Conference Papers 2002
OF DEMOCRACY AND DEMOCRACY EDUCATION IN UKRAINE
collection of papers presented at the 2nd International Conference on the Development of Democracy and Democracy Education in Ukraine. Odessa, May 2002
incorporates a collection of papers from a conference
on the development of democracy in Ukraine held in Odessa
from May 24 to May 26, 2002. The conference was the second
in a series organized by the Canada-Ukraine Democracy
Education Project at which Ukrainian scholars were invited
to present and discuss papers assessing aspects of Ukraine's
progress on the path to democracy.
purpose of these research conferences has been to strengthen
the sense of community among teachers and researchers
interested in promoting the development of education about
democracy in Ukraine; to encourage research that will
help improve democratic governance and help promote the
development of civil society in Ukraine; and to create
a body of indigenous scholarship to support the long-term
development of a self-sustaining program of education
transition to democracy is a broad process that embraces
not only political but also economic, social, and cultural
change. Thus, to be properly understood, it requires a
multi-disciplinary perspective. The conferences have been
intended to encourage this broad form of scholarly engagement.
papers presented at this conference dealt with both democratic
development and with educational policy related to democratic
development. They covered a wide range of subjects falling
generally within one of 12 areas and it is within the
framework of these 12 areas that the papers published
here are organized.
Issues of governance.
Issues of nation-building.
The transition to democracy.
Political socialization and political culture.
Electoral and party Politics.
Issues of social policy.
Issues of educational policy
papers should be published our Ukrainian reviewers were
guided by the direction that the papers had to have an
empirical focus and had to be based on original research
or incorporate an original analysis of published research.
should note that the interpretations and views presented
are those of the authors and that the papers are being
published as presented at the conference. Some may subsequently
be revised for publication, subject to peer assessment,
in an on-line journal that the Project is creating.
on the title to go to that abstract
1. Civil society
impact of the demographic situation on democratic processes
Valeriy Berezovskiy (Kharkiv)
author discusses some problems of democratization from
the point of view of the socio-demographic and political
situation in the state. Ukrainian society, which lacks
long-standing traditions of democracy and statehood, is
at a turning-point in its development. A number of factors
can substantially hinder or distort democratic modernization:
a blurred social structure; lack of experience of mass
participation in democratic procedures; large numbers
of people attracted by radical left or right ideologies;
and the inability of the current political and economic
elite to protect national interests. Another serious factor
is the sharp decrease in the able-bodied population and
increase in the number of elderly people. Given the continuing
economic crisis and consequently low living standards,
this phenomenon can contribute to the preservation of
obsolete traditions and models of political behaviour.
The author analyzes some of the negative consequences
of some predictions concerning the current crisis.
nature of democratic transformation in Volyn.
Valeriy Bortnikov (Lutsk)
1989, democratization began in Ukraine. These processes
dismantled old political institutions. At the same time,
national consciousness grew significantly and as a result,
an organized opposition emerged in the form of democratically
oriented civic associations and parties. The author analyzes
the formation of NGOs in Volyn during the period 1989-2001
and the impact of local authorities on these processes.
The author notes that at the end of 1990s in Volyn, overall
confrontation among competing political forces was far
less tense than in the centre. This phenomenon may be
explained by changes in public consciousness, the withdrawal
of radical political leaders and their parties from the
public sphere, as well as the weak organizational capacity
of opposition structures. However, a balanced policy on
the part of oblast authorities has been a key factor in
maintaining stability in the region.
transition and changes in the forms of recreation of Ukraine's
Zoya Grytsenko (Kharkiv)
paper focuses on the following issue: how is the consumption
of entertainment and engagement in recreation in large
Ukrainian cities changing in the current context of consolidating
democratic values? In answering this question, the author
uses the example of Kharkiv, one of the largest industrial,
commercial and cultural centres of Ukraine. The city has
been developing for more than three hundred years and
influences not only Ukrainians, but representatives of
other nationalities as well in terms of lifestyles, customs
recreational behaviour of Kharkivans is considered a part
of cultural traditions connected with social, historical
and personal conceptions about a good life. The article
is based on the analysis of documents and material collected
in newspapers, memoirs and other historical sources. Particularities
of recreational behaviour in the industrial period of
the city's development city are analyzed in the first
part of the article. Special attention is given to the
question of how this behaviour was connected with national
traditions and the problem alcohol use as a form of recreation.
An analysis of the recreation and use of the spare time
by Kharkivans in the Soviet period is provided in the
second part of the paper. Ideology has been especially
influential on recreation practices of the urban population.
The last part of the paper presents an analysis of the
transformation of urban entertainment in a post-communist
work as a factor in the development of civil society.
Nadia Kabachenko (Kyiv)
paper focuses on the development of social work in Ukraine
and the impact of its institutionalization on the formation
of civil society. Social work belongs to the sphere of
civil society - to self-regulated structures of contemporary
society which serve as a mediator between the individual
and the state. Because social work is intended for people
with special needs it is characterized by the following:
provides or promotes the creation of conditions for the
realization of individual freedom;
It promotes co-existence and ensures solidarity among
different groups in society.
author also analyses social work as an institution contributing
to the development of civil society given its connection
with state institutions as well as civic organizations
and movements. Many professional social workers choose
non-governmental organizations to initiate various programs
and projects because in these organizations they are better
able to uphold their professional values than in state
institutions. The author provides examples of various
organizations and self-help groups and draws some general
conclusions concerning their activities and potential
to forming the foundation of civil society at the local
Yuri Kalyukh, Olexander Titarenko (Kyiv)
paper researches the main obstacles in forming the economic
foundation of civil society in Ukraine (and in transitional
economies in general): the absence of a substantial middle
class. The middle class is the guarantor of democratic
transformation. It is able to independently maintain its
civic position on certain issues and actively defend its
economic interests. In the current situation, when large
enterprises stand idle and most workers are on unpaid
leave, leading to a situation of growing unemployment,
the development of small businesses is almost the only
way to create new jobs and employ free labour resources.
Bribery, bureaucracy, formalism, and irrational decisions
by local authorities hinder the establishment of new small
businesses. On the one hand, these practices hinder the
creation of the economic basis of civil society at the
local level while on the other hand they hinder democratic
transformation and administrative reform in Ukraine overall.
paper focuses on the following problems:
need to audit management decisions in local authorities
and increase their transparency to a broad circle of small
The need to improve managerial decisions as well as better
elaborate a strategy of local authorities and state administrations
concerning the use of labour resources in small businesses;
the need to create new jobs and improve the working environment
for small businesses;
The need for local authorities and state administration
to better provide businesses with information on labor
resource status in small business and related problems;
The need to establish a feedback between small businessmen
and local authorities;
The need to accelerate administrative reform at the district
impact of psychological factors on the democratization
of political life in contemporary Ukraine.
Maria Lohunova (Kyiv)
experience demonstrates that psychological factors of
social development play an important role in the functioning
and change of political power. Many scholars assert that
together with economic, social, political, cultural and
other preconditions, psychological factors significantly
influence the nature, orientation and pace of social transformation.
Psychological phenomena always accompany political processes
and events. What is going on in society to a large extent
depends on human feelings, desires and needs. Well known
politicians and philosophers beginning with Aristotle,
have always stressed this fact. There is a socio-psychological
dimension in the actions of social agents in every phenomenon
of social life. This dimension is not always noticeable
and not always in the foreground, but it is always present
and manifests itself at various levels. An undesirable
"construction" for the social environment which
does not correspond to its nature can be avoided only
taking into consideration the correlation between the
efforts of power and the inner developmental trends of
society. Metaphorically speaking, Ukrainian society represents
a whole complex of sophisticated socio-psychological phenomena
which could significantly effect democratization of political
life. One is the status of mass social consciousness -
in other words, existing stereotypes and orientations,
dominant social moods and emotions as well as mentality.
Transferred from generation to generation while undergoing
certain transformations, these features determine political
behaviour and the organization of political life.
role of civic education in the formation of civil society
Serhii Prykhodko (Poltava)
paper analyzes the interaction of civic education and
civil society. In particular, the author argues that education
is an indicator of the extent to which society functions
effectively. The main objective of education is not only
professional training, but also the formation well-rounded
individuals - real citizens. The education system plays
a role in determining the optimal model of social organization
in Ukraine. A system where civil society is highly developed
is the most acceptable and indeed, civic education plays
an important role in forming it. Civil society is a conglomerate
of non-political, non-state social relations and institutions
which enable individuals to realize their rights and interests.
The author emphasizes the important role of civic education
as part of the process of providing training. Civic education
helps prepare the citizen, a responsible individual able
to participate in societal life independently who can
in turn compare public and personal interests as well
as defend her rights while respecting the rights of others.
Focusing on civic education raises the issue of active
teaching methods. Developing the skills necessary for
participating in civic life is an important aspect of
civic education. Projects, "round tables", "role-play
games", and problem-solving are methods that can
be used. In this way, civic education raises the overall
effectiveness of education in general.
philanthropy as a fundamental component of civil society.
Yakiv Rogalin (Donetsk)
on the history of public philanthropy [PP] in Ukraine
and abroad together with its development in the Donetsk
region, the author argues that its role in the development
of territorial communities [TC] has been underestimated
and that its potential in building civil society [CS]
has not been fully exploited. PP may be defined as activities
directed towards the development of TC and takes the form
of the voluntary and gratuitous provision of resources
(finances, assistance, work and services) by organizations
and individuals. The possibility of reviving PP and using
it to build a genuine social partnership to develop CS
can be demonstrated by the Donetsk City Charitable Foundation
"Kindness." This organization has attracted
over two thousand businesses, trade unions, religious
and civic organizations, labour collectives and individuals.
This organization's activities have contributed to the
strengthening and development of social capital in CS,
moderated tensions, increased the level of mutual trust,
and have given all a chance to participate in changing
life for the better - in other words put their civic values
institutionalization of structural vertical relations
as a derivative of the construction of civil society.
Olena Sereda (Kyiv)
paper addresses the formation of social structure in a
society undergoing democratic transformation. The author
pays particular attention to vertical relations in the
social structure which serve to stimulate social development.
The author argues that civil society has a clearly determined
social vertical dimension, each part of which consists
of active social agents whose activities are important
in social life. A social hierarchy should be recognized
and accepted by all elements in the social structure -
participants in social interaction. Realizing the unifying
idea of structuring and creating a hierarchy and its conscious
acceptance will facilitate the cooperation and interaction
of various social groups. The co-existence and co-functioning
of various social agents in a single social structure
provides the internal driving force for societal development
while at the same time act as an external unifying factor
of elements of the structure. The author argues that civil
society works on such principles.
in Transcarpathia: developmental trends over the past
decade (based on the example of Uzhgorod)
Volodymyr Skoblyk (Uzhgorod)
mid-1992 to mid-2002 a relatively broad-based "third
sector" has developed in the Zakarpattya Oblast (especially
in its oblast centre) which includes about a thousand
civic organizations. (It is worth noting that civic organizations
in Transcarpathia are not always non-governmental given
the role of top officials in the state administration
and local authorities in establishing local civic associations).
