suburban, and the modern
Reading: K. AdlerThe suburban, the modern and ‘Une Dame de Passy’(online ARTH 222 course readings/articles)
Further Reading: P. Smith Impressionism Chapter 2 Impressionist Women & women Impressionists pp.59-74 (up to Degas and Women) (PTO)
K. Adler & T. Garb Berthe Morisot Phaidon Press, London 1980
Presentation 6: Mary Cassatt - Modernity and Spaces of Femininity
Reading: G. Pollock Modernity and the Spaces of Femininity pp. 245-267 (online ARTH 222 readings)
N. Broude & M.Garrard The Expanding Discourse
G. Pollock Mary Cassatt, Painter of Modern Women London 1998
Mid-term Field Studies held in Paris at: the Musee D’Orsay and the Monet water lilies in the Orangerie
Class 1: Cancelled in lieu of class held on Saturday in the Musée D’Orsay (it is suggested that time is spent working on your paper due the Monday of week 5)
Group discussion on the visits to the Musée D’Orsay and the Orangerie.
Each student is expected to bring a prepared paragraph for informal discussion on the relative merits of seeing primary sources in galleries.
Issues to discuss: How valuable are primary sources to art history? What are the advantages and disadvantages in travelling all the way to Paris to see them?
Class 3: Student Presentations
Presentation 7: Toulouse Lautrec – Painter of the Moulin Rouge
Reading: Toulouse Lautrec Hayward gallery catalogue
R. Thomson: Rethinking Lautrec pp.13-27
A. Roquebert:Toulouse Lautrec and artistic life 1883-1901pp.28-42 (online ARTH 222 course reading)
Further Reading: R. Thomson et al Toulouse Lautrec & Montmartre Washington 2005
C. Freches-ThoryToulouse Lautrec: the Postumous reputationpp.43-53
Thomson The Post-Impressionists Chapter 10 ‘You’re a Parisianist’pp.133-50
Class 4: Pissarro and the Politics of Vision
Reading: P. Smith Impressionism Chapter 4 Pissarro’s Political Vision
Further Reading: L. Nochlin The Politics of Vision Chapter 4 Camille Pissarro: the Unassuming Eye pp.60-74
R. Brettell Pissarro & Pontoise Chapter 2 Omissions & Admissions pp.37-71
& Chapter 3The Industrial Landscape: Pissarro & the Factory pp.73-97
Class 1: Seurat and Pointillism - the Suburb - Baignade D’Asnieres and Sunday on the Island of the Grande Jatte & the Entertainment paintings
Reading: J. House Meaning in Seurat’s Figure PaintingsArt history Vol 3 Sept 1980
Further Readings: S. F. Eisenmann 19th Century Art a Critical History Chapter 13 Mass Culture and Utopia; Seurat and Neo Impressionism pp.274-286
L. Nochlin the Politics of Vision Chapter 9 Seurat’s la grande Jatte: an Anti-Utopian allegorypp.170-93
R. Thomson Seurat Phaidon Press Oxford 1985
J. Russell Seurat London 1986 (Thames and Hudson 2nd Ed.)
Essay due at 1:00pm
Class 2: Gauguin and the Myth of the Primitive - Brittany
Reading: S. F. Eisenman Gauguin’s skirt Chapter 1 Exotic scenarios pp.27-85
Further Reading: N. Broude & M. Garrard the Expanding discourse Chapter 17
Abigail Solomon-Godeau Going Native pp. 313-29 & Chapter 18
P. Brooks Gauguin’s Tahitian Body pp. 330-45.
Class 3: Gauguin and the Myth of the Primitive – Tahiti
Reading and Further Reading: as above
Class 4: Cézanne - The Dialectic of Flat Surface
Reading: P. Smith Impressionism Chapter 5 Cezanne & the problem of form pp.146-163
Further reading: S. E. Eisenman 19th Century Art, a Critical History Chapter 16 The failure and success of Cezanne pp.337-350
F. Frascina et al Modernity and Modernism Cezanne pp.201-213
Class 1: London Impressionism - Whistler’s Modernist Aesthetic & Sickert’s Music Halls
Reading: A. Greutzner-Robins: Sickert, ‘Painter in Ordinary’ to the Music Hallspp.13-23 (Sickert 1992)
Further Reading: R. Dorment Whistler pp.13-28
|Class 2: Review Class for Slide Test|
|Class 3: Cancelled in lieu of field study to the Orangerie Paris - use as private study time for slide test|
|Class 4: Slide Test|
The Field Studies on this course will be taken in Paris at the Musee D’Orsay and the Orangerie to view Monet’s Waterlilies
ARTH 222 Guidelines for the Summer Mid-Term Paper
This is a research paper based on any painting or group of paintings studied on the course. This assignment centres on an analysis of the relevant information that you research which supports your particular interest. The idea is that everyone will analyse one aspect of the course in detail in a form that shows research skills and an analytical presentation.
Length should be no more than 1200 words, with an appendix of photocopies or postcards at the back for reference, and a bibliography of at least four books and/or articles from Jstor or your online readings, in addition to your text book. Any websites should be in addition to that. Everything in your bibliography must be cited in your text. Footnotes are required and will not be included in the word count. The choice must not overlap at all with your seminar.
You could focus on one painting which we are studying, or group a few paintings around a chosen theme. For example, for single paintings, you could choose from the following list:
Manet Dejeuner sur l’herbe
Manet Un Bar aux folies Bergere
Renoir: Moulin de la Galette
Renoir Luncheon of the Boating Party
Van Gogh The Potato Eaters
Van Gogh Wheatfield with cypresses
Van Gogh Starry Night
Van Gogh Bedroom at Arles
Seurat: Sunday afternoon on the Island of the Grande Jatte
Seurat : Baignade d’Asnieres
Gauguin Vision after the Sermon Jacob Wrestling with an Angel
Toulouse LautrecMoulin Rouge
Munch: the Scream
Or any other important painting covered on the course, in the Musée D’Orsay or the Orangerie
Alternatively, you could write on a thematic group of paintings covered on the course:
Degas Nude Bathers
DegasImages of the ballet
Monet and Renoir’s paintings of La Grenouilliere
Monet paintings of Argenteuil
Monet Series paintings of Grainstacks or Rouen Cathedral or Poplars
Monet Waterlilies in the Orangerie
Images of the Loge at the Opera
Images of Women by Women Impressionists.
Cezanne Mont st. Victoire
Cezanne the Card Players
Van Gogh’s Paintings of his chair and Gauguin’s chair
Seurat: his Entertainment images
Toulouse Lautrec: his lithographic posters
Gauguin Paintings of Tahiti
Gauguin The Tahitan Nude.
Pissarro Images of Peasant life
Any other ideas, please check with me or email me before going ahead with it.