Mr. Juneau graduated from the University of Ottawa in political science, undertook graduate studies at the Institute for Canadian Studies at Carleton University, and received an M.A. from the Department of Urban Affairs and Policy Analysis at the New School for Social Research in New York City. He began his career as a research assistant at the Brookings Institution in Washington, D.C. working on a study of intergovernmental fiscal relations.
Mr. Juneau's career in the Public Service of Canada began in 1975 in the Department of Finance where he worked on transfers to provinces, constitutional reform and social policy. He also served as the Deputy Minister's executive assistant. After a period of three years in the Priorities and Planning Secretariat of the Privy Council Office dealing with social policy, Mr. Juneau served as Director General for labour market policy, and Director General and then Assistant Deputy Minister for immigration policy. In 1993, he moved to Health Canada as Assistant Deputy Minister for policy and communications.
Mr. Juneau returned to PCO in 1998 as Deputy Secretary for Intergovernmental Relations, liaising with IGA officials in all jurisdictions across Canada. The Prime Minister then appointed him as Deputy Secretary to Cabinet for Operations.
In July of 2002, Mr. Juneau was appointed as the first Deputy Head (Deputy Minister rank) of Infrastructure Canada with the mandate to create a new federal department. This required significant liaison with many provincial and territorial officials, as well as with officials in cities and communities across Canada. From the fall of 2006 to the fall of 2009, Mr. Juneau was the Director for Canada and Morocco on the board of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development in London (UK).