The number of organizations has increased particularly
rapidly over the last five years (1997-2001). Studies
conducted in Uzhgorod, the city where civic organizations
are most concentrated, reveal an increase in the portion
of smaller organizations. This raises the issue of coordinating
efforts among organizations with similar interests. The
recent growth in the number of youth and economic organizations
is encouraging. About a third of organizations in Uzhgorod
work in close cooperation with the authorities. In general,
during 1998-2001 there has been an increase in the institutionalization
of relations between civic organizations and governmental
institutions and a simultaneous increase in dependency
on these authorities. In 2000-2001, the Transcarpathian
Regional Branch of the Association of Cities of Ukraine
has stimulated the engagement of individuals and organizations
in tri-sectoral cooperation. Advisory committees and public
hearings infuse a fresh spirit into inter-sectoral cooperation.
The establishment of associations that rely more on businesses
independent of authorities could play an important role
in the development of civic organizations in general.
This becomes possible with an overall improvement in the
political and economic conditions in Ukraine.
limits of civil society and the problem of alienation
(the Ukrainian case).
Volodymyr Fisanov (Chernivtsi)
concerning the limits of civil society are being raised
ever more frequently in contemporary theoretical work
on civil society (R. Darendorf, E. Hellner, J. Habermas).
This concerns first of all restrictive factors preventing
the development of civic institutions that have emerged
from the communist period or have arisen as a result of
the formation of civil society. What hinders the establishment
of the basic conditions for the development of civil society
in Ukraine today? Three factors can be identified. First,
there is an unwillingness (and for the most part inability)
among representatives of the ruling bureaucracy to become,
at least to some extent, active citizens rather than small
cogs in an enormous hierarchical machine. Second, currently
(with the exception of several cities) there is a lack
of cultural and civic momentum, which in turn allows the
nomenclatura to manipulate both urban and rural populations.
The third important factor is the absence of an economically
autonomous individual, which would have a positive impact
on the formation of civic activity. But this problem is
not clear-cut either. The pursuit of autonomy does not
always correlate with a sense of solidarity. Thus, there
are certain institutional and natural limits: the state
bureaucracy and alienation of individuals from each other;
and a deficit of influential actors in civil society.
Using the analogy of a tri-legged stool of democracy,
one may say that the three legs of the stool are civil
society - the economic autonomy of the individual, communicativeness
and "citizenizing" of power, as well as enlargement
of the field of culture through the force of civic organizations.
The main objective is to add active civic communication
to the pragmatism of everyday survival.
Panel 2. Issues of nation-building
of western democracies and multicultural development in
Serhiy Bondaruk (Lutsk)
article provides a comparative analysis of different strategies
and models of managing inter-cultural and inter-ethnic
relations. The author draws some general conclusions concerning
the prospects of using these models in Ukraine during
a period of socio-cultural development.
identity as a contemporary theoretical and practical problem.
Tetyana Voropay (Kharkiv)
paper provides a critical overview of the three leading
approaches to understanding national identity - primordialist,
modernist and post-modernist. The author argues that each
approach has certain flaws. The author critiques these
approaches both for strictly theoretical reasons, and
for their usefulness in serving as a clear guide for the
development of the Ukrainian political nation during a
period of democratic transformation and globalization.
Special attention is paid to the post-modernist discourse
of identity and its conceptual potential.
of democracy and ethnic processes in Ukraine (at the example
Mykhailo Zan (Uzhgorod)
article deals with the ethnodemographic, ethnopolitical
and ethnocultural situation in Transcarpathia (1989-2001).
The author presents the main results of ethnographic studies
as well as an ethno-sociological survey on the issue of
the ethno-identification of Ukrainians in the region.
Transcarpathia is the only region in Ukraine where until
the late 1990s a natural increase in the population was
observed and the flow of emigration accelerated only in
the mid-1990s. On the one hand ethnodemographic processes
in the region reveal an increase in the Ukrainian population.
On the other hand, the number of Hungarians, Russians,
Germans, and Jews has decreased; representatives of these
groups have tended to emigrate to the states where their
ethnic group is the titular nation. The development of
pluralism together with the CPU regime has resulted in
a unique phenomenon in Ukrainian ethnopolitics - ethnic
Rusynism. An analysis of archival materials and oral testimonies
reveals that the problem in the Transcarpathian Oblast
CPU Committee was created artificially. At the same time,
the Hungarian national minority, with its demands for
the revision of the state border and creation of an autonomous
district, has become more active. Simultaneously, Ukrainian
civic and political organizations in the oblast have opposed
the efforts of Hungarian associations to establish a memorial
sign in the Veretsky pass in 1996. However, in the second
half of 1990 these phenomena proved to be artificial.
Ethnopolitical controversies have been settled by ensuring
the representation of national minorities in local authorities
(by proportion of the overall population) and through
regular coordination of the oblast state administration
with cultural organizations. For this reason, the author
argues that with respect to ethno-cultural relations,
democratization has been effectively realized. Ethnic
and religious problems are gradually improving in Western
Ukraine as national minorities form their own civic organizations,
national languages are taught in school, and cultural
life develops through programming on TV, the radio and
in the press. An ethno-sociological survey together with
the author's field ethnographic materials indicates that
most respondents identify themselves with their ethnic
group through traditional "markers": language,
traditional culture, history. The Ukrainian population
views "Ukrainians" and "Rusyns" as
part of the same ethnic group. Gradually, marginality
is being overcome. This can be demonstrated by the low
level of support for ethnic Rusynism among youth and the
expanded use of the Ukrainian language in education among
both Ukrainians and representatives of national minorities.
undemocratic system of managing the ethno-national relations
as a cause of the collapse of the multi-national Soviet
Yuri Kuts (Kharkiv)
paper addresses the system of managing ethno-national
relations in a totalitarian multi-national state (using
the example of the Soviet Union) in which the lack of
democracy was one of the causes of breakdown. The author
demonstrates that the nationality issue was one of the
major factors that weakened the multinational Soviet empire.
The paper analyzes how ethno-national relations in the
former USSR were managed.
First stage. Destruction of the Russian Empire in 1917
and creation of national states and various autonomies;
their coercive annexation to Bolshevist Russia. Joining
all newly established national states into the USSR and
establishing a unitary totalitarian Soviet Empire.
stage. Management of ethno-national relations was made
subject to attaining the objectives of Gorbachov's Perestroika
(1985-1991). The CPSU had to recognize the fallacy of
its course to accelerate the construction of a classless
and nationless society and the falsity of its proclamation
of developed socialism.
stage. Management objectives become more democratic in
the framework of the new national states. This demonstrates
that the Soviet policy on nationalities based on a theory
of the merging of nations, the construction of nationless
society with a class-internationalist ideology is doomed.
relations in southern Ukraine in the eyes of local inhabitants
Mykola Nekoz (Zaporizhzhya)
among different ethnic groups is a key factor in maintaining
civic peace and consolidating Ukrainian society during
a period of deep economic crisis and transition from totalitarianism
to democracy. The large number of ethnic groups concentrated
in the eastern and southern regions of Ukraine draws attention
to the problem of inter-ethnic relations. This paper uses
data obtained in sociological surveys conducted from 1992
to 2001. The author pays special attention to the relocation
of Crimean Tatars and representatives of other peoples
deported by the Stalinist regime as a factor in inter-ethnic
relations. The author argues that Ukraine's nationalities
policy should protect the rights of both ethnic minorities
and the Ukrainian ethnic majority which has been weakened
by the centuries-old policy of russification. Ensuring
the recognition and construction of Ukrainian statehood
can ease tensions in ethnic relations. Despite the apparent
stability of inter-ethnic relations in southern Ukraine,
the potential for open conflict exists. Ukraine needs
a balanced, scientifically grounded ethno-national policy,
as well as a separate law on the national and cultural
autonomy of ethnic minorities. It is also important to
recognize Crimean Tatars as an indigenous people of Ukraine.
Many inter-ethnic problems could be eased through improving
the economic situation, better meeting the needs and requirements
of the national majority and ethnic minorities, as well
as observing provisions of the current Constitution.
self-organization of the Greek minority in Ukraine in
the context of democratization of the nationalities policy.
Serhii Pakhomenko (Mariupol)
paper addresses ethnic self-organization of the Greek
minority in Ukraine from the 1980s until the present.
The democratization of the nationalities policy has been
a major factor in the national and cultural revival of
ethnic minorities, including the process of ethnic structuring.
The paper has two parts. The first covers the period from
the late 1980s to 1991 and describes the formation of
the legal basis for the existence of ethnic minorities.
Special attention is paid to party documents as well as
Soviet and Ukrainian legislation on the right to establish
national-administrative units. The development of the
movement of Ukrainian Greeks is analyzed against the backdrop
of changes in the nationalities policy. The author outlines
the stages in the development of the movement and characterizes
Greek communities by region. The second part of the paper
deals with the period 1991-2002. The formation of the
policy on national minorities is outlined. The author
then describes the features of the Greek movement in independent
Ukraine. The evolution of organizations, goals and objectives
is outlined. The author characterizes the structure and
functions of the National Greek Association. Finally,
the paper describes the behaviour of Greek communities
in the 2002 electoral campaign.
political dimension of the problem of identities: Ukraine
and international experience.
Anna Suprunenko (Kyiv)
or the political recognition of various identities, is
important in contemporary Ukraine for theoretical and
practical reasons. Instability and the tensions in social
life further exacerbate this problem. The ontological
status of identities - in other words the foundation,
principles and mechanisms through which they are formed
require further study in order to identify those which
may provoke collisions and acute conflicts in society.
A study of the gnoseological status of identities will
determine which methods and techniques may help to control
the process of identification. The purpose of this presentation
is to draw attention to the political dimension of the
problem of identity, to show that current challenges (globalization,
mobility of individuals and groups, etc.) mean that new
approaches to identification should be developed, and
to demonstrate the relevance of this problem in Ukraine.
pluralism and political democracy in modern Ukraine: what
is a cause, and what is an effect?
Andriy Yurash (Lviv)
first glance, the traditional view on the correlation
between religious pluralism and political liberalism appears
evident since the majority accepts that changes in Ukrainian
political life over the last ten or fifteen years have
been a necessary precondition for transformation with
respect to religion. However, a closer look at the situation
reveals that the development of religious pluralism has
not always unambiguously depended on the domination of
principles of political pluralism in society. Reviewing
Ukrainian history one can easily find instances when a
level of formal or real pluralism with respect to religion
exceeded achievements in the political realm. Thus, we
cannot conclude that the level of the religious freedom
depends on the level of democratic development in society.
The events and a character of development in the political
and religious spheres over the last fourteen years provide
further evidence of this. We need to pay attention to
the thesis that actual (spontaneous) religious pluralism
in Ukraine (in the context of its historical development
and modern formation) was and still is among the preconditions
which influence formation of contemporary political pluralism
Panel 3. Issues of governance
The impact of political institutions
on regulating and democratizing business activities.
