Public Opinion Survey National Immigration Policy Survey Potential Skills Base Survey
Observatory

SADC Diaspora

SADC countries are becoming increasingly interested in the development potential of the diaspora. However, there is a basic lack of information on the location and profile of the SADC diaspora. As an initial contribution to assisting governments to identify the whereabouts of their own diaspora, SAMP has extracted information from two global data sets on the locations of SADC-born migrants living outside the region. Both databases are based on census data and attempt to measure the 2000 "migrant stock" of destination countries by country-of-birth of migrants.


SADC-Born Migrant Stock of Selected Countries, 2000


SADC- Born Migrant Stock in SADC, 2007 SADC-Born Migrant Stock in SADC, 2007


SAMP Data

THE PUBLIC OPINION SURVEY (POS) PROJECT

INTRODUCTION

SAMP’s Public Opinion Survey Project (POS) was planned to investigate cross-border migration to South Africa from neighbouring countries. It was the first regional project to investigate cross-border migration under the changed circumstances of post-apartheid South Africa. The project was planned to provide reliable, representative data on cross-border migration to counter the proliferation of misinformation about cross-border migration to South Africa. POS findings for Lesotho, Namibia, Mozambique and Zimbabwe are published in On Borders: Perspectives on International Migration in Southern Africa, edited by David McDonald, (New York and Cape Town: St Martin’s Press and SAMP 2000). The subsequent Botswana POS results are published in Botswana: Migration Perspectives and Prospects, SAMP Migration Policy Series No. 19, Kingston and Cape Town, 2000 and the Swaziland findings are in Swaziland Moves: Perceptions and Patterns of Modern Migration, SAMP Migration Policy Series No. 32, Kingston and Cape Town, 2004.

METHODOLOGY

The Public Opinion Survey Project (POS) was conducted in Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia and Zimbabwe in 1997 and 1998. The survey was conducted in Swaziland in 2001. A planning workshop was held in Harare, Zimbabwe in 1996 to establish the conceptual framework for the questionnaire, sampling and translation strategies, and training programmes for fieldworkers. Each partner was responsible for training fieldworkers according to the guidelines established. The surveys in Botswana, Lesotho, Zimbabwe and Swaziland were nationally representative; the Mozambique survey was only conducted in the southern part of the country. The survey in Namibia was based on a selection of key demographic and geographic regions. In all, 4,439 interviews were conducted on the POS Project.

In Lesotho and Zimbabwe, surveys were conducted with a random, nationally representative sample. In Mozambique, Namibia, and Botswana surveys were conducted in selected geographical and demographic areas for logistical and budgetary reasons. In all four countries sample lists were initially compiled using census data and/or aerial maps (depending on what was available and reliable) to form a list of enumerated areas.

Once a random list of enumerated areas was drawn, interviews would go to every nth dwelling in a given direction starting at a certain point. A card selection procedure was then used to select household members, by which each member of the household older than 15 that was going to be at home that evening was eligible for selection (ie including those members who were not currently present in the household but would return later that day.) Household members then selected a card from the researcher, and the person who randomly selected the card with the mark on the back was the person who would be interviewed. If the card belonged to the person who was not at home the researcher would return later in the day for the interview. If the person was not at home that evening, a new point would be selected using a predetermined selection procedure. Random field visits by the principle researchers in each country served to ensure further that these procedures were being followed by field staff.

In Lesotho, the locations of households included in the sample were based on the population distributions given by a recent national census. Census data were used to weight the probability of drawing an interview point (from which five interviews were done) from given geographical areas(using the smallest geographical unit for which we had reliable data). A cut-off age of 65 years was also used, while in the other countries there was no upper age limit. Research assistants in Lesotho also alternated between choosing males and females in successive households while no such restriction was in place in the other countries. These inter-country differences are not believed to have brought about any serious distortion in comparing results.

In Zimbabwe, 32 survey areas were randomly selected from a list of national population census enumeration areas complied by the Central Statistical Office; 17 in rural areas and 15 in urban areas. A research assistant was assigned to conduct interviews in each of the 32 survey sites with adult members of randomly selected households. Each research assistant was required to complete approximately 30 interviews over a two-week period.

The Swaziland survey made use of existing census material as well as maps of the various districts of the country. The Swaziland survey was conducted in every district of the country. The rural and urban areas of each district were surveyed: 60% of the sample was urban and 40% was rural.

