Academic Calendar 2021-2022

Geology (GEOL)

GEOL 102  Gemstones: Their Art, History and Science  Units: 3.00  

Gemstones have played an important role in society throughout history. The role of gemstones and other precious materials will be illustrated through the study of works of art and popular literature. The physical properties that make gems attractive are explained. Gemstone marketing and ethical considerations of mining methods will be explored.
LEARNING HOURS 120 (24L;12T;36O;48P).

Requirements: Prerequisite None.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 104  The Dynamic Earth  Units: 3.00  

Introduction to the internal structure of the Earth and the processes that have shaped its surface. Global tectonics and continental movement, rock genesis, mountain building, glaciations and geological time. Laboratories include rock and mineral identification, and problem solving in historical geology, earthquakes, groundwater flow and coastal erosion.
NOTE Also offered at the Bader International Studies Centre, Herstmonceux. Learning Hours may vary.
LEARNING HOURS 108 (36L;12Lb;60P).

Requirements: Prerequisite None.  
Course Equivalencies: GEOL 104/105 / APSC 151  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 106  Environmental Geology and Natural Hazards  Units: 3.00  

The relationship between human-kind and our ever-changing planet, with a focus on natural geologic hazards (volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, mass movement, floods, extraterrestrial impacts, etc.), and environmental impacts which result from population and land-use expansion and our increased use of water, energy and mineral resources. A study of the sources and impact of pollution and global climate change. Public perception of and response to geological risk.
NOTE Also offered at the Bader International Studies Centre, Herstmonceux. Learning Hours may vary.
LEARNING HOURS 120 (36L;12O;72P).

Requirements: Prerequisite None.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 107  History of Life  Units: 3.00  

The history of life, from its inception four billion years ago to the present day, focusing on the inter-relationship between organic evolution and global change. Coevolution of early life and the atmosphere; development of marine animals and their ecosystems; invasion of the land; dinosaurs and their world; mass extinctions; the Age of Mammals; and hominid evolution. Lectures plus three three-hour laboratories.
LEARNING HOURS 120 (36L;12Lb;12O;60P).

Requirements: Prerequisite None.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 200  Oceanography  Units: 3.00  

Introduction to marine science. Topics include: ocean basins and their sediments; seawater chemistry/biochemistry; ocean waves, tides and currents; ocean-atmosphere interaction; polar to tropical organism communities; marine resources; environmental concerns; global change.
LEARNING HOURS 114 (36L;12Pc;12O;48P).

Requirements: Prerequisite BIOL 102 or BIOL 103 or CHEM 112 or GEOL 104 or GEOL 106 or GEOL 107 or PHYS 104 or PHYS 106 or PHYS 107 or PHYS 117.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 211  Geological Engr Field Methods  Units: 4.50  

A field-based course stressing methods used in geological engineering site investigation.  Includes field characterization of engineering properties and behaviour of earth materials and their structures.  Student teams conduct eight site investigations that address geological engineering problems.  Two of these involve the design of an infrastructure improvement project, with geological considerations. Results are presented in weekly engineering reports illustrated with maps and sections. (0/14/0/26/14)

Requirements: Must be registered in BASC  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 212  Introduction to Mineralogy  Units: 3.00  

An introduction to the crystallography and crystal chemistry of rock-forming minerals for students not in the Geological Sciences. The structural, chemical and genetic aspects of the crystalline state as displayed by minerals are considered.

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 104 or permission of the Department. Exclusion GEOL 232. Recommended 4U Chemistry is required.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 221  Geological Field Methods  Units: 3.00  

The field study of surficial deposits, rock types, and geological processes, based on the geology of the Kingston area. Descriptions, samples and measurements acquired on several field trips will be analyzed, and the results recorded in maps, sections, and reports throughout the course.
NOTE Transportation for six half-day field trips. Estimated cost $100.00.
NOTE Department may require GEOL 104 and GEOL 221 be taken concurrently.
LEARNING HOURS 120 (24L;48Lb;12T;4Oc;24P).

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 104 or permission of the Department.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 232  Mineralogy  Units: 3.00  

Characterization of rock- and soil-forming silicate and non-silicate minerals (their crystallography, optical and physical behaviour, and crystal chemistry). The structural, chemical and genetic aspects of the crystalline state as displayed by minerals are considered. Implications of mineral properties for the engineering behaviour of soils and rocks, and for human needs, are discussed.
LEARNING HOURS 120 (36L;36Lb;48P).

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 104 or permission of the Department. Exclusion GEOL 212. Recommended 4U Chemistry is required.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 235  Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology  Units: 3.00  

Introduction to the genesis and characterization of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Students will acquire skills to classify rocks and the theoretical background to place these rocks in the context of where, why, and how they form with implications for resource exploration and utilization. Macroscopic and microscopic properties will be studied.