Dina Vasylchenko (Kyiv)
is no generally accepted definition of business. An American
academic, professor Robert Hisrich defines business as
"a process of creating something new which has value"
and a businessman as "a person who spends all his
time and efforts on it, assumes all financial, psychological
and social risk, gaining money and satisfaction with what
is achieved as a reward." American educational and
academic literature provides numerous definitions which
characterize business and businessmen from an economic,
political, psychological, managerial or other perspective.
intervention in the economy has certain functions. As
a rule, it corrects "imperfections" inherent
in the market. The state assumes responsibility for creating
equal conditions for competing businessmen, for effective
competition, as well as limiting the power of monopolies.
It also ensures the production of a sufficient quantity
of social goods and services because the market mechanism
is unable to adequately meet collective human needs.
business is the basis of economic development and progress
in democratic states. Administrative reform in Ukraine
envisages the creation of a favourable environment for
development of business. Providing for the development
of, and support to, business is currently one of the priorities
of Ukraine's economic policy. The formation of a market
system is related to the growth of business activities
in all sectors of the economy. A successful transformation
from an administrative-command economy to a competitive
market-based system is not possible without state assistance
based on democratic principles. Indeed, free business
activities are possible only in a democratic society,
where both private property and the rights of business
actors are secured.
The development of small and medium business has been
identified as a strategic priority for Ukraine's government.
The goals of business development are:
create a favourable climate which would facilitate the
formation of new businesses in the state;
To increase a number of people who are willing, have the
necessary skills, possibilities and motivation to start
their own business.
support to small business has been provided by state and
regional small business support programs which have been
adopted as legislation.
hierarchy of values in party programs as political decoration
Serhii Horlianskii (Simferopol)
on political parties, elections, political communication
and political elites are closely related to studying people's
preferences, values and behaviour. For this reason, Ukrainian
citizens' attitudes towards the concept of democracy in
the eyes of the elite, and the place of democracy among
other value categories used by political parties is particularly
important. The large number of political parties in Ukraine
enables us to conduct a comparative content-analysis of
programs, ideological principles, political and economic
platforms, electoral statements, principles of activity,
and statutes. In analyzing program documents, it is useful
to consider word-forms as indicating the importance of
value categories. The frequency of occurrence of 84 value
categories was analyzed although this list is not exhaustive.
The task was also simplified by presence of only two languages:
Ukrainian (27 documents) and Russian (8 documents). The
author concludes that most political parties are positive
about democracy. Most of the political elite considers
democracy attractive for the Ukrainian people. Although
programs are only a decorative façade for parties,
they are directed at people's perception carry positive
democratic values of civil society.
nomenclatura oligarchy - a form of political elite in
Oksana Dashchakivska (Radekhiv, Lviv Oblast)
historical, although artificial combination of internally
contradictory systems will ultimately result in the destruction
of such systems. The formal introduction of democracy
is the catalyst for destroying such a system. Democracy
leads to increased political activity in a nation and
thus to the formation of certain political principles
which result in pluralism and the possibility of choice.
These arrangements however, have to be continuously reconfirmed
through the participation of the population. The nomenclatura
oligarchy existing in Ukraine could "explode"
and the time of this "explosion" may be set
by us. The explosion of this system will be the moment
when Ukraine will become a genuinely democratic state.
The nomenclatura oligarchy is the result of totalitarianism.
How long it will last depends on citizens who must get
rid of political stereotypes and become familiar with
democratic procedures. The people needs to mature to become
an independent subject of law and politics; then it will
be able to develop the state.
problem of forming and developing representative institutions
of local governance in the Ukrainian political tradition.
Alina Lyasota (Dnipropetrovsk)
representative system including local governance plays
a crucial role in the interrelation of civil society and
the state. The author discusses Ukraine's political experience
and traditions of forming institutions of local governance.
According to the author, a system of local governance
was established and improved in Ukraine in the 1990s which
for the most part meets European standards. Only the electoral
system at the level of settlements and the right of the
Verkhovna Rada to dissolve representative bodies of local
governance are subject to revision. However, the main
problem is the creation of real opportunities for institutions
of local governance to realize their powers - in other
words local budgets.
of state governance and the development of local governance
in Ukraine and the French Republic: a comparative analysis.
Valentyn Malynovskiy (Lutsk)
paper addresses problems related to the decentralization
of state governance and the development of local governance
in Ukraine - necessary components of democratization and
the formation of civil society. The author analyzes the
experience of decentralization, regionalism and local
governance as well as features of the organization of
power at the local and regional levels in France. The
author argues that Ukraine's current model of local power
should be modernized along the lines of the French system
of local governance in order to ensure democratization,
optimal coordination of overall state objectives and interests
while attending to the differential development and needs
of various regions.
governance in independent Ukraine: a decade of achievements
Mark Orzikh (Odessa)
last decade has been historical for local governance:
the state and the general public have recognized its importance;
it is mentioned in the Constitution; and it has a serious
legal foundation and extensive experience. However, alongside
achievements various socio-political, legal and scientific
mistakes can be observed. This paper analyses these mistakes.
instance, as a result of the aspirations of institutions
of local governance to achieve a higher social status,
an unprecedented upside down pyramid of power has formed.
The alternative to the distorted structure of centre-region
relations would be the constitutionally formulated decentralization
of power retaining controllability of the state. In other
words the sovereign rights of the state should be transformed
into self-governing rights of territorial communities
while two levels of public power - national and local
- should be provided for. This would allow for a diversified
model of territorial governance and relations with institutions
of local governance, the division of power between levels
and subsystems of public power, and a legal framework
for the operation of power.
author discusses a mathematical model of a state-region
system of public governance (using Odesa, Izmail, Reni,
Pivdenne, Teplodar). In modelling these relations, a technological
regiment for optimum management of the process of interacting
with centres of power (state and local governance) is
formed. The author emphasizes the need to make relevant
changes to Ukrainian legislation to ensure that local
governance in Ukraine is not only a right, but the "real
capacity" of a territorial community to deal with
its problems. These changes will contribute to the development
of municipalities - the final goal of municipal reform.
guarantees of human rights in Ukraine and established
democracies: an attempt at a comparative analysis.
Ivan Pankevych (Lviv)
paper addresses the problem of constitutional guarantees
of human rights in Ukraine. One of the main advantages
of a democratic system is its ability to guarantee the
protection of human rights. Having conducted a comparative
analysis of mechanisms for protecting essential human
rights and freedoms in Ukraine and established democracies,
the author concludes that although the Constitution sets
out guarantees of human rights, it is largely declarative
in character. Indeed, it is merely window-dressing given
the current difficult economic situation in our state
and the absence of legal culture. For this reason, constitutional
guarantees of human rights are of low priority in the
formation of civil society and the state even though the
Constitution identifies them as a priority and recognizes
a human being as the highest social value.
resources of administrative reform in Ukraine: a conceptual
model and an attempt at empirical evaluation.
Volodymyr Salamatov (Kyiv)
author presents a methodology for researching the socio-economic
and socio-psychological conditions for conducting administrative
reform as well as the results of a multi-level evaluation
of the preparedness of administrative and managerial personnel
to participate in the reform of public administration
in Ukraine. To evaluate the psychological resource of
innovation in the system of public administration, a system
of additional empirical parameters has been used:
the need to transform state administration.
Organizational culture and the role of politicians in
determining the position of an individual in the organization;
a system of interests and values of social actors related
to the job and professional activity.
Programs of actions at the national and individual level
related to implementing administrative reform.
Motivation of social actors to participate in administrative
Professional competence and efficiency of administrative
and managerial activity.
Adaptation potential, styles of perception and behaviour
with respect to work-related stress.
The paper presents results of the evaluation of psychological
resources of administrative reform and forecasts its future
methodological basis of cooperation between civil and
Petro Tsymbal (Kharkiv)
result of active cooperation between citizens and police
has been the establishment of a strong partnership based
on the distribution of participation, responsibility and
equality. It also envisages meeting the militia's goal
of teaching people to participate in protecting order
and preventing crime through specific mechanisms: a consultative
committee and implementation of various programs of crime
prevention which envisages the involvement of a broad
circle of civic organizations. The role of voluntary organizations
in protecting civil order should grow while their functions
should broaden depending on their activities, professional
level and the social need for their activities. The partnership
serves the interests of civic associations because it
increases their influence and creates safe conditions
for carrying out their missions. The joint work of police
and citizens has had a positive influence on top police
officers and has broadened the social control of public
organizations. The mutually advantageous partnership contributes
to democratic development and limits certain political
forces that often try to use the police and public structures
in their interests (especially true in transitional societies).
The expansion of activities of associations to protect
public order will increase situational and social crime
prevention. In general, the development of transparent
police-public cooperation has had a positive effect on
formation of civil society in Ukraine.
governance as an institution of democracy.
Gennadiy Chapala (Kharkiv)
paper discusses the development of the institution of
local governance in Ukraine in the post-Soviet period.
The author compares this with the situation which existed
in the USSR. The role of local governance as a democratic
institution is based on the ability of the local population
to deal with issues of local importance. This paper addresses
the legal basis for this institution and its relationship
with other concepts of democracy. The author analyzes
the normative and legal regulation of local governance
as well as progress achieved during the last decade. This
includes the creation of conditions for citizens to influence
the decision-making process at the local level. The author
also identifies obstacles to the further development of
this institution and discusses problems requiring resolution
in the near future.
as a threat to economic and social development in Ukraine.
Feliks Shymanskii (Odessa)
year, Ukraine celebrated its 10th anniversary of independence
and its return to Europe and the world community as an
independent and sovereign state. Ukraine has not only
become a "real" state, but also an important
factor in geopolitical and European processes. It is conducting
economic, political, humanitarian and social reforms and
is pursuing its own path of development. In this paper
several conclusions are drawn concerning the status of
democracy in Ukraine and obstacles to the country's economic
and social development. It is well-known that democracy
is the best social order. However, there are many problems
with the way in which we are building a democratic society.
The majority of Ukrainian citizens pose the following
question: what is democracy like in general and what should
it look like in Ukraine? A brief glance at the Constitution
reveals that it is democratic. However, nowadays people
are even more destitute than before. For more than 10
years Ukraine has independently sailed the ocean of the
world economy. However, it is impossible to speak about
any achievements when UN has included us in a list of
the poorest states in the world. Results of a sociological
survey conducted by M. I. Melnyk, M. I. Kamlyk, Ye. V.
Nevmerzhytskiy, P. T. Biletskiy allow us to conclude that
the problem of corruption in Ukraine is no longer a strictly
legal issue but has turned into a serious political problem
which has been detrimental to the international position
of our state and its political image in the world. It
is not surprising that people demand the dissolution of
parliament, the dismissal of government, or call corrupt
officials to account for their actions. Corrupt institutions
of power are not only an insult to people, but also destabilize
the socio-political situation which could cause a crisis
of power leading to economic and social upheaval.
Panel 4. Economic issues
of investment in the Donetsk Oblast.
