Department of Political Studies

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Biologically Modified Justice

Colin Farrelly

Colin Farrelly addresses a host of topics, ranging from gene therapy and preimplantation genetic diagnosis, to an 'anti-aging' intervention and the creation and evolution of patriarchy. This book aims to foster the interdisciplinary dialogue needed to ensure we think rationally and cogently about science and science policy in the twenty-first century.

Theories of distributive justice tend to focus on the issue of what constitutes a fair division of 'external' goods and opportunities; things like wealth and income, opportunities for education and basic liberties and rights. However, rapid advances in the biomedical sciences have ushered in a new era, one where the 'genetic lottery of life' can be directly influenced by humans in ways that would have been considered science fiction only a few decades ago. How should theories of justice be modified to take seriously the prospect of new biotechnologies, especially given the health challenges posed by global aging? Colin Farrelly addresses a host of topics, ranging from gene therapy and preimplantation genetic diagnosis, to an 'anti-aging' intervention and the creation and evolution of patriarchy. This book aims to foster the interdisciplinary dialogue needed to ensure we think rationally and cogently about science and science policy in the twenty-first century.

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Ethnic Diasporas and the Canada-United States Security Community
From the Civil War to Today

David G. Haglund

Ethnic Diasporas and the Canada-United States Security Community focuses on three diasporas and their impact on North American security relations, the Irish and Germans, which were mainly in the US, and the Muslim diaspora, which is based in both countries.

The book begins by examining the evolution of North America from a zone of war to a zone of peace (i.e., a security community), starting with the debate over the nature and meaning of the Canada-US border. It then assesses the role of ethnic diasporas in North American security, looking as to whether ethnic interest groups have been gaining influence over the shaping of the US foreign policy. This debate is also valid in Canada, especially given the practice of federal political parties of catering to blocs of ethnic voters.

The second section of the book focuses on three case studies. The first examines the impact of the Irish Americans on the quality of security relations between the US and the UK, and therefore between the former and Canada. The second looks at an even larger diaspora, the German Americans, whose political agenda by the start of twentieth century attempted to discourage Anglo-American entente and eventual alliance. The final case concentrates on the debates around the North American Muslim diaspora in the past two decades, a time when policy attention turned toward the greater Middle East, which in many ways constitute the “kin community” of this politically active diaspora. This comparative assessment of the three cases provides contextualization for today’s discussion of homegrown terrorism and its implication for bilateral security cooperation in North America.

Reviews

"Roundtable Review," H-Diplo 18, 8 (31 October 2016). (View Article PDF

This book is an absolutely fascinating account of the impact of ethnic diasporas on the U.S.-Canada security relationship. Focusing not only on Muslim-North Americans, but also on Irish-Americans and German-Americans, David Haglund brings in much needed historical perspective to current debates on both sides of the border. As Haglund shows, ethnic diasporas have profoundly shaped the security relationship for 150 years and will no doubt continue to do so in the future. Anyone interested in the intersection of demography and security in general and the U.S.-Canada security relationship in particular should read this book. - Peter Andreas, John Hay Professor of International Studies, Brown University

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Settlers in Contested Lands
Territorial Disputes and Ethnic Conflicts

Oded Haklai and Neophytos Loizides, Editors

Settlers feature in many protracted territorial disputes and ethnic conflicts around the world. Explaining the dynamics of the politics of settlers in contested territories in several contemporary cases, this book illuminates how settler-related conflicts emerge, evolve, and are significantly more difficult to resolve than other disputes.

Written by country experts, chapters consider Israel and the West Bank, Arab settlers in Kirkuk, Moroccan settlers in Western Sahara, settlers from Fascist Italy in North Africa, Turkish settlers in Cyprus, Indonesian settlers in East Timor, and Sinhalese settlers in Sri Lanka. Addressing four common topics—right-sizing the state, mobilization and violence, the framing process, and legal principles versus pragmatism—the cases taken together raise interrelated questions about the role of settlers in conflicts in contested territory.

Reviews

"Settlers in Contested Lands represents a significant contribution to the literature on ethnic and communal conflicts. The outstanding introduction by the editors should be required reading for anyone examining the resolution of conflicts with a settlement dimension. The multitude of forms these conflicts take is very well illustrated in the volume's case studies." —Adrian Guelke, Queen's University of Belfast

"This is an invaluable collection. The volume is a very important contribution to understanding a highly significant but understudied phenomenon in the world of ethnic conflict." —Donald L. Horowitz, James B. Duke Professor of Law and Political Science Emeritus, Duke University

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Parliamentary Bill of Rights
The Experiences of New Zealand and the United Kingdom

Janet Hiebert and James Kelly

Both New Zealand and the United Kingdom challenge assumptions about how a bill of rights functions. Their parliamentary bills of rights constrain judicial review and also look to parliament to play a rights-protecting role. This arises from the requirement to inform parliament if legislative bills are not compatible with rights. But are these bills of rights operating in this proactive manner?