In Mozambique, only the southern half of the country was randomly surveyed due to the exorbitant costs of a national survey ad the apparent lack of migration to South Africa from the more remote, northern provinces. Census data in Mozambique is very dated and therefore had to be assessed in conjunction with aerial maps to weight the probability of drawing an interview point (from which five interviews were done). As with Lesotho, some sampling points in remote or dangerous areas were substituted with a point chosen from a geographical unit taken from a second, randomly selected list. Mozambique posed the most serious challenged to random sampling strategies, and research was made all the more difficult due to poor transport and communication networks, but the sample can be considered as reliable as possible under the circumstances.

In Namibia, budgetary and logistical constraints necessitated a more selective sampling strategy. The northern regions of Namibia are home to about 65% of the Namibian population, but this part of Namibia is remote from the border with South Africa and it is relatively unlikely that many people from this area have visited South Africa. Therefore, this area was under-sampled in terms of national population, but included to provide information and opinions about South Africa from populations that are unlikely to have first-hand experience of the country. In these northern regions, 100 interviews were conducted with rural communal dwellers (Caprivi and north-central Namibia) and 150 interviews were conducted with residents of northern communal are towns (Katima Mulilo, Rundu and Oshakati). These 250 interviews comprise 42% of the sample of the interviews only 12% had been to South Africa). The remaining 58% of the sample (350 Interviews) were collected in central and southern town (including Luderitz and Walvis Bay), with 100 interviews in the capital city of Windhoek. The population in these towns comprises about 25% of the national population. The urban bias of the sample is intentional in order to capture those segments of the population that are mobile and more likely to have visited South Africa.

In Botswana, 80% of the population live in the eastern quarter of the country and that is where villages and towns were randomly surveyed. Within the selected survey centres, there were two selection procedures. In the villages, where the population is more homogeneous, interviewers started interviewing from the centre of the village and worked their way outward. In towns/cities, residential areas were stratified by type and a representative area of each was selected randomly.

AVAILABLE FILES

The tables available on the SAMP Website for the POS Project include: regional tables by country for each question on the survey and country specific tables disaggregated by important demographic questions for each question on the survey. A blank copy of the POS questionnaire is also available.

To access data you will be asked to fill out an online form that will be emailed to you. This form should be printed off, signed and faxed to SAMP.

Click here to request Public Opinion Survey (POS) data.


THE NATIONAL IMMIGRATION POLICY SURVEY (NIPS) PROJECT

INTRODUCTION

SAMP’s National Immigration Policy Survey (NIPS) was developed to compare citizen attitudes to migrants, refugees and immigration policy across the Southern African region. The project had several objectives: (1) to compare the well-documented xenophobic attitudes of South Africans to attitudes of citizens in other countries across the region, (2) to assess the importance of the in-migration experience for the various countries, and (3) to assess the extent of a SADC regional consciousness about migration. The project was conducted in major urban centres in 2001-2 in five SADC countries: Botswana, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland and Zimbabwe. A comparable data set for South Africa was extracted from an earlier SAMP survey of South African citizens (see R Mattes, DM Taylor, DA McDonald, A Poore and W. Richmond, Still Waiting for the Barbarians: SA Attitudes to Immigrants & Immigration, SAMP Migration Policy Series No. 14, Kingston and Cape Town, 1999

SAMP has published in-depth individual NIPS country studies and a regional study:

• D Tevera and L Zinyama, Zimbabweans Who Move: Perspectives on International Migration in Zimbabwe, SAMP Migration Policy Series No. 25, Kingston and Cape Town, 2002.
• B Frayne and W Pendleton, Mobile Namibia: Migration Trends and Attitudes, SAMP Migration Policy Series No. 27, Cape Town and Kingston, 2002.
• E Campbell and J Oucho, Changing Attitudes to Immigration and Refugee Policy in Botswana, SAMP Migration Policy Series No. 28, Cape Town and Kingston, 2003.
• H. Simelane and J. Crush, Swaziland Moves: Perceptions and Patterns of Modern Migration, SAMP Migration Policy Series No. 32, Kingston and Cape Town, 2004.
Regionalizing Xenophobia? Citizen Attitudes to Immigration and Refugee Policy in Southern Africa, SAMP Migration Policy Series No. 30, Kingston and Cape Town, 2004.

METHODOLOGY

The survey was based on an extended, common questionnaire administered by teams of researchers in each country. In total, 4 763 interviews were conducted in 6 countries. The one proviso that applies to all countries is that this was an urban sample only which means that the attitudes are nationally representative of the urban population only. In the case of South Africa, the survey was originally conducted amongst a national sample. In order to make the results comparable with the other countries, however, the urban sub-sample of 1 035 was extracted from the larger data set and is used in this analysis.