Olga Anisimova (Donetsk)
author analyses investment in the Donetsk Oblast and in
Mariupil, describes problems, and makes recommendations
as to how to increase investment activity. The results
reveal a radical change in the quality and quantity of
investment before and after the adoption of the law "On
special economic zones and an investment regime in the
Donetsk Oblast." A description of phenomena through
formalized mathematical methods and models is used as
well. The author focuses on the following issues: the
development of the economy of the region through the implementation
of reconstruction programs; the creation of the most favorable
investment climate; the development of institutions promoting
structural and investment activities; and concentration
on priorities for regional investment resources. The author
determines the Donetsk proportion of the total amount
of foreign investment in Ukraine as well as resources
required to increase this proportion. Obstacles to investment
and a forecast concerning further development of the Donetsk
Oblast and the city of Mariupil are indicated.
of Ukraine's integration into the EU.
Tetyana Lomakina (Mariupol)
paper deals with the major stages in European integration,
theoretical aspects of Ukraine's integration into the
European community, as well as particularities and advantages
of joining the WTO. The author outlines characteristics
of the initial stage in the development of Ukraine-EU
relations as well as problems and prospects in the development
of integration processes.
in the democratization of agrarian relations in Ukraine.
Oleh Melnychuk, Oleksandr Mudrak (Vinnytsya)
article reviews the democratization of agrarian relations
in contemporary Ukraine based on an analysis of legislation,
general and specialist literature. An analysis of agrarian
relations in the former Soviet Union provides grounds
to justify radical changes. The authors outline the main
features, objectives and functions of land reform. The
paper emphasizes the stages in the reform of agrarian
relations. The authors view positively the adoption and
enforcement of the new Land Code of Ukraine (25.10.01)
which marked a new stage in the democratization of agrarian
relations. The authors argue that despite some difficulties,
there have been significant achievements in the agrarian
sector. Although this may not be evident in terms of economic
indicators, democratization of agrarian relations are
apparent in changes in the psychology of landowners.
property relations in Ukraine as a major factor in institutional
transformation and the democratization of society.
Volodymyr Rubanyk (Kharkiv)
paper argues that the significance of the institution
of property rights which is forming in contemporary Ukraine
to develop the economy has been caused by a number of
circumstances: 1) the optimal organization of a system
of property rights in Ukraine provides an incentive for
restructuring and enhancing the efficiency of the economy;
2) the structure of property relations which has developed
in Ukraine historically was determined by specific characteristics
of socio-economic and political development; all specific
legislative concepts and models of state regulation of
property relations should proceed from this; 3) one of
the key conditions of investment in the economy needs
to be strict normative and legal regulation of property
relations where the rights of both Ukrainian and foreign
citizens will be sufficiently protected by the law; 4)
a model for regulating property relations is evolving
in close connection with economic and social progress.
Their regulation by the state also needs to be nuanced;
5) a model of normative and legal regulation of property
relations at the macro level is one of the institutional
components of positive economic growth; 6) certainty and
stability rather than permanent changes in the distribution
of powers of the owner is of primary importance for a
functioning market economy.
Panel 5. Social policy
in Ukraine: the situation, consequences and prospects.
Oleksandr Khomra (Kyiv)
paper characterizes the status, consequences and future
of illegal migration in Ukraine. The paper focuses on
the illegal migration of foreigners. The illegal migration
of Ukrainian citizens abroad to work is included in the
analysis only with the purpose of better understanding
illegal transit migration. Illegal migration develops
because of territorial differences in conditions for population
reproduction. The limited possibility of immigrating legally
to developed states inevitably leads to significant flows
of illegal migrants. Concepts of management of the migration
of the population which are based on giving priority to
national interests (associated with state interests) contradict
neoliberal conceptions of freedom of movement and the
freedom to choose one's place of residence. It is obvious
that the state is unable to manage migration processes
without violating democratic principles. That is why states
have to declare and partially realize the principle of
the freedom of movement at the expense of limiting the
rights of their citizens.
author elaborates the main causes of the concentration
of transitional migrants in Ukraine. An attempt is made,
based on the improvement of existing methods, to determine
the number of illegal migrants in Ukraine as well as incurred
economic, social, medical and demographic losses. It is
argued that at the current stage and in the near future,
a decrease in number of illegal migrants will occur only
by giving priority to national interests. However, the
immigration service should be separated from the law-enforcement
authorities to allow for upholding liberal-democratic
reform as a component of democratizing Ukrainian society:
a historical and economic analysis.
Alina Tsumayeva (Mariupol)
paper analyzes fundamental problems which need to be resolved
by communities and the government during the development
and introduction of a new pension system that would meet
national needs. The author reviews the development of
pensions in Ukraine from the launch of the system to recent
changes since independence. Drawing on global experience,
this paper outlines the main aspects of pension reform
in Ukraine and describes the establishment of a three-level
system of pension provision: solidarity system, general
mandatory accumulative system and a voluntary private
Panel 6. Parties and electoral policy
of the electoral process in the Transcarpathian Oblast
Mykola Vegesh, Yuriy Ostapets (Uzhgorod)
study of electoral systems and processes is one of the
priorities of contemporary social science. Elections are
necessary for the existence of a democratic society and
are citizens' main form of political participation. Although
national level research is conducted often and systematically,
at the regional level such studies are more rare. The
authors analyze electoral processes in the Transcarpathian
Oblast. The research methodology employed is based on
three major theoretical models of electoral behaviour
developed by American researchers in mid-1950s (sociological,
socio-psychological and rational-instrumental) as well
as a methodology which was used for the first time by
A. Campbell to study factors influencing voter behaviour
and called "a cone of causality." The authors
analyze factors influencing elections at five conditional
levels: foreign, political, national, regional, small
social groups, and the individual psychological characteristics
of political image-making in Ukraine (1990-2002).
Petro Kralyuk (Ostrog)
the late 1980s, Ukraine has undergone major political
evolution which has contributed to development political
image-making. Parliamentary (1990, 1994, 1998, 2002) and
the presidential (1991, 1994, 1999) election campaigns
represent significant stages in this process.
the 1990 Verkhovna Rada elections and the 1991 presidential
elections, Ukrainian politicians did not pay much attention
to political image-making. In most cases they created
their images intuitively. In general, the opposing stereotyped
images of a communist-conservative and a democrat-progressive
had formed in Ukrainian society at that time. The latter
proved to be more advantageous.
1994 parliamentary and presidential elections did not
represent a significant step forward in development of
the political image-making although some innovations were
observed. The contrasting images of communist-conservatives
and democrats-progressives lost their significance. Images
of "the man of business" (first of all, lawyers
and economists), "industrial manager", became
more advantageous. The image of "industrial manager"
created for L. Kuchma was a significant factor in his
victory in the 1994 presidential elections.
1998 Verkhovna Rada elections marked an important turning
point in development of Ukrainian political image-making.
This was the result of the fact that half of deputies
of the Verkhovna Rada were elected according to party
lists. Parties that wanted to win faced the problem of
forming an image attractive to voters. The 1998 elections
demonstrated that it is possible for a party to overcome
the four percent barrier if it manages to create an attractive
image and conduct a successful advertising campaign. An
example here is the Green Party.
the 1999 Presidential elections, relatively little attention
was paid to advertising candidates and creating images
since from the start it was obvious that all chances of
victory lay with the current President L. Kuchma. At that
time, a scenario which had already been tested by Russian
image makers was successfully used: a democrat-progressive
(reformer) against a conservative-communist. "The
Russian image-making factor" entered the Ukrainian
2002 Verkhovna Rada elections have been interesting for
development of Ukrainian political image-making. Of course,
more comprehensive study is required. However, we can
already draw some tentative conclusions for image-makers.
First, Ukrainian voters are now more conscious of their
political sympathies or antipathies. Second, these elections
demonstrated the low level of trust in mass media, including
electronic media. Third, the trend of personalizing political
forces was clearly observed. The image of the leader to
a large extent determines the image of the party. Fourth,
the precise positioning of political forces was strengthened
by communication during an event. And, finally, fifth,
the 2002 elections demonstrated that the current political
situation in Ukraine has several visible differences from
the political situation in Russia. For this reason, the
experience of Russian image-makers should not be overestimated
(as well as, by the way, the experience of image-makers
from other states).
notion of belonging to the middle class and its role in
Svitlana Oksamytna (Kyiv)
transformations in post-Soviet states have been accompanied
by socio-structural transformation, the formation of new
groups and communities, changes in social stratification
and have resulted in the formation of new statuses and
roles, marginalization, as well as changes in social identity.
have developed numerous concepts of class and class configuration
for use in empirical research. Attempts to analyze social
class in post-Soviet Ukraine have been quite successful,
particularly through applying Goldthorp and Right's schemes
of social and class structure to identify the position
of adult citizens in the social structure. Unfortunately,
Ukrainian sociology has neither developed an original
framework for understanding social stratification in Ukrainian
society, nor conducted comprehensive research on this
Given the absence of representative studies of social
stratification using economic, social and cultural characteristics,
individuals' notions about their position in the social
structure are analyzed using fragments of various studies
or, more often, representative public opinion surveys.
author argues that the majority of adult Ukrainians have
identified their position in the social and class structure.
Individuals simultaneously use a number of names of classes
and groups, traditionally used in both Soviet society
and developed countries to identify an individual's class
affiliation. The intelligentsia, businessmen, managers,
production and white-collar workers are most often considered
part of the middle class, which differs from the official
definition of the composition of the middle class.
pluralism in Ukraine as a factor in democratizing society.
Maria Piren (Kyiv)
is a system of values which expresses an attitude to the
existing social order, substantiates political ideals,
principles, norms, goals, and behavioural patterns. Ideology
exists at both the international, local and regional levels.
Through ideology, political forces formulate goals and
identify means for realizing them. According to Gramsci,
ideology serves awaken the collective will of the people.
The German sociologist Mannheim emphasized the negative
side of ideology - calling it fraudulent. Ideology concerns
consciousness. The philosophical and psychological understanding
of the consciousness is premised on the analysis of consciousness
as a phenomenon.
Ukrainian scholars view consciousness as a certain value
which is not a chaotic conglomerate of ideas, knowledge,
notions, images, and feelings. It is a internally differentiated,
structurally and compositionally shaped integrity. Various
structural elements both substantial and procedural, various
levels of awareness (reflexive and areflexive), as well
as various levels consciousness (everyday, empirical,
theoretic, etc.) can be distinguished. The categorization
of forms of consciousness into individual, collective,
group, class, mass, societal, global and political has
can be characterized as follows:
ability to accumulate knowledge about the surrounding
world cognitively (sense, recognition, memory, thinking,
Strict fixing in the subject's consciousness, or differentiation
of the human "I" and "not-I";
Ensuring purposeful human activity - consciousness forms
a target for activity;
The presence of certain attitudes or feelings toward someone
or some aspect of this person.
state cannot exist without ideology and ideological institutions,
the purpose of which is to reproduce ideology in mass
and individual consciousness. In contemporary society,
the only ideology which can ensure stability in the state
and an adequate level of material and spiritual human
life is a democratic system of values based on political
pluralism, a free market economy and the equality of citizens
before the law. Adopted in western society, this system
of values is maintained by a developed infrastructure
of political socialization, the means for reproducing
democratic political culture. This system has been accepted
by Ukraine (declaratively).