Are governments encountering significantly stronger pressures to ensure legislation complies with rights? Are these bills of rights resulting in more reasoned deliberations in parliament about the justification of legislation from a rights perspective? Through extensive interviews with public officials and analysis of parliamentary debates where questions of compliance with rights arise (prisoner voting, parole and sentencing policy, counter-terrorism legislation, and same-sex marriage), this book argues that a serious gap exists between the promise of these bills of rights and the institutional variables that influence how these parliaments function.

  • Case studies of prominent legislative issues demonstrate how the New Zealand Bill of Rights and United Kingdom Human Rights Act influence the dynamics of Westminster-based parliamentary systems
  • Demonstrates the immense challenge associated with constitutional reforms intended to use a bill of rights as a means of altering the norms of legislative decision-making
  • Contributes to the growing body of scholarship that considers whether parliamentary systems such as New Zealand and the United Kingdom can accommodate judicial review of rights without compromising constitutional principles such as parliamentary supremacy

From the publisher.

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The Future of Extended Deterrence
The United States, NATO and Beyond

Stefanie von Hlatky and Andreas Wenger, Editors

Are NATO's mutual security commitments strong enough today to deter all adversaries? Is the nuclear umbrella as credible as it was during the Cold War? Backed by the full range of US and allied military capabilities, NATO's mutual defense treaty has been enormously successful, but today's commitments are strained by military budget cuts and antinuclear sentiment. The United States has also shifted its focus away from European security during the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq and more recently with the Asia rebalance. Will a resurgent Russia change this?

The Future of Extended Deterrence brings together experts and scholars from the policy and academic worlds to provide a theoretically rich and detailed analysis of post-Cold War nuclear weapons policy, nuclear deterrence, alliance commitments, nonproliferation, and missile defense in NATO but with implications far beyond. The contributors analyze not only American policy and ideas but also the ways NATO members interpret their own continued political and strategic role in the alliance.

In-depth and multifaceted, The Future of Extended Deterrence is an essential resource for policy practitioners and scholars of nuclear deterrence, arms control, missile defense, and the NATO alliance.

From the Publisher

Territorial Pluralism Cover

2015
UBC Press

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Territorial Pluralism
Managing Difference in Multinational States

Karlo Basta, John McGarry, and Richard Simeon, Editors

Territorial pluralism is a form of political autonomy designed to accommodate national, ethnic, or linguistic differences within a state. It has the potential to provide for the peaceful, democratic, and just management of difference. But given traditional concerns about state sovereignty, nation-building, and unity, how realistic is it to expect that a state’s authorities will agree to recognize and empower distinct substate communities?

Territorial Pluralism answers this question by examining a wide variety of cases, including developing and industrialized states and democratic and authoritarian regimes. Drawing on examples of both success and failure, contributors analyze specific cases to understand the kinds of institutions that emerge in response to demands for territorial pluralism, as well as their political effects. With identity conflicts continuing to have a major impact on politics around the globe, they argue that territorial pluralism remains a legitimate and effective means for managing difference in multinational states.

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A Political Theory of Territory

Margaret Moore

Our world is currently divided into territorial states that resist all attempts to change their borders. But what entitles a state, or the people it represents, to assume monopoly control over a particular piece of the Earth's surface? Why are they allowed to prevent others from entering? What if two or more states, or two or more groups of people, claim the same piece of land?

Political philosophy, which has had a great deal to say about the relationship between state and citizen, has largely ignored these questions about territory. This book provides answers. It justifies the idea of territory itself in terms of the moral value of political self-determination; it also justifies, within limits, those elements that we normally associate with territorial rights: rights of jurisdiction, rights over resources, right to control borders and so on. The book offers normative guidance over a number of important issues facing us today, all of which involve territory and territorial rights, but which are currently dealt with by ad hoc reasoning: disputes over resources; disputes over boundaries, oceans, unoccupied islands, and the frozen Arctic; disputes rooted in historical injustices with regard to land; secessionist conflicts; and irredentist conflicts.

Reviews

"This is a well-written, well-argued book on an extraordinarily important and until recently neglected topic. Moore is impressively knowledgeable of all the relevant philosophical literature and does an excellent job in general of distinguishing her view from those of others such as Miller, Waldron, Kolers, Meisels, and Nine. Moore succeeds in staking out a new, yet very plausible position-one that avoids the deficiencies of rival theories."--Allen Buchanan, James B. Duke Professor, Duke University

"The work is well grounded in the literature, its argument is powerful, and it is clear and highly accessible. An important contribution to the field...Highly recommended." -- Choice

From the Publisher