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PHYS813* 
Galactic Astronomy 

This course describes the material content, energetics, formation and evolution of the Galaxy, and places our Galaxy in the context of galaxies, in general. Topics include the interstellar medium, stellar populations, dynamics, the Galactic center and the Galactic halo.
EXCLUSION: PHYS433

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PHYS814* 
Extragalactic Astronomy 

This course describes the material content, energetics and evolution of the Universe beyond our Galaxy. Topics include global properties of galaxies and clusters, the extragalactic distance scale, extragalactic radio sources, large scale structure, dark matter, and cosmology.
EXCLUSION: PHYS434*

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PHYS815* 
Stellar Structure and Evolution 

This course provides a detailed account of the formation, structure, evolution and endpoints of stars. Topics include the HR diagram, nuclear energy generation, radiative transport and stellar model building, supernovae, white dwarfs, neutron stars, pulsars and black holes.
EXCLUSION: PHYS435

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PHYS816* 
Cosmic Gas Dynamics 

The NavierStokes equations and the magnetohydrodynamic equations for compressible flow are reviewed briefly and discussed in terms of simple solutions. The theory of shock waves is presented and the important concept of 'selfsimilar flow' is introduced. These fundamentals are applied to the discussion of MHD wave propagation, gravitational collapse, stellar and galactic 'winds', supernovae, shock and ionization fronts in the interstellar medium.

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PHYS817* 
Astronomical Dynamics 

Due to its long range and lack of shielding, the Newtonian gravitational force plays a major role in the dynamical evolution of astronomical systems ranging in scale from planetary systems to clusters of galaxies. In this course we examine common features across these scales as well as specific features of importance in the gravitational dynamics of the Solar System and other planetary systems, star clusters, galaxies and clusters of galaxies.

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PHYS822* 
Fluid Mechanics 

Theory and phenomena of the physics of fluids. A study of the usual incompressible and compressible flows; rotating frames; stability and turbulence; wave motion including nonlinear waves and shocks; kinetic theory and transport phenomena; magnetofluid dynamics; plasma; relativistic fluids; and quantum fluids. (Offered jointly with PHYS422.)
EXCLUSION: PHYS422

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PHYS823* 
Gravitation and Cosmology 

Einstein's theory of gravity is developed from fundamental principles to a level which enables the student to read some of the current literature. The course includes an introduction to computer algebra, an essential element of a modern introduction to Einstein's theory. (Offered jointly with PHYS414.)
EXCLUSION: PHYS414.

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PHYS825* 
Advanced Quantum Theory 

A graduate level course in quantum mechanics suitable for students from all research areas in the department. Topics include second quantization, manyparticle systems and HartreeFock theory, symmetries and invariance in quantum theory, density matrices, relativistic quantum mechanics and the Dirac equation, quantum information and quantum computing.
Prerequisite: PHYS345 or equivalent

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PHYS831* 
Electromagnetic Theory 

An advanced but nonrelativistic discussion of classical electromagnetic theory intended for students in applied/engineering physics and condensed matter physics and with an emphasis on the generation and propagation of electromagnetic waves. Topics include polarization, multipoles and electromagnetic fields in macroscopic media, diffraction theory, simple radiating systems, and the propagation of waves in dispersive media and plasmas. Additional topics may include guided waves, nonlinear optics, and the optics ofanisotropic media.
PREREQUISITE: PHYS332* or equivalent

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PHYS832* 
Classical Electrodynamics 

An advanced course in relativistic electrodynamics, intended for students in subatomic physics and astrophysics. Topics include the covariant formulation of Maxwell's equations, relativistic motionof charged particles in electromagnetic fields and the resultant radiated fields, synchrotron radiation, Cerenkov radiation, and the inverse Compton effect are discussed. Additionally, the course may offer a brief treatment of magnetohydrodynamics. Applications to problems in astrophysics and high energy particle physics will be discussed.

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PHYS840** 
Astronomical Instrumentation 

A survey of instrumentation and techniques for astronomical ground and spacebased observations. Topics include theory of measurement; imaging; interferometry and spectroscopy of electromagnetic radiation at radio, infrared, optical, and Xray wavelengths; data analysis.

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PHYS841** 
Experimental Methods for Particle Astrophysics 

An introduction to experimental techniques employed in modern particle astrophysics experiments. Topics will include a description of the interactions of particles with matter and the detection techniques for topics of current interest, including neutrinos, dark matter, double beta decay and supernovae.

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PHYS842** 
Formation of Structure in the Universe 

A course covering modern theories of the formation of cosmological structure. Topics include the theory of gravitational instability in the linear regime; the statistics of density fields; cosmic flows; nonlinear instability in the context of the cold dark matter universe; Nbody simulations; comparisons of theory with the observed Universe.

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PHYS843** 
High Energy Astroparticle Physics 

A survey of astrophysical sources and mechanisms that produce high energy particles (gamma rays, neutrinos, and cosmic rays). Propagation of the particles and techniques for detecting high energy particles will be discussed.