Developments in Ukraine in the near future will depend
on which social group will act as the leading force politically
and ideologically. It would be most beneficial for Ukraine
if the political avant-garde is being were formed by a
number of groups. They would form a core of the future
political nation, and develop a unifying ideology, a democratic
ideology which would contribute to the construction of
the state and civil society.
new configuration of partisan space as a manifestation
of democratization of the electoral process in Ukraine:
national and the regional dimensions.
Ihor Polishchuk (Kharkiv)
Kharkiv Oblast as an example, the author analyzes four
main stages in the development of the contemporary multi-party
system in Ukraine: preliminary (1990-1991), post-communist
(1991-1994), the stage of formation (1994-1998), and contemporary
(1998-present). The author highlights the current intensification
of the establishment of new parties and the formation
of a mega-multi-party system. There are 126 registered
parties representing all aspects of the political spectrum.
The paper also analyzes the results of the 2002 parliamentary
elections at the national and local (Kharkiv Oblast) levels.
author contends that the first goal of the newly formed
Verkhovna Rada should be the adoption of a law on the
parliamentary majority which would increase the effectiveness
of legislative activity and accelerate the structuring
of the parliament.
new stage in the development of the party system began
after the 2002 elections to the Verkhovna Rada and local
councils because the Law "On Political Parties"
requires the re-registration of parties which will result
in a substantial decrease in their number. Parties not
meeting the stipulations of this law will have their registration
cancelled. Thus, it is expected that existing political
parties will expand their ranks.
evolution of the party system in Ukraine in 1989 - 2002:
from Ukrainian atomization to European pluralism.
Serhii Troyan (Rivne)
paper addresses the transformation of the party system
in Ukraine. The author identifies five stages in the formation
of Ukrainian statehood and their influence on the evolution
of the party system and the political spectrum. Among
several conclusions drawn by the author, the two most
important are as follows: first, the clear division of
the parties into relatively strong left (first of all,
Communists) and right (the Our Ukraine bloc) wings indicates
how the party system in Ukraine is evolving into a system
based on the polarized pluralism found in western states;
second, there is an overall negative attitude towards
the atomized status of the party system. For instance,
according to data published in the second half of December
2001 by the Ukrainian Razumkov Center of Economic and
Political Studies, 45% respondents are against a multi-party
system in Ukraine whereas 40% are for it; 58% think that
there should be no more than 5 parties in Ukraine, 23%
- from 5 to 10 parties, and only 0.5% - over 100 parties.
Panel 7. Political socialization, political
values in the structure of mass political consciousness:
a psycho-semantic analysis.
Vadym Vasiutynsky (Kyiv)
content of mass political consciousness in Ukraine is
largely determined by individuals' attitudes towards reforms,
the problems of statehood and national revival and the
authorities. These factors have provided the basis for
modelling the political and semantic space of contemporary
Ukrainian society which reveals trends in its development.
Society, which in 1994 was substantially left (anti-reformist
and pro-Russian) has gradually shifted to the right, and
for the first time in 2001 for it became reforms-oriented
attitudes toward the authorities and reforms are of particular
interest for those interested in the extent to which citizens
are democratically oriented. Democratic values do not
have an overall weight in mass consciousness and can be
distinguished as a separate factor only in the consciousness
of the democratic elite. Most citizens are indifferent
to these values or demonstrate superficial approval in
attitudes towards power and the authorities is ambiguous:
on the one hand they have a very negative attitude towards
the existing authorities; on the other hand, they think
that the people needs strong, efficient and psychologically
close authorities. We can conclude then that society is
ready to submit to "a strong hand". 90% of Ukrainian
citizens support this view. Only 8-10% have the capacity
participate in or oppose the authorities. However, they
form the socio-economic foundation for democracy. Democracy
is thus too fragile in our transitional Eurasian society.
status of human rights in the value consciousness of Ukrainian
Emma Gansova, Lyudmyla Kormych (Odesa)
research addresses the problem of discord between democratic
transformations in Ukraine and social protection as well
as between social and legal protection. This contradictory
political situation is reflected in citizens' values and
preferences reflected in public opinion. Public opinion
is a key institution of civil society. In view of this
situation, democratic values have not become dominant
in public consciousness during the last ten years. In
this paper we identify one of the specific features of
Ukraine's transforming society. Values concerning family,
health, and material well-being form the core of the value
structure today. The inability to meet these existential
needs generates a sense among citizens of having been
subject to discrimination. Sociological research reveals
that human rights are violated in ways particular to post-Soviet
democracies. According to respondents, the poor as well
as certain as certain age groups (youth and pensioners)
are most discriminated against. These conclusions are
especially important for the activities of charity organizations
in Ukraine and elsewhere. The material status of citizens
which does not meet European and international standards
should be considered a violation of human rights by the
psychological model of the content of political education
Iryna Zhadan (Kyiv)
author describes her view on the psychological principles
that should underlie the political education of youth.
The suggested psychological model for the content of political
education is based on a system of individual attitudes.
The main effects of political socialization are identified.
These are of current importance for the development of
political culture in Ukraine and therefore should be the
focus of political education. The author identifies the
psychological conditions under democratic political culture
can be formed and realized through a system of political
psychotherapy for the Ukrainian society: a technology
Zinovia Karpenko (Ivano-Frankivsk)
paper deals with the use of narrative psychotherapy as
a way to optimize an individual's political choice. Considering
the long absence of statehood in Ukraine, problems concerning
national identity mean that narrative psychotherapists
can play an important role in re-thinking and re-interpreting
the historical past from a more optimistic point of view.
Some results of empirical research on trends in the neurotic
content in the values of different groups are presented.
This material proves the need for the rehabilitation of
individuals' defensive neurotic patterns through reconstructing
their experiences of participating in the political process.
The article presents materials that can be used to develop
effective ethno-cultural narratives with the goal of conducting
an electoral campaign, presenting Ukraine in the international
arena, and introducing new educational projects.
role of myths in politics.
Larysa Klymanska, Maryna Klymanska (Lviv)
article addresses one aspect of political identification
- role myths, particularly those with respect to "the
father", "the hero", "the saviour",
and "the tsar". Political identification may
occur through identifying with a political leader or through
influential political myths. Based on prototypical attributes
connected with the notion of a leader, the authors try
to trace the operational development of a politician's
(or leader's, in general) charisma in connection with
four archetypal forms: "the hero" (heroic charisma);
"the father" (paternalist charisma); "the
saviour" (missionary charisma); and "the tsar"
(majestic charisma). These archetypes of leadership may
be characterized in the following way.
father". The image of the father is associated both
with "a despotic father-master" and with "the
father-benefactor" for whom all those around him
are his children. In a society where patriarchal notions
prevail, the father is a prototype of the creator - father
and unrestricted master. As despotic master, he is prudent,
strong, all-knowing, great and all-powerful, stable, and
reliable. As a father of "all his children",
he deals with his surroundings carefully, with understanding,
forgiving all mistakes and sins. However he may also treat
them cruelly, demonstrating his power and ability to punish.
hero". The archetype of the hero is thought to be
the most famous and widespread throughout the world. A
hero is the youthful opponent to an old father; he embodies
courage and hardiness gained through battle - what the
father himself represented long ago. The hero is, however,
endowed with supernatural power; he follows his own path,
overwhelming all his enemies, gaining recognition and
approval of those around them and, ultimately, attaining
immortality. He submits to no one; he realizes a collective
dream of power and freedom; he is self-sufficient and
distinctive even in his fantasies; he is strong and powerful.
A hero is always grandiose.
authors discuss the hero myth as the most widespread in
political mythology, discuss its structure, major elements,
and modern permutations of this myth.
saviour". "The saviour" is a type of a
charismatic renovator, a magician who turns everything
existing into the best possible. He sets the masses on
the right path, breaks their "arbitrariness",
and makes them an obedient tool. He uses charisma to bring
about voluntary submission.
tsar". The archetype of the tsar is a major character
in Western European fairy tales. The coronation is the
final dramatic act of the hero's coming of age. Noble
origins do not play any role here. Moreover, an ordinary
person can rise to the mightiness of a tsar by realizing
archetypes underlying role myths in politics allow us
to differentiate various forms of symbolic management
utilized in analyzing political culture.
self-determination of youth during the democratization
Ivan Kulinich (Lviv)
paper deals with the issue of labour self-determination
of youth. The author defines labour self-determination
and its role in the democratization of society. It is
necessary to consider objective and subjective factors
in this process. The author provides data from a sociological
survey conducted among school and university students.
The author outlines a framework for the formation of labour
and professional goals in career-guidance at school and
further educational activity in university.
dynamics of forming a civic position and liberal values
among Ukrainian youth.
Lyubov Mazur (Lviv)
reform and democratization depend on the consolidation
of a new value system and a shift from paternalist behaviour
to behaviour premised on the search for new survival strategies,
independent choice and individual responsibility. The
majority of those able to adopt an active live are young
people. The high educational level in society increases
the competitiveness of young people in the labour market,
makes them more flexible and able to master new kinds
of economic activities such as business.
development of the shadow economy and expansion of corruption
has undermined trust in socio-economic transformation
and led to passivity among citizens. A comparative analysis
of sociological surveys conducted in 1998 and 2001 among
students of the Lviv Polytechnical University reveals
this trend. Researchers have observed a decrease in activism
and a well-developed personality among these students.
Simultaneously, hedonism and a desire "to live as
everybody else" are more prevalent. The desire "to
live only for one's family and children" is increasing.
in the past 73% students were sure that their future depended
only on them, now every second doubts this. One in four
places responsibility for his or her future on his parents'
or relatives' shoulders (three years only 3% of respondents
felt this way). In 1998, 44% of students hoped to become
private entrepreneurs whereas now only 6% are willing
to do so.
identification and the formation of the civic personality.
Valentyna Moskalenko, Natalia Dembytska (Kyiv)
paper addresses the political socialization of students.
The authors argue that the main mechanism in forming a
civic personality is through political identification.
The advantages of integrating two theoretical approaches
to the formation of civic activism are emphasized; a theory
of social representations; and a theory of social identity,
according to which political views, individual and socially-developed
forms of political knowledge, play a key role in forming
the "self" of a citizen. During political socialization,
knowledge about the functioning of political institutions,
as well as an individual's role as a subject or object
of politics becomes an inalienable part of an individual's
political consciousness, and, as a consequence, cognitive
structures determining the identification matrix of the
citizen. Empirical research demonstrates that the low
level of civic activism among Kyiv students is the result
of cognitive factors such as the low level of political
knowledge and young people's concept of themselves as
a passive object of the power-subject relations.
gender approach as an important factor in the democratization
Lyudmyla Petryshyna (Odesa)
of the most important goals of the education system is
to facilitate the development of civil society in Ukraine.