The questionnaire used in the Project is almost identical to one used in South Africa in 1999 with revisions made at a Southern African Migration Project (SAMP) Workshop in Pretoria in November 2000. As a result of the revisions, additional questions and variable values were added to the questionnaire and, as a result, there are a few questions for which South African data does not exist. However, most of the questions are identical to the ones used in South Africa, the urban fieldwork methodology is also very similar, and as a result the data from the six countries are comparable. The South African data included interviews in rural areas that were deleted from the data used for this Project in order to make all the data comparable. Data entry was conducted at the Multidisciplinary Research Centre of the University of Namibia under the supervision of Christa Schier. MARKINOR conducted the fieldwork and data entry of the South African dataset which was added to the final dataset for the Project.

A training program was conducted by the SAMP country Project leader for each country’s fieldwork team to insure that the questions were asked in a similar way by the fieldworkers; in the case of Mozambique and Swaziland the training was conducted by the Namibian SAMP partner (Pendleton). Respondents spoke a large number of different languages; fieldwork teams were trained to translate questions into appropriate languages understood by the respondents. The Mozambique questionnaire was translated into Portuguese. The country surveys were conducted using a similar sampling methodology; major and secondary urban centres were chosen by partners to be representative of their individual countries. More details about the survey methodology used in each country are available in the country reports available from SAMP and downloadable from the SAMP website.

For the specific country and regional tables which have been produced, some of the questions have been recoded into three categories so important patterns could be observed. For example, on question 10, “strongly agree” and “agree” were combined, “neither agree nor disagree’ remained the same, and “disagree” and “strongly disagree” became one category for the regional tables.

AVAILABLE FILES

The tables available on the SAMP Website for the NIPS Project include: regional tables by country for each question on the survey and country specific tables disaggregated by important demographic questions for each question on the survey. A blank copy of the NIPS questionnaire is also available.

To access data you will be asked to fill out an online form that will be emailed to you. This form should be printed off, signed and faxed to SAMP.

Click here to request National Immigration Policy Survey (NIPS) data.

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POTENTIAL SKILLS BASE SURVEY (PSBS) PROJECT

INTRODUCTION

SAMP’s Potential Skills Base Survey (PSBS) Project examines the question of the potential for emigration by final-year students at training institutions across the region. By examining the attitudes and aspirations of the region’s potential skills base, we are in a good position to know whether the brain drain is likely to continue. The PSBS Project was conducted in six Southern African countries (Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland and Zimbabwe) in 2003 using the same questionnaire and methodology. The findings for the region are reported in Degrees of Uncertainty : Students and the Brain Drain in Southern Africa, SAMP Migration Policy Series No. 35, Kingston and Cape Town, 2005. SAMP will publish a book in 2005 with the findings for each of the PSBS country studies.

METHODOLOGY

The standardized questionnaire was developed from a previous SAMP skills base survey at a planning workshop held by SAMP in 2002 (see Jonathan Crush, David McDonald, Vincent Williams, Robert Mattes, Wayne Richmond, C.M. Rogerson and J.M. Rogerson, Losing Our Minds: Migration and the ‘Brain Drain’ from South Africa, SAMP Migration Policy Series No. 18, Kingston and Cape Town, 2000.

Each partner compiled a list of final year students by faculties and training institutions, obtained the necessary approvals to conduct the survey and travelled to the relevant institutions to collect the data. In South Africa a marketing company, MARKINOR, did the data collection. The sample size was designed to be proportional to the number of final year students by faculty and institution. In most cases it was not possible to get data from all classes or students selected, and the final dataset for each country was weighted according to the original sample design. The final dataset has information on almost 10,000 students with 4532 from South Africa, 893 from Namibia, 1201 from Botswana, 1050 from Zimbabwe, 1031 from Swaziland and 1036 from Lesotho, and was created by combining the country files into a regional SPSS dataset. Listed in the table below are the number and type of institution where data was collected by country.

AVAILABLE FILES

The tables available on the SAMP Website for the PSBS Project include: regional tables by country for each question on the survey and country specific tables disaggregated by important demographic questions for each question on the survey. A blank copy of the PSBS questionnaire is also available.

To access data you will be asked to fill out an online form that will be emailed to you. This form should be printed off, signed, and faxed to SAMP.

Click here to request Potential Skills Base Survey (PSBS) data.

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