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PHYS844** 
Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics 

An introduction to neutrino physics and astrophysics. Topics include neutrino mass and mixing; solar neutrinos; supernova neutrinos; ultra high energy neutrino astronomy.

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PHYS845** 
Astrophysics of the Interstellar Medium 

This module provides an overview of the interstellar medium in the Milky Way (and other galaxies), including the hot and warm ionized components, the HI and molecular components, and dust. Relevant observations as well as some of the physics of these components will also be introduced.
PREREQUISITE: permission of the instructor.

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PHYS846** 
Physics and Phenomena of Stellar Atmospheres 

This course provides an introduction to the physics of stellar atmospheres, including bulk stellar properties, concepts of local thermodynamic equilibrium, excitation and ionization equilibria, radiative energy transport, convective instability, continuous opacity, model stellar atmospheres, and stellar continua. This is followed by a development of the basic tools of quantitative spectroscopy, including concepts of line opacity and line profiles, contribution functions, hydrogen line profiles, stellar abundance determinations, and microscopic and macroscopic velocity fields. The course concludes with a discussion of special topics such as stellar magnetic fields, nonLTE, stellar winds, stellar pulsation, and stellar activity including chromospheres and coronae.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of the instructor.

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PHYS847** 
Planet Formation 

Our understanding of the processes involved in planet formation have been revolutionized by astronomical discoveries of the Kuiper belt beyond Neptune in our Solar System and an increasingly large number of remarkably diverse planetary systems around other stars. This graduate module will summarize the observational constraints and review our theoretical understanding of the interplay of the physical processes leading to the formation of planets.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of the instructor.

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PHYS848** 
High Density Astrophysics 

This module studies astrophysical situations in which Newtonian dynamics fails at the local scale. Topics include: Neutron Stars: Origin, current understanding of their structure, interaction with their environment and the importance of binary pulsars in verifying the status of general relativity. Black Holes: Origin, current understanding of their uniqueness properties in the static and stationary cases, interaction with their environment and the importance of black holes in a cosmological context.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of the instructor.

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PHYS849** 
Model Fitting and Bayesian Inference for Physics and Astronomy 

This module provides an overview of model building and Bayesian probability theory as applied to problems in astrophysics and particle astrophysics. Topics include a comparison of Bayesian and frequentist probability theory, erros, and Markov chain Monte Carlo. The module will aim to provide a handson experience and students will be asked to carry out statistical analyses of actual data.

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PHYS856* 
Magnetics 

Introduction to: magnetic measurements, classes of magnetic materials, domain theory, permanent magnets, electromagnets, calculations of magnetic fields and forces, solenoid and superconducting coils, eddy currents. Followed by selected review and design topics covering magnetic devices and engineering from: magnetic recording, magnetic disks, magnetic bubbles, magnetic thin film memories, magnetic separation, magnetic amplifiers, magnetic levitation.

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PHYS857* 
Surface Engineering and Analysis 

An outline of the fundamental concepts and usage of modern techniques for the production and analysis of surfaces and thin films. Topics include ultrahigh vacuum principles, surface thermodynamics and adsorption, electron and ion microscopy and spectroscopy, electron and xray diffraction, scanning probe microscopy, and growth of thin films by vapour deposition.
EXCLUSION: PHYS487

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PHYS858* 
Introduction to Medical Physics 

This course introduces a number of topics in the field of medical physics. Included are: the physics of radiation therapy, ultrasound imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, xray imaging, radioisotope imaging and image reconstruction techniques.
Exclusion: PHYS495

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PHYS859* 
Principles of Microfabrication 

A multidisciplinary graduate course on the principles of microfabrication with research and industrial perspectives. It aims to help students from a broad range of Applied Sciences understand the global trend to miniaturize devices (microcircuits, transducers, displays) and to integrate them into microsystems. An ongoing articulation of generic principles is illustrated both within and beyond the mainstream microelectronics domain. Linkages to the emerging world of nanoscale fabrication are explored.

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PHYS860* 
Applied Science Topics in Micro/Nanotechnology 

A multidisciplinary graduate course on advanced topics in microfabrication with research perspectives. It aims to help students from a broad range of Applied Sciences with special interests in micro/nanotechnology to relate the physics of selected advanced topics to current opportunities and problems in their research. Instructions integrate contributions from several faculty members. An ongoing articulation of the interface between micro and nanoscale methodologies will be maintained.

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PHYS861** 
Physics of the Early Universe 

The history of the Universe from the Big Bang to the formation of the cosmic radiation background. Topics include shortcomings of the standard cosmological model; inflation; baryogenesis; the quarkhadron phase transition; big bang nucleosynthesis; dark matter; the epoch of last scattering.

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PHYS870* 
Statistical Mechanics 

The principles of classical and quantum statistical mechanics with application to the theories of the gaseous, liquid, and solid states of matter. Review of thermodynamics, fundamentals. FermiDirac and BoseEinstein statistics, solids and phase transitions.