The changes that occurred in the early 1990s expanded
possibilities for introducing contemporary approaches
to guaranteeing women's right to education - a human right
and an instrument for achieving gender equality in society.
terms of legislation, Ukraine is on par with international
standards. However, there are significant discrepancies
between legislation and reality - including in education
and science. The high level of education among Ukrainian
women does not mean their potential is used effectively
in society. The "glass ceiling" still prevents
women from advancing in business, politics, and the public
a gender analysis of socio-cultural phenomena into the
humanities and social sciences is an important step in
forming effective policies guaranteeing equal opportunities
for women and men. The introduction of elective courses
on gender problems in some higher educational establishments
is contributing to the attainment of this goal. For instance,
elective courses such as "Gender policy in Ukraine",
"Gender and culture", "Women in Ukrainian
history", "Woman in society: gender aspects"
have been developed at the Odessa State Economic University.
However, the dismissive attitude towards gender issues
and research is still a serious problem. In Ukraine, gender
research as an inter-disciplinary area of knowledge has
not been identified as a separate scientific field.
on a variety of sources, the author contends that the
introduction of a gender approach is a necessary condition
for democratizing both society and education.
8. Political communication
The role of information policy
in democratic transformations in Ukraine.
Zinaida Balabayeva (Odesa)
democratic character of change in countries in transition
largely depends on the nature of the information policy
in these countries. It is universally recognized that
a solution of the systemic crises requires increasing
efficiency in use of all kinds of resources, including
the informational one.
peculiarity of development of Ukraine is in the fact that
the political transformation process has coincided with
the information revolution, which became a shock for many
people. Diversity of information, its amount, lack of
legislative control created a lot of problems for the
weak state and the society in general. A process of formation
of the information policy in Ukraine is painful and, it
seems, still in its initial stage.
state information policy received a new momentum only
recently due to realization of the need to deepen democratic
transformations, to build the information society in Ukraine
as a main condition of its political and socio-economic
development, preserving a positive image of the state
and its status in the world.
practice realization of the state information policy in
contemporary Ukraine requires solution of a series of
problems, from psychological campaign to support its main
provisions in the public opinion, its justification, to
solution of the questions of its technical and technological
provision, problems of information security of the society
and individuals, realization of its social consequences.
advertising as a factor influencing mass consciousness.
Iryna Nabrusko (Kyiv)
civilized civil society begins, when the autonomy of the
independent thought is restored.
A supreme criterion of the information order in a society
is the fact that each citizen is informed, or that each
one has an information "supply", which quantity
and quality create necessary and sufficient conditions
for a correct orientation in the reality and a choice
of an adequate decision in all spheres of life - from
choosing a goods to choosing a president.
contemporary Ukrainian should finally undergo a stage
of "political infantilism" and distinguish between
the populist myths and real propositions on dealing with
the state's problems. Indeed, modern political myths are
a serious political tool of coming to power. They are
based on real problems, which people should solve anyway.
And in this respect, political advertising is a powerful
creator of the mythologized world.
system of political views of a person, which does not
deal with the politics professionally, may be seen as
a product developed by a political elite. An individual
gets (or is imposed to) this product, and it becomes incorporated
in the individual's system of views as the political ideology
related to his or her need as a citizen to participate
in making certain political decisions.
of politics is not a new phenomenon. The political advertising
is broadly using an experience of its commercial analogue.
Unfortunately, mass media do not perform the tasks of
political orientation and articulation of interests of
the social groups.
can hold that such political advertising would be efficient
in contemporary Ukraine, which will draw the ways of approaching
such lifestyles, which people would like to protect.
as an instrument of democratic global governance: the
Eugenia Tykhomyrova (Rivne)
of development of democracy in conditions of globalization
of the modern society are analyzed in this paper. Democratization
is considered as one of the global problems of high priority,
without which establishing of the global society is not
author sees the main task of the transnational democracy
in neutralization and provision of development of the
democratic global governance which is interpreted as a
certain decentralized formation, containing elements of
the world political system and the global civil society
and is aimed at neutralization of the negative aspects
of globalization and provision of development of the democratic
significant role in formation of the democratic global
governance belongs to the public relations, which is a
part of the modern democracy, and which contribute to
its fuller realization in the practice of social life
at the global and national levels.
a status of information of the public by the state institutions
of Ukraine, the author indicates positive aspects and
unsolved tasks in this area, suggests a system of measures
to implement information democracy in the life of the
Ukrainian society, with its important component of a system
of public relations of the Ukrainian power structures.
Panel 9. Transition to democracy
Central East European states through the post-communist
decade: consolidation of democracy or the reverse?
Vira Burdiak (Chernivtsi)
article deals with the problems of development of Ukraine
and Central and Eastern European states in the post-totalitarian
period. The analysis of changes in CEE states enriches
and defines more precisely Huntington's notion of "the
third wave of democratization". The years around
1990 saw wholesale transformation of the CEE countries
manifested in the breakdown of the international communist
system. The revival of old parties and movements and the
rise of new ones, informal organizations, the establishment
of genuine freedom of speech and press, democratic values,
free elections - these factors that put an end to socialism
opened up the possibility of developing democratic political
systems and democratic political culture in those states.
scientific methods of comparison and conflict studies,
the author, drawing on empirical evidence, demonstrates
that the transition to democracy has its peculiarities
in each CEE state. Some have already achieved some success
in consolidating democracy (Hungary, Poland, Slovakia,
Slovenia, Czech Republic); other states have just started
this process, and in some states, for a variety of reasons
(military and ethnic conflicts, etc.) the issues of democratic
transformation and state formation are on the agenda.
is thus too early to speak about the consolidation of
democracy as a completed process. For most of CEE states
this is the only path of development. Difficulties and
"natural" problems of the transition can be
resolved through democratic progress and the achievement
of economic stability. In this case there is a growing
role for the West in supporting transformations and encouraging
the states in their integration with western society.
Vitaliy Zablotskii (Donetsk)
is a metaphor, not a "noun", but "adjective".
Its interpretation should be sought at the attributive,
but not essentialist, level. A contemporary "post-humanity"
must criticize the principles of the "old democracy",
which is disappearing and has long separated from the
humanity. The right is further giving up to the power
and force, basic principles of the "democratic society"
are permanently eroding and ruining. On our view, a transition
is taking place to the postdemocracy - "instrumental",
democracy, which purpose is to hide real (totalitarian,
strengthened by cyberiocracy and telematic means) mechanisms
global supra-power structures of power become tougher
- politics of most of the states is a derivative from
decisions made by such hyper-structures. As any societal
status is, in fact, a transition to another one (and a
form of the permanent social experiment), the democracy
in general may be seen as a developed by the humankind
form of mastering changes; a conscious reaction to these
changes through participation, consolidation and redistribution
of the human social energy; a form of educating the social
intellect and so on.
democratic reflections are relatively (partially) adequate
with regard to stale sociums with high living standards
and an efficient system of social amortizations. An aspect
of a relative freedom of liberalized societies does not
mean that authoritarianism (totalitarianism) of the state
machinery is overwhelmed in these societies. Moreover,
in the contemporary conditions, the totally infocratic
and military force of the state is growing. A limited
nature of democracy is especially manifested in the inter-state
relations, where no democratic values were able to get
rooted. The world is forming as an imbalanced structure
of shifts and unstable equilibriums, when a possibility
of efficient use of democratic approaches and procedures
is, in fact, brought to minimum.
stability as a goal of societies in transition: An analysis
of democratization and institutional development in the
Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary and Ukraine.
Iryna Kiyanka (Lviv)
question of political stability is a universal question
of the political thought in general. It is especially
topical in the conditions of a crisis, which is demonstrated
by a practice of the contemporary political regime in
states in transition on the example of Poland, Czechia,
in the soviet times stability had been considered only
in the framework of the official ideology, real mechanisms
of its research and dynamic characteristics remained underdeveloped.
It is important for research of this problem that for
a long time stability has been seen as a model of economic
prosperity in the former Soviet Union states. And concerning
the political life in the state and a sphere of international
relations, this category was based on a strategy which
may be called "activity without sharp corners."
of logic analysis, methods of analogy of events and political
situation in the states of post-communist development
since 1989 were used in studying patterns and trends of
a process of achieving stability. A comparative analysis
of stages of democratization and institutional development
of the political system in Poland, Czechia and Ukraine
as a factor in the consolidation of society.
Olga Kokorska, Valentyn Kokorskiy (Donetsk)
of the results of the ten years of existence of the Ukrainian
state is lack of solution of the problem of the socium
consolidation. This situation is proved by an extremely
low level of trust not only to political institutions,
a course of economic transformations conducted by the
government, but to their compatriots as well.
of transformation processes in Central and East European
states which entered a path of democracy, demonstrates
their traumatic character for the society. Peculiarities
of the latter are reflected, in particular, in a concept
of the cultural trauma suggested by the Polish American
sociologist P. Sztompka, which allows analyzing factors
influencing a pace, prospects, quality of social changes
in the transformational socium.
Basing on the mentioned theoretic approaches and on the
concept of the "social capital", authors aim
at studying a role of trust as a factor of consolidation
of the society. In the suggested paper, an emphasis is
placed on the importance of broadening its interpersonal
dimension and formation of the culture of trust in a transformed
on the analysis conducted, authors come to a conclusion
that a society at the level of citizens should understand
a possibility of solving economic, social and even everyday
problems through spreading trust not only to the closest
surrounding, but also to those outside its circle. Indeed,
the human activity is the most efficient in a community
or organization consolidated with trust and reciprocity.
At the same time, such comprehension requires further
strengthening through more efficient actions of the authorities,
their observance of democratic procedures.
competence as a factor in the development of democracy
in Ukraine: problems and approximations.
Iryna Stepanenko (Kharkiv)
scholars mostly agree about recognition of correlation
between the viability of democracy as a certain political
model and a corresponding level of the political competence
of people. Such correlation is recognized regarding both
the states with established traditions of democratic institutes,
and regarding the "new democracies", where people
only learn the principles of democratic life. In the states
of the latter type, questions of the civil competence
are especially important, as they are one of the starting
points of the processes of democratic transformation of
the society. A paper is dedicated to discussion of some
of such problems of formation and development of the civil
competence. An author analyzes Robert A. Dahl's views
on the correlation of the model of the ideal citizen and
the idea of the common good. Ideas of application of such
model in Ukraine are discussed. A problem of combining
a model of the ideal citizen with a certain theoretical
and/or practical model of democracy is studied. Finally,
a survey of the specific components of the civil competence
change and the post-transition syndrome in Ukraine.
