
AVAILABILITY The Department of Physics does not offer all of the courses listed in the Calendar every year. For the most uptodate information on the availability of courses offered in the current year, check QCARD or consult with the departmental office.

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PHYS 010*/0.5 
Fundamental Concepts in Physics for Teachers 
3L;1P 
A course relevant to those interested in teaching. Activitybased learning of fundamental physics topics typically taught in elementary and secondary schools. Topics include: motion, forces, energy, heat, electricity and magnetism, and light. Students will be required to teach a onehour enrichment class, once a week for 10 weeks, to Grade 7 or 8 students in a local school. NOTE Students may incur transportation costs, expected to be no more than $50. This course may not be included in any concentration in Physics.

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PHYS015*/0.5 
Astronomy I: The Solar System 
3L/P 
A nonmathematical introduction to the science of astronomy for nonspecialist students. Topics to be covered include the fundamentals of astronomy; an introduction to the tools and techniques of modern observational astronomy; the historical development of our understanding of the Earth, Moon and Solar System; space exploration of Mars, Jupiter, and other planets; the nature of the Sun; and the origin and uniqueness of our Solar System.
Also offered at the Bader International Study Centre, Herstmonceux.

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PHYS016*/0.5 
Astronomy II: The Active Universe 
3L/P 
This course, intended for nonspecialist students, will provide an overview of astronomy beyond the Solar System. Topics will include: the formation, nature, and evolution of the stars; stellar deaths, including novae, supernovae, white dwarfs, neutron stars, pulsars, and black holes; the interstellar medium; the Milky Way Galaxy; normal and active galaxies and large scale structure in the universe; and modern ideas in cosmology and the early universe.
PREREQUISITE PHYS 015* or permission of the Department.

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PHYS020*/0.5 
Physicists in the Nuclear Age 
3L 
For those interested in the impact of science on our century. Modern physics, especially nuclear physics, will be introduced by emphasizing the personalities, thoughts and writings of key scientists such as Bohr, Einstein and Rutherford and the ways in which they related to and shaped their political, scientific and social environments. Enrolment is limited.
Also offered as a distance course. Consult Continuing and Distance Studies.

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PHYS104/1.0 
Fundamental Physics 
3L;3P 
Mechanics, including systems of particles and rigid body motion; gravitation; fluids; electricity and magnetism; oscillatory motion and waves; topics in modern physics. The material is presented at a more fundamental level appropriate for students who are seeking a deeper appreciation of physics, and who may be considering a concentration in Physics.
PREREQUISITES 4U Physics with at least 60 per cent or equivalent, and a previous or concurrent university course in calculus.

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PHYS106/1.0 
General Physics 
3L;3P 
Mechanics, including systems of particles and rigid body motion; fluids; electricity and magnetism; oscillatory motion and waves; heat, light and sound; topics in modern physics. Aspects of physics useful for further work in other sciences will be emphasized.
PREREQUISITES 4U Physics with at least 60 per cent or equivalent, and a previous or concurrent university course in calculus.

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PHYS107/1.0 
Introductory Physics 
3L;3P 
Primarily for students in the biological and life sciences. Topics include: kinematics, mechanics, and energy; heat, heat transfer and temperature; fluid flow; electricity and magnetism; oscillations and wave motion; sound; light and optics; atoms and nuclei. The application of physics to biological systems will be emphasized.
PREREQUISTE 4U Physics or equivalent recommended; and 4U or equivalent in mathematics required.

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PHYS206*/0.5 
Dynamics 
3L;1T 
An introductory course in classical dynamics of particles, of rigid bodies and of fluids that sets the foundation for more advanced work. Topics include kinematics of particles and of rigid bodies, central forces, kinetics of systems of particles, planar and threedimensional dynamics of rigid bodies and an introduction to fluid mechanics.
PREREQUISITES PHYS 104 or PHYS 106 (a minimum grade of 65 per cent is recommended), MATH 120 (or MATH 121).

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PHYS212*/0.5 
Waves and Vibrations 
3L;1T 
Fundamentals of free, damped and forced vibrations with applications to various mechanical systems. Coupled oscillations and normal modes. Classical wave equation, standing and travelling waves. Continuum mechanics of solid bodies; elasticity theory with applications. Introduction to optics: image formation and optical instruments.
PREREQUISITE PHYS 206*.

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PHYS214*/0.5 
Planets and Life 
3L 
A course in planetary astronomy intended for students in the life sciences, earth sciences and chemistry who have taken a suitable firstyear course. Topics may include the solar system, the origin of life on Earth, other planets and planetary systems, extraterrestrial life.
PREREQUISITE PHYS 104 or PHYS 106 or PHYS 107 or CHEM 112 (or CHEM 116) or permission of the Department.