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PHYS880* 
Elements of Solid State Physics I 

The structural, electronic, optical and transport properties of solids. (Offered jointly with PHYS480*.)
EXCLUSION: PHYS480*

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PHYS881* 
Elements of Solid State Physics II 

A continuation of PHYS880*. Topics include the vibrational, magnetic, and superconducting properties of solids.
PREREQUISITE: PHYS880* or equivalent.

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PHYS882* 
Nonlinear and Quantum Optics 

The concepts of nonlinear optics are central to most modern research in quantum optics and light matter interactions. Nonlinear optics is the discipline in physics in which the electric polarization density of the medium is studied as a nonlinear function of the light field. Quantum optics concerns the interaction of light with quantum systems, and the quantum nature of light itself. Recent years have seen a rapid growth of activity in research involving both nonlinear and quantum optics, enabled in part by new condensed matter materials (especially semiconductor nanostructures) and ultrafast laser systems. This course will introduce the basic principles of nonlinear and quantum optics and make a connection to a selection of modern research topics in these areas.
PREREQUISITE: Undergraduate electromagnetism, quantum mechanics and solid state physics at a level satisfactory to the instructor.

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PHYS891* 
Nuclear and Particle Physics 

A systematic introduction to nuclear and particle physics. Topics include basic nuclear properties; size mass, decay and reactions; shell model of nuclear structure; magnetic moments; gamma and beta decay; quark model of elementary particles; and strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions
EXCLUSION: PHYS490.

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PHYS892* 
Particle Physics 

A course in particle physics, covering topics such as: the physics of particles; symmetries and conservation laws; quark models of hadrons; the parton model and QCD; weak interactions.

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PHYS899 
Master's Thesis Research 


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PHYS901 
Graduate Student Seminar Series 

A series of research seminar presented by students in the PhD programme summarizing the important issues in their research areas. Presentation of a seminar is required of every PhD student in each of their second and third years. To be offered every fall/winter; graded Pass/Fail.

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PHYS913* 
Current Topics in Astronomical Research 

A discussion of recent problems in astronomy based on current literature. Possible topics include: radio jets in double radio sources, emission from the galactic centre and early type star formation.

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PHYS914* 
Current Topics in Astrophysical Research 

A discussion of recent problems in astrophysics based on current literature. Possible topics include: clock synchronization in general relativity, gravitational bounce and the effect of gravitational radiation in very close binary systems.

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PHYS921* 
Relativistic Quantum Theory 

Relativistic single particle equations for bosons and fermions, (spinors, helicity, etc.). Elementary quantum electrodynamics including the Smatrix, covariant perturbation theory and Feynman diagrams. Introduction to weak and strong interactions
PREREQUISITE: PHYS825* or equivalent.

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PHYS923* 
Manybody Quantum Theory 

HartreeFock Theory. Second quantization, perturbation methods and diagrammatic representations. Density matrix, Green functions and canonical transformations. Applications to atomic, molecular, and nuclear structure and to condensed matter physics.
PREREQUISITE: PHYS825* or equivalent.

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PHYS926* 
Advanced Gravitation Theory 

Topics in general relativity of current interest. Examples of such topics are: the development of singularities, gravitational entropy, neutrino trapping, signatures of gravitational waves.
PREREQUISITE: PHYS823* or equivalent.

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PHYS958* 
Current Topics in Medical Physics 

A discussion of recent problems in medical physics based on current literature. Possible topics include: adaptive radiation therapy, Monte Carlo simulations in radiation physics, imaging in radiation therapy, image reconstruction, and radiation dose planning algorithms.
PREREQUISITE: PHYS858* or Equivalent

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PHYS982* 
Advanced Topics in Condensed Matter Physics 

Topics in condensed matter physics of current interest. Examples of such topics are: surface physics, magnetotransport properties, polymers and disordered solids, low temperature physics.
PREREQUISITE: PHYS880* and PHYS881* or equivalent.

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PHYS983* 
Advanced Solid State Theory 

Topics include pseudopotential theory of metals, band theory of ordered and disordered solids, linear response theory, density functional theory, field theories of phase transitions.
PREREQUISITE: PHYS825*, PHYS880* and PHYS881* or equivalent.

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PHYS990 
Nuclear Models 

Nuclear shell model. The Nilsson model. The BohrMottelson collective model. The coreexcitation model. The SU (3) model for light nuclei. The optical model in nuclear reactions.
PREREQUISITE: PHYS825* and PHYS891*.

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PHYS994* 
Current Topics In Nuclear and Particle Physics 

A discussion of selected topics of current interest in nuclear and particle physics. Possible subjects include one or more from weak interactions and neutrinos, particle astrophysics, and grand unified theories.

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PHYS995* 
Advanced Topics in SubAtomic Theory 

A course primarily for students in theoretical physics. Various topics of current interest will be discussed, such as the interacting boson model, and investigations of the nuclear response to leptonic, pionic, and hadronic probes.
PREREQUISITE: PHYS825 and PHYS891* or PHYS892*.

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PHYS999 
Ph.D. Thesis Research 


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