Maryna Shapovalenko (Kharkiv)
post-transition syndrome is the reactions both at the
level of elites, and at the level of the population, to
the accepted rules of the game, to results of their use,
as well as vacillating and ambivalent legitimacy of new
institutions. A post-transition syndrome is an indicator
of the completion of a phase of decision-making regarding
activities of political institutes on certain procedures
and norms. Several electoral cycles (which are a necessary
component of the consolidation of democracy and a component
of the regime changes) have passed, including the two
last ones (1998 and 2002) in accordance with the principles
of a mixed system, which, undoubtedly, hinders formation
of a party system in the state, permitting thus the politicized
bureaucracy to manipulate both parliamentary factions
and weak political parties, which rise according to its
certain ambivalence of legitimacy of existing political
institutes (do not trust, but take a chance to use) says
for a thesis about a post-transition syndrome, which indicates
beginning of routinization of the accepted political rules
and procedures (a test for their strength has been passed
to some extent during the political crisis), from one
side; from the other side, their flaws become obvious,
and main political actors are ready to change them, and
there is already a general understanding of a vector of
these changes on the basis of the conflict solution procedures
that are already accepted. Without a series of such microconsolidations
during regime changes, establishing of a sustainable political
system and, as a result, consolidation of democracy, which
would allow dynamic development of all other sectors of
the society, are not possible.
Panel 10. Foreign policy
Foreign policy and regional security of the South East
Natalia Strelchuk (Chernivtsi)
breakdown of the USSR and the socialist camp resulted
in formation of the new geopolitical centers, new actors
of international relations and a whole set of new geopolitical
factors which significantly influenced the situation in
South East Europe. Having proclaimed a course towards
"return to Europe", post-socialist states of
South East Europe very cautiously treated Russia, which
they identified with the USSR and the communist regime.
Russia concentrated on its relations with the USA and
the West and has not demonstrated any initiative to establish
better cooperation. Regarding Ukraine, at the beginning
of 1990s it could possess a special position in the region,
having used its geographic, economic, cultural, psychological
closeness to its south neighbors, but it has never happened.
This may be explained by the general uncertainty of the
foreign policy course of our state and its years-long
wait-and-see attitude and thus constant balancing between
interests of others - the USA, Russia, EU, NATO, IMF.
to political instability, permanent opposition of pro-Russian
and pro-American orientations, accusations in illegal
trade with arms, increase of illegal emigration and other
reasons, an image of our state in the South East European
states is poor. However, a potential of our state, one
of the biggest in Europe in terms of the territory and
population, is still unique. Even in the conditions of
limited political and economic resources and dominating
orientation towards joining the Euro-Atlantic structures
in the states of the region, Ukraine is still able to
strengthen its positions here. The most effective for
development of Ukraine and its economy is a realistic
approach to renewal and strengthening contacts with the
South East European states in the area of economy, culture,
education, as well as formation of the well-grounded positive
perception of our state. It is also important to develop
relations with all important forces in the South East
European region (the USA, Russia, West Europe, Turkey,
Greece and others) and regional and international organizations.
A success of these steps largely depends also on the internal
factors - activization of truly democratic, and not pseudo-democratic,
transformations of the Ukrainian society.
potential to influence the global situation is obviously
very limited, but it has not lost a chance to become one
of regional leaders in South East Europe. If our state
dares to accept this role, it will turn into an important
partner to EU and NATO in the south-east direction.
formation and implementation of in Ukraine in the past
Olena Chaltseva (Donetsk)
gained its independence in 1991, Ukraine, as a new full
agent of the world policy, had to build its independent
foreign policy doctrine taking into consideration those
changes which took place in the world and in this geopolitical
region in particular. A paper studies stages and peculiarities
of the process of formation of the foreign policy doctrine
of the Ukrainian state. Development of a totally new level
of political communication with those strong states which
influence Ukrainian economy and policy was an objective
priority for Ukraine. Both external factors influencing
formation of the Ukrainian foreign policy, and domestic
factors influencing Ukraine's status in the world politics,
are discussed. A conclusion is made that a strategy of
the foreign policy of Ukraine is being formed in the conditions
of a difficult transitional process and consolidation
of democracy, faced by the state at the current stage.
Foreign policy factors of anti-democratic
trends in the formation of the mass consciousness.
Ihor Charskykh (Donetsk)
author poses a question whether the "world democracy"
today does not step upon the same rake as the French democracy
at the beginning of the 19th century, when, having come
to the Central European states as a liberator, it had
to leave them because it behaved as an aggressor?
environment for accepting democracy in Ukraine is characterized
as contradictious. Democracy is often accepted here as
an exclusively western idea. Formation of a critical mass
of the political culture, the civil society, is extremely
slow here. It also turned out that democracy is not so
simple thing as to operate it, act and live in it. One
should know and understand a lot. A gap between the expectations
and fruits of democratization seems very deep in Ukraine;
unemployed and poor demand not democracy, but work and
living means, and the international assistance and investments
are channelled not as much to the "new democracies",
as to the "old dictatorships".
sense of being deceived forms grudge to the "global
democracy" in general and Ukrainian democracy in
particular in the mass consciousness. Most of intellectuals
are against the Ukrainian modification of quasi-democracy,
where ""oligarchs" dominate, moral virtues
are separated from the success, competence - with the
power. To an ordinary observer, the world democracy either
shows up as the American President at the height of a
sex scandal, or is personified as a too demanding director
of IMF, who insists on reducing programs of social protection
of population, deregulation of extractive and transportation
sectors and further curtailing of funds for health and
of Ukraine as a participant of a system of international
relations is of a great significance, too. A lot of our
people are not happy with a subordinate status of their
state in a system of the world economy or, as anti-globalists
say, in the global feudalism of the new economy.
of the foreign influence on the elections in Ukraine and
the prospects for eliminating or weakening external factors
of antidemocratic tendencies in formation of mass consciousness
are evaluated. A key role of formation of the real civil
society, use of the new opportunities in the international
relations as a result of the EU expansion in the context
of globalization is stressed.
research is based on the monitoring of mass media in 1994-2002
and analysis of surveys conducted in 1999- 2002 by the
Razumkov Centre, the Institute of Sociology of the National
Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, the Centre of Peace, Conversion
and Foreign Policy of Ukraine with a constant comparison
of empiric data with theoretic postulates of the liberalism
regarding a freedom of choice, accountability of the power
to its voters and transparency of the political process.
Panel 11. Policy on education
of multiculturalism as an important factor in democratizing
education in Ukraine
optimal way of the social development of contemporary
Ukraine in the national and state aspect is formation
of the modern political nation embracing not only ethnic
Ukrainians, but representatives of other national and
cultural groups living in Ukraine for a long time as well.
of education on the basis of multiculturalism envisages
revision of the whole system of education, improvement
of the legislation, a character of teaching school subjects,
training of pedagogic staff, change of relation in the
area of education.
conclusion is made that legal acts regulating a sphere
of education, completely lack separate parts or articles
which would directly and specifically deal with the issues
of establishing and functioning of schools for minorities
(except for articles which guarantee a right for education
in general and several provisions of the Law about Languages
in UkrSSR, which do not completely correspond to the current
Constitution of Ukraine).
only local bodies, but teachers themselves often lack
understanding of complexity and importance of problems
of interethnic relations. Realization of principles of
multiculturalism in education cannot be brought to teaching
their native language to children from minority groups
or to introduction of a special subject on multiculturalism
in all schools of Ukraine. This leads to a problem of
developing programs and writing textbooks on multiculturalist
ideological grounds, re-training of teachers, introduction
of the new teaching methods, etc.
An author suggests ways for democratization of education
on the multicultural basis, mechanisms and means of implementing
multiculturalism in the education.
The state and civil society as
actors in the implementation of educational policy.
Oleksandr Demyanchuk (Kyiv)
main function of the state governance in the democratic
society is to develop and implement public policies. In
the ideal political system, voters have to elect not as
much the state power, as the state governance - goals,
values and principles underlying public policies.
to theoretical principles of the analysis of the public
policy, it should be coherent, have a strict hierarchy,
according to which the whole process of its implementation
is conducted from top to bottom, and have an adequate
instruments, or a system of means to pass decisions, monitor
their implementation, correct plans and measures, engage
necessary material and human resources, evaluate implementation
This paper analyses possible ways and sources of formulation
of the problems which provide a basis for the educational
policies in Ukraine, as well as a "weight" of
various actors and their functions in implementing the
educational policy. Qualitative methods of the public
policy analysis were used for this purpose. A comparative
table of indices of ability of various educational policy
actors in the post-communist states and established democracies
to influence its content and implementation.
author comes to a conclusion that an absence or a low
level of the civil societies in the post-communist states
distorts a structure of actors in implementing the public
policy; this concerns not only education, but also any
other area of social activity. Formation and realization
of the public policy in the post-communist states is almost
exclusively concentrated in the hands of the top executive
and, to some extent, legislative powers. They are initiators
of development and implementation of the new public policy,
raise and distribute necessary resources, coordinate observation
of interests of various economic and societal sectors,
and, finally, evaluate success of their own activity.
main characteristics of the public policy as its publicity,
transparency, continuity, as well as raise and use of
resources for its implementation and realities of post-communist
states in provision of these characteristics are discussed.
of education as a crucial factor in the development of
a democratic society and the rule of law.
Valeriy Dubrovskiy (Sevastopol)
paper deals with the problems of educational policy of
our state at the current stage in the conditions of democratization
of the public life and attempts to democratize the content
and management methods of education. Democratization of
education is considered through the prism of sociological
research conducted in eight regions of our state and dedicated
to the right of pupils of secondary schools for education
in the broad understanding of this, most important, right.
This analysis is organically combined with a parallel
to the situation in universities. This system leads to
a conclusion on the necessity of democratization of education.
In this regard, the civic education as a staged and comprehensive
system is considered as a priority direction of the democratization
of the society through the democratic education. In this
context, the foundation course on democracy is a promising
and priority direction in the system of the higher education.
of academics and teachers as a mirror of democracy in
Serhii Klepko (Poltava)
author studies an institutional development of the Supreme
Attestation Commission of Ukraine (SACU) and its influence
on the process of democratization in 1992-2002 comparing
to the situation in the developed sustainable democracies
basing on the analysis of politics, institutionalist and
socio-economic approach. The author generalizes issues
of discussions about SACU and determines periods of its
development as a socio-political institute and a guarantor
of the structure of a "sinecure society" inherited
by Ukraine from the past. A notion of the mirror institute
is introduced, a parasitic social organization performing
controlling functions without any productive ones. Exploiting
a natural need of the postindustrial society in the "educational
self-defense" and trying to preserve an inefficient
for the society institute, SACU in an arbitrary way introduces
its own "laws" of growth of the knowledge and
hinders democratic development. Ways of possible transformation
of the attestation system are studied: democratic correction;
complete liquidation of SACU (import of the western forms
of conferring academic degrees), democratization and increase
of requirements to the level of dissertation, provision
of a transparent financing of research activities as a
real mechanism of the SACU reform. According to research
results, conclusions and recommendations are formulated
which are topical in the light of the institutional changes
of "transitional" Ukraine.
of the educational system as a subject of sociological
Svitlana Marikyan (Kharkiv)
paper deals with a contradictory character of transformational
processes in the Ukrainian educational system. From one
side, it is characterized by accessibility of the general
and mandatory education, gender and social equity in getting
the higher education, a high quality of professional training,
etc. From the other side, its model corresponded to the
ideological concept of the state education, requirements
of the centralized planning system of management.
is also stressed that reforming of the educational system
takes place in the conditions of the systemic crisis,
which led to recession of production, high inflation,
unemployment, mass spread of poverty, which gives rise
to a high social tension in the society.
author indicates problems and analyzes current system
of management in education and its financing by the state.