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PHYS216*/0.5 
Introduction to Astrophysics 
3L;1T/P 
Broad overview of basic laws of gravitation, radiation, and relativity: history and evolution of modern astronomy; ground and spacebased astronomy; the physics and evolution of stars; the milky way; galaxies in the universe; and cosmology. This course also uses the oncampus observatory at an introductory level.
PREREQUISITES PHYS 104 or PHYS 106, and MATH 120 or MATH 121, or permission of the Department.
EXCLUSION PHYS 115*.

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PHYS239*/0.5 
Electromagnetism 
3L;1T 
The experimental basis and mathematical description of electrostatics, magnetostatics and electromagnetic induction, together with a discussion of the properties of dielectrics and ferromagnetics, are presented. Both the integral and vector forms of Maxwell’s equations are deduced.
PREREQUISITES PHYS 104 or PHYS 106 (a minimum grade of 65 per cent is recommended); MATH 221* (or MATH 227* or MATH 280*).

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PHYS242*/0.5 
Relativity and Quanta 
3L;1T 
Evidence for relativistic effects. Kinematics and dynamics in special relativity, spacetime diagrams, applications. Evidence for quanta, spectra, Bohr atom. Introduction to the Schroedinger equation.
PREREQUISITE PHYS 104 or PHYS 106 (a minimum grade of 65 per cent is recommended).

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PHYS250*/0.5 
Foundations of Experimental Physics 
1L;3P 
Laboratory and lecture course that presents techniques and skills that are the foundations of experimental physics. Topics include statistical analysis of data, uncertainties in measurement, propagation of errors, software for data analysis, graphing and reporting. Students will be exposed to techniques in the measurement of electric, magnetic, thermal and mechanical properties. Laboratories also illustrate some principles of quantum physics, mechanics, electromagnetism and thermodynamics learned in other physics courses. Some exposure to computerized data acquisition is included.
PREREQUISITE PHYS 104 or PHYS 106.

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PHYS274*/0.5 
Thermodynamics 
3L;1T 
Thermodynamics applied to engineering systems. Ideal gas properties and real thermodynamic working substances. First law using control mass and control volume. Second law, entropy, Carnot cycle, power and refrigeration cycles. Introduction to fluid flow and flow devices.
PREREQUISITE PHYS 104 or PHYS 106.

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PHYS312/1.0 
Mathematical Methods in Physics 
3L;1T 
Methods of mathematics important for physicists. Function of a complex variable, contour integration, partial differential equations, orthogonal functions, Green functions, Fourier series, Fourier and Laplace transforms, finite difference methods, numerical solution of ordinary and partial differential equations.
PREREQUISITES PHYS 212*, MATH 221* (or MATH 227* or MATH 280*); MATH 231* (or MATH 232*).

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PHYS313*/0.5 
Computational Methods in Physics 
2L; 2P 
Introduction to Linux and a programming language. Foundations and limitations of numerical calculations. Code development, debugging, optimization and profiling. Algorithms and techniques used in physics problems. Possible topics to be covered include numerical differentiation and integration, root finding and optimization problems, solution of linear systems of equations, Monte Carlo simulations, symbolic computation.
PREREQUISITES PHYS 212* and PHYS 239*; MATH 221* (or MATH 280*), MATH 232* (or MATH 231*).

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PHYS315*/0.5 
Physical Processes in Astrophysics 
3L;1T/P 
This course relates observable quantities to the physical properties of astronomical sources thereby deciphering the varied nature of the cosmos. Basic physical processes in astrophysics are discussed and applied to diverse systems including planets, stars, the interstellar medium and distant galaxies. Topics include radiative transfer and the perturbation of the signal by instruments, the atmosphere, and the interstellar medium. The main astrophysical emission processes, both continuum and line, are also presented. An evening project using the oncampus observatory will be carried out during the term.
PREREQUISITES PHYS 216* (or PHYS 115*) or permission of the Department, PHYS 242*.

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PHYS321*/0.5 
Advanced Mechanics 
3L;1T 
An introduction to the equations of mechanics using the Lagrange formalism and to the calculus of variations leading to Hamilton's principle. The concepts developed in this course are applied to problems ranging from purely theoretical constructs to practical applications. Links to quantum mechanics and extensions to continuous systems are developed.
PREREQUISITES PHYS 212*, MATH 221* (or MATH 227* or MATH 280*); MATH 231* (or MATH 232*).

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PHYS334*/0.5 
Electronics for Applied Scientists 
2L;3P 
The design of electronic circuits and systems, using commonly available devices and integrated circuits. The properties of linear circuits are discussed with particular reference to the applications of feedback; operational amplifiers are introduced as fundamental building blocks. Digital circuits are examined and the properties of the commonly available I.C. types are studied; their use in measurement, control and signal analysis is outlined. Laboratory work is closely linked with lectures and provides practical experience in the subjects covered in lectures.
PREREQUISITE PHYS 239*.
EXCLUSION PHYS 333*.

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PHYS344*/0.5 
Introduction to Quantum Mechanics 
3L;1T 
Brief introduction to Hamiltonian dynamics. Matter waves. Postulates of quantum mechanics. Stationary states. Onedimensional potentials. Particle tunnelling and scattering states. Introduction to matrix mechanics and Dirac notation: the simple harmonic oscillator and angular momentum.
PREREQUISITES PHYS 212*, PHYS 242*; MATH 221* (or MATH 280*), MATH 232* (or MATH 231*).
EXCLUSION PHYS 343*.

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PHYS345*/0.5 
Quantum Physics of Atoms, Nuclei and Particles 
3L;1T 
Quantum mechanical treatment of two and three dimensional systems. The hydrogen atom. Spin. Manyelectron atoms and the periodic table. Introduction to perturbation theory and Fermi’s golden rule. Introduction to nuclear and particle physics.
PREREQUISITE PHYS 344*.
EXCLUSION PHYS 424*.

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PHYS350*/0.5 
General Laboratory 
3P 
Experiments in heat, optics, electron physics, quantum physics, and radioactivity are performed. A substantial part of the course is an experimental project during the Winter Term. A topic for the experimental physics, or observational astronomy project will be assigned after discussion with the student.
PREREQUISITES PHYS 239*, PHYS 242* and PHYS 250*.

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PHYS352*/0.5 
Measurement, Instrumentation and Experimental Design 
3L;2P 
Measurement of a variety of quantities with particular reference to techniques used in current physics and engineering practice, including optics, Xrays in crystallography and analysis, vacuum practice, nuclear techniques, signaltonoise enhancement, the use of digital computers for instrumentation purposes, and the statistical analysis of data.
PREREQUISITES PHYS 239* and PHYS 344*.

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PHYS372*/0.5 
Thermodynamics 
3L;1T 
Temperature, equations of state, internal energy, first and second laws, entropy and response functions. Application to heat engines and refrigerators. Free energies, Legendre transformations, changes of phase. Introduction to the Boltzmann factor and statistical mechanics.
PREREQUISITE PHYS 242*.

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PHYS380*/0.5 
Electrical and Optical Properties of Solids 
3L;1T 
An introduction to the electrical and optical properties of insulators, semiconductors and metals. Introduction to FermiDirac statistics, crystal and band theory and electron transport. Topics covered include the physics behind diodes, field effect and bipolar junction transistors, and electrooptical discrete devices.
PREREQUISITES PHYS 239* and PHYS 344*.
EXCLUSION PHYS 335*.

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PHYS414*/0.5 
Introduction to General Relativity 
3L 
Einstein's theory of gravity is developed from fundamental principles to a level which enables the student to read some of the current literature. Includes an introduction to computer algebra, an essential element of a modern introduction to Einstein's theory.
PREREQUISITES PHYS 321*; PHYS 312 or MATH 334*.

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PHYS422*/0.5 
Fluid Mechanics 
3L;1T 
A survey of the physics of fluids. The fundamental principles and the range of validity of the usual approximation methods are stressed. Topics include a study of incompressible flow, both laminar and turbulent, boundary layers, stratified flow and waves, with a brief introduction to gas dynamics, magnetohydrodynamics and plasma physics.
PREREQUISITE PHYS 312 or MATH 334*.

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PHYS432*/0.5 
Electromagnetic Theory 
3L 
Electromagnetic theory and applications. Topics include: Maxwell’s equations, gauge theory, relativistic transformations of Maxwell’s equations, properties of waves in free space, dielectrics, conductors and ionized media, reflection and refraction at the surfaces of various media, propagation in metallic and dielectric waveguides, radiation of electromagnetic waves from charged particles and antennae.
PREREQUISITES PHYS 239*; MATH 221* (or MATH 280*) and MATH 232* (or MATH 231*).
EXCLUSION PHYS 332*.

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PHYS435*/0.5 
Stellar Structure and Evolution 
3L 
This course provides a detailed account of the formation, structure, evolution and endpoints of stars. Topics include the HR diagram, nuclear energy generation, radiative transport and stellar model building, supernovae, white dwarfs, neutron stars, pulsars and black holes.
PREREQUISITE PHYS 315*.

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PHYS444*/0.5 
Advanced Quantum Physics 
3L 
This course covers perturbation theory, scattering theory and the addition of angular momentum. Special topics may include: manyelectron systems, path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, entanglement and quantum computing, quantum optics.
PREREQUISITE PHYS 345*.
EXCLUSION PHYS 426*.