In general, the budget base of the Ukrainian education
is virtually destroyed. It is characterized by a low level
of assignments to the mandatory education (43% of all
state expenditures for education), extremely low level
of salaries of education workers. All that leads to the
outflow of professional from this sphere.
The author indicates several directions of reforming of
the institute of education, which may increase a probability
of realization of transformations.
comparative pedagogical analysis of democratic transformations
in education in independent Ukraine
Olena Ohienko (Sumy)
historic experience shows that transition to a new way
of development is always accompanied by revision of principles
and renewal of the state policy in education. In the conditions
of the post-communist transformation of the society, democratization
of education is an important component of formation and
development of democracy in Ukraine. Reconstruction of
the educational system of Ukraine is based on the following
democratic principles: a principle of equal opportunities,
which envisages equality of all members of the society
with regard to the education, its accessibility irrespective
of social or ethnic status, gender, ethnic or other differences;
a principle of decentralization - broadening of the powers
of local bodies in dealing with issues of education, self-governance;
a principle of openness which ensures a freedom of choice,
consequence of all levels of education; a variativity
principle, which means diversity of educational establishments
of different forms of property, education programs, content,
forms and methods of studying; humanization principles
as a recognition of the value of a person, a human right
to free development and manifestation of abilities; a
principle of continuity - improvement of each person throughout
all his or her life. These principles of democratization
of education are inter-related and correlated. A comparative
pedagogic analysis of some aspects of democratization
of education for the last ten years proves that the education
system of Ukraine has significantly changed, which was
caused by the transition from a strict centralized system
to an aspiration for creating conditions and opportunities
for each educational establishment, each teacher or student
to reveal their abilities and capacities. A lot has been
done in this direction, but the real democratization of
education is still ahead.
the problem of academic freedom in the Ukrainian universities
Yuri Rarog (Kharkiv)
transformations in the Ukrainian society in the late 1980s
- early 1990s inevitably influenced the higher education.
On author's view, in the whole complex of topical issues
which required an urgent solution, development of the
academic freedom in universities was the most painful.
This issue is still painful due to the absence of the
deep democratic traditions in the higher school, as for
the 70 years the soviet higher school was dominated by
authoritarian methods of management. At the same time,
the reform of the education in general is impossible without
democratization of the higher schools.
this problem remains still unsolved, despite the fact
that attempts to conduct certain reformation have been
made for the last ten years. In this paper the author
studies a topicality of introduction of academic freedoms
in Ukrainian universities. The main focus is placed on
the following topics:
of the self-governance of the higher educational establishments;
Improvement of the internal structure of universities;
Increasing the status of professors and teachers.
these problems, the author will analyze in the historical
prospective the development of the reform of the system
of management of universities, how the rights of universities,
their relations with the central and local authorities
were changing. The author studies the changes in approaches
to the solution of this question depending on development
of the political processes in Ukraine.
addition, a special attention was given to a progress
of improvement of the internal structure of higher educational
establishments, introduction of the principle of appointment
by election, broadening of a scope of rights of divisions
and individual teachers in their scientific and pedagogic
activities, in governing of the university, which is the
most important component of the democratic process.
logical conclusion to the analysis of this problem will
be to consider changes in the social status of the university
personnel which have taken place for the last 10 years.
Concluding the research, the author traces a correlation
between the solution of a problem of academic freedom
and a status of the higher school in Ukraine.
as well as we could, but
is there still a chance?
Oleksandr Tyahlo (Kharkiv)
paper analyzes a process of development, discussion and
elaboration of the Draft National Doctrine of Development
of Education of Ukraine in the 21st Century, as well as
some other main components of its content as an interesting
indicator of development of the national educational system
and the society in general.
A content of the Doctrine and events around it reflect
those contradictions and flaws which are inherent to the
whole Ukrainian society. A belief into a creative power
of state officials is not overwhelmed yet; negative consequences
of this situation are usually aggravated by manifestations
of the utopian thinking in its mass and conservation of
the old algorithms of activity; excessive dependence of
officials of different levels of the (educational) authorities
on a galloping political situation and so on. These obstacles
are impossible to be overwhelmed "overnight",
as they are rooted not only in laws and traditions, but
in the Ukrainian mentality.
At the same time, the Doctrine contains a number of perspective
innovations. The most principal of them is a proclamation
of a transition to the humanist innovative paradigm of
education; a formulation of a task of a synthesis of the
national and civil education looks topical and well-grounded.
A general problem here is in a transition from declarations
to their practical implementation, for instance, to organization
of the holistic democracy-oriented process of the national
and civil education.
Panel 12. Civic education
and teaching of political science in Ukraine as an indicator
of democratic education.
Oleg Gabrielian (Simferopol)
process of democratization of the society is systemic
and covers all aspects of the social life. A monitoring
of this process in the state can be conducted both by
certain macro indices, and by special indicators. The
society faced a real task of implementing systemic democratic
changes through the method of local transformations. Evidently,
a general strategy of the state reforming is necessary.
It should be worked out in details in local programs,
and it should have a mechanism of implementation. Accumulation
of local transformations will lead to the qualitative
changes in general.
reform in the higher school should be conducted by this
scheme. It is important to take into account that all
spheres of its activity should transform, in particular,
development and teaching of the political science in Ukraine.
However, it is impossible not to touch all that which
provides a context to this process. It is the society
in general with its social order for professional, a system
of education, a system of academic and public institutes
which are in this or that way related with this process.
Here, it is possible to set indicators and take "measurements"
which would allow, with a certain grade of reliability,
to determine a level of democratization of education in
and economic changes determined the demand for politologists.
This is proved also by a growing competition for this
specialization on entrance to universities. This index
can serve as an indicator of democratization of education.
interesting fact is further existence of academic structures
without a real system of the competitive financing of
their projects and programs through the state and other
grants. In fact, the real competitive relations have not
become a norm of either academic or educational sphere,
and where such attempts took place, they degenerated.
Evidently, this may be taken as an indicator of democratization
of the educational process.
A system of licensing is not only far from being perfect,
but is defective in principle, because what is being certified
(licensed) is an ability of a university to prepare certain
professionals, but not a result of the university's activity.
And this circumstance can also serve as an indicator of
the democratization process.
of changes in the faculty, research topics and dissertations
defended in politology, organization and content of the
educational process, professional self-organization of
professors - these are those real indicators which allow
making conclusions on the process of democratization of
the higher education system in the state.
the character and particularities of the development of
civic education in schools and universities of Ukraine
Victor Goriachev (Dnipropetrovsk)
author deals with a broad range of notions related to
the analysis and comprehension of the character of transformations
with regard to the development of the system of civil
education in schools and universities of Ukraine which
took place for the last ten years. Basing on his own rich
experience of pedagogic activity and results of socio-psychological
studies in pupils, students and teachers, the author gives
interesting examples, generalizations, forecasts possible
ways of further development and formation of the system
of civil education and upbringing in the Ukrainian schools
author uses a non-ordinary approach to the issues of rational
and effective use of practice experience of developed
democracies, a combination of the existing problems on
formation of democratic culture of youth with the value
acquisitions of the family.
general, an analytical and prognostic survey conducted
by the author allows better orientation in a broad circle
of psychological and pedagogic problems with regard to
the increasing role of the civil education in further
humanization and democratization of the educational process
in schools and universities of Ukraine, to determine priority
ways of further development.
introduction of civic education in Ukrainian schools
Lyudmyla Dukh (Kharkiv)
is still in the initial phase of the civil society formation.
Special expectations in this connection are related with
formation of the civil and democratic values in the rising
generation. A contemporary educational process is insufficiently
targeted on formation of democratic outlook; a gap is
evident between the theoretical knowledge our students
receive and the everyday social practice. Lack of readiness
to comprehend a new system of requirements, a new content
of education and intellectual exercise, in particular,
an independent search for information, inability to study
in new social and economic conditions or to construct
one's own self-realization, is a typical phenomenon.
course "Civil education" for forms 9, 10 and
11 was developed during 2001 and recommended by the Ministry
of Education and Science of Ukraine. The paper describes
peculiarities and problems of formation of the course.
task of the civil education is to form outlook orientations
of the individual, to develop his or her own life philosophy,
self-identification and self-realization in the economic,
social, cultural, political and legal spheres, to form
motivation and core skills necessary for responsible participation
in public and political processes, critical and constructive
attitude of youth to the social life, orientation on the
positive social actions, fostering tolerance, pluralism,
place of local governance in civic education: Canada and
Ihor Koziura (Kyiv)
article deals with an issue of the role of the local governance
in forming the fundament of the civil society in Ukraine.
On the example of Canada, the USA and other countries,
an author describes an international experience, the status
and prospects of development of the civic education, teaching
principles of the local governance to students, development
of corresponding resource materials. Specific recommendations
targeted at implementation of project of youth participation
in the development of the democratic local governance
and the Program of the State Support to the Development
of Local Governance in Ukraine are suggested.
democratization of higher education
Olha Melnychuk (Vinnytsya)
article is dedicated to the study of a problem of formation
and development of democratization of the higher education
in Ukraine. An importance of this process for formation
of the outlook of future generations, preservation of
Ukraine's independence, is stressed.
author analyzes fundamental normative and legal acts which
determined main legal principles and laid a fundament
of democratization of the higher education. The author
note that in the current conditions, universities can
independently decide some questions of the educational,
scientific, research, methodical or economic activity.
A series of radical innovations implemented by the state
to create an open and democratic educational system, which
better guarantees a constitutional right for higher education,
At the same time, undecided problems of methodical, organizational
character, still faced by the higher education, are stressed.
author emphasizes a need to continue and ensure a process
of democratization of education, which has already started
aspects of introduction of civic education in Ukraine's
Stepan Svorak, Valerii Shtern (Ivano-Frankivsk)
paper highlights certain aspects of introduction of the
experimental foundation course on democracy into a schedule
of the specialization "Politology". Authors
emphasize that a full course allows integrating culturological,
politological and philosophic knowledge, forms skills
of using them in practice in students. The next form of
introduction of the civic education in both secondary
schools and universities is filling of such university
subjects as history, law, sociology, etc., with a content
of the civic education.
approbation of the knowledge gained is illustrated by
the activity of the student political clubs; experience
of one of them is generalized in this paper.
society: educational democracy and democratization of
education (coordinates of social modelling)
Andrii Semenov (Lutsk)
paper is targeted at revealing topical problems of multi-dimensionality
of modern democratic education through a prism of the
global and particular variations, transformation of the
socio-humanitarian policy and education in Ukraine.
important place belongs to an analysis of the socio-anthrop
dimensions of the civil society in Europe and Ukraine,
its anthropologic, social and economic principles, development
of the forms of civil humanism as integrative ways of
civil identification and international solidarity.
is noted that especially prospective are issues of educational
cycles and modules for a new group of the Ukrainian youth,
socially oriented towards the international practice of
free self-determination of an individual, recognition
of rights of the personality, prolongation of the ethics
of the social responsibility