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PHYS450/1.0 
Advanced Physics Laboratory and Project 
6P 
This course provides advanced physics and engineering physics students with experience in a wide range of modern experimental techniques. Experiments encompass measurements in applied physics, quantum solid state physics, low temperature physics, nuclear physics and optics. The course has set experiments in the Fall Term and group projects in the Winter Term.
PREREQUISITES PHYS 350* and PHYS 344* (or PHYS 343*) or CHEM 313*.

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PHYS453*/0.5 
Specialist Physics Laboratory 
6P 
To provide students in the SSP degree programs with experience in a range of advanced experiments and techniques. Four experiments are performed selected from, for example, pure and applied nuclear physics, Mössbauer spectroscopy, fluid mechanics, optics, magnetic resonance, quantum effects in the solid state, superconductivity, and superfluidity.
PREREQUISITES PHYS 350* and PHYS 344* (or PHYS 343*) or CHEM 313*.

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PHYS460*/0.5 
Laser Optics 
3L 
Topics and applications in modern physical optics, culminating with the development of the laser and its current applications. Topics include: Gaussian beam propagation, optical resonators, Fourier optics, fiber optics, holography, lightmatter interaction using classical and semiclassical models, and the basic theory and types of lasers.
PREREQUISITES PHYS 239* and PHYS 344* (or PHYS 343* or CHEM 313*).

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PHYS472*/0.5 
Statistical Mechanics 
3L;1T 
Phase space, the ergodic hypothesis and ensemble theory. Canonical and grand canonical ensembles. Partition functions. Ideal quantum gases. Classical gases and the liquidvapour transition. Introduction to techniques for interacting systems, including Monte Carlo simulations.
PREREQUISITES PHYS 313*, PHYS 344* and PHYS 372*.

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PHYS480*/0.5 
Solid State Physics 
3L 
A fundamental treatment of the properties of solids. Topics include: crystal structure, Xray and neutron scattering, the reciprocal lattice, phonons, electronic energy bands, and the thermal, magnetic, optical and transport properties of solids.
PREREQUISITES PHYS 380* and PHYS 345* (or CHEM 313*).

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PHYS483*/0.5 
Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 
3L;1T 
An examination of the key ideas, techniques and technologies in the fields of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Emphasis will be placed on the physics involved, measurement techniques, and technological applications. Topics covered are selected from the following: electrical and optical properties of quantum dots, quantum wires and nanotubes; quantum information technology; mesoscopic electronics; nanostructures on surfaces; and scanningprobe and optical microscopy.
PREREQUISITES PHYS 345* (or PHYS 343*) or CHEM 313*, and PHYS 380* (or PHYS 335* or PHYS 480*); or permission of the Department.

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PHYS487*/0.5 
Surface Engineering and Analysis 
3L 
An outline of the fundamental concepts and applications of modern techniques for the production and analysis of surfaces and thin films. Topics include ultrahigh vacuum, surface adsorption, surface crystallography, electron and ion microscopy and spectroscopy, electron and xray diffraction, scanning probe microscopy, and growth of thin films by vapour deposition.
PREREQUISITE PHYS 345* (or PHYS 343*) or CHEM 313* or permission of the Department.

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PHYS490*/0.5 
Nuclear and Particle Physics 
3L 
A systematic introduction to nuclear and particle physics for advanced physics students. Topics include basic nuclear properties: size, mass, decay and reactions; shell model of nuclear structure; magnetic moments; gamma and beta decay; quark model of elementary particles; and strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions.
PREREQUISITE PHYS 345* (or PHYS 424*).

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PHYS491*/0.5 
Physics of Nuclear Reactors 
3L;1T 
The objective of this course is the understanding of the fundamental physics associated with a nuclear reactor. Topics include a brief review of basic nuclear physics, neutron interactions and crosssections, neutron diffusion, neutron moderation, theory of reactors, changes in reactivity, control of reactors. Offered in alternate years.
PREREQUISITE OR COREQUISITE PHYS 350*.

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PHYS495*/0.5 
Introduction to Medical Physics 
3L 
Topics include: the production and measurement of Xrays and charged particles for radiation therapy and nuclear medicine; interactions of radiation with matter and biological materials; interaction coefficients and radiation dosimetry; radiation safety; physics of medical imaging with examples from nuclear medicine, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging.
PREREQUISITES PHYS 344* (or PHYS 343*); PHYS 312 or MATH 338*; PHYS 350* or PHYS 352*.

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PHYS590/1.0 
Research Thesis 
9P 
Investigation of a contemporary research topic in physics or astronomy under the supervision of a faculty member, and leading to a written thesis and an oral presentation of results.
PREREQUISITES Admission to Honours and enrolled in one of the following programs: MAJ PHYS, SSP PHYS, SSP ASPH or SSP MAPH.

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