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 232.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 238  Surficial Processes, Sedimentation and Stratigraphy  Units: 3.00  

An examination of the genetic link between surficial geological processes and the sedimentary record produced by these processes. Students obtain an integrated overview of the nature and operation of the Earth-surface environment. Topics include origin of sedimentary rocks and their sedimentary structures, depositional environments and stratigraphic successions; stratigraphic principles and their application to sedimentary basins, with implications for hydrocarbon genesis; interaction of natural processes with human society.
LEARNING HOURS 130 (36L;22Lb;72P).

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 104 or permission of the Department.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 249  Geophysical Characterization of the Earth  Units: 3.00  

The application of physical principles to examine and characterize the Earth at all scales. The Earth's physical properties and dynamic processes will be assessed and evaluated by integrating such topics as gravity, seismology, magnetism, geochronology, and heat flow, as related to scientific and engineering problems.
LEARNING HOURS 117 (36L;48Pc;7G;24P).

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 104 or permission of the Department. Corequisite (MATH 120 or MATH 121 or [MATH 123 and MATH 124]) and (PHYS 104 or PHYS 106 or PHYS 107 or PHYS 117 or PHYS 118) or permission of the Department. Exclusion GEOL 269.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 262  Geological Aspects of Mineral Deposits  Units: 3.00  

The basic mineralogy and petrology of mineral deposits are examined. The formation and classification of mineral deposits, considering such aspects as tectonic setting, age, rock composition, geometry, and mineralogy are investigated. Emphasis is placed on the processes by which mineral deposits are formed and transformed, and their influence on mining and production. Laboratory work integrates geological information from the scale of hand samples to regional maps as tools to assist with mine design, estimation of ore grade and evaluation of issues related to ore processing.
LEARNING HOURS 114 (36L;18Lb;60P).

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 104. One-Way Exclusion May not be taken with or after GEOL 232; GEOL 362.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 269  Physics of the Earth  Units: 3.00  

An examination of the physical principles and properties exhibited by the Earth which can be used to understand its origin, structure, dynamic processes, and evolution through time. Topics such as gravity, seismology, magnetism, geochronology, and heat flow are discussed in conjunction with the unifying theory of plate tectonics.
LEARNING HOURS 117 (36L;8T;42Pc;7G;24P).

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 104 or permission of the Department. Corequisite (MATH 120 or MATH 121 or [MATH 123 and MATH 124]) or permission of the Department. Exclusion GEOL 249. Recommended 4U Physics is required.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 281  Earth Systems Eng I  Units: 4.00  

Introduction to all of the integrated fields of Geological Engineering and the essence of engineering design in an earth-systems context. The focus is on geological engineering properties and processes, complementing the resource focus of Earth Systems Engineering II in the winter term. Projects involve engineering design problems with a particular focus on dealing with scale dependency, sampling confidence, natural variability and risk-assessment related to the quantification of engineering properties for geomaterials. Introductory geotechnical engineering, applied geophysics, and engineering hydrogeology methodology with emphasis on site investigation and design related to mining, tunnelling, infrastructure development, natural-hazard mitigation and environmental remediation and management.  (0/0/0/32/16)

Requirements: Must be registered in BASC  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 282  Managing Earth Systems: Resources and Environment  Units: 3.00  

An earth-system engineering perspective on the nature, acquisition and utilization of energy, mineral and water resources, with particular emphasis on the environmental considerations in their extraction, processing, and use. Criteria for designing resource exploration programs are examined. Practical exercises, projects and seminars (team and individual) deal with these issues, and include the design of risk-management plans, environmental life-cycle assessments, sustainable systems and ore-reserve estimations.

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 221 or GEOL 232 or permission of the Department.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 290  Worldbuilding  Units: 3.00  

A blended in-person and online lecture and design studio course on the design of worlds for fiction, art, game-design, communications, and more. Lectures and guest-lectures emphasize the requisite science , humanities, and social sciences to constrain a collaborative worldbuilding exercise delivering a partially realized world.
LEARNING HOURS 120 (24L;24Lb;72P).

Requirements: Prerequisite Level 2 or above.  
Offering Term: F  
Offering Faculty: Fac of Engineering Appl Sci  
GEOL 291  Technical Communication I  Units: 0.00  

This course provides instruction and practice in effective technical writing and oral presentation. The topics include amongst other things task definition, document structure and outlining. Many of the exercises will be linked to required oral and written communication tasks in other core courses. Open to Geological Engineering students only. (0/0/12/0/0)~ COURSE DELETED IN 2009/10) ~

Requirements: GEOL281  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 292  Technical Communication II  Units: 0.00  

This course provides advanced instruction and practice in effective technical writing and oral presentation. Most exercises will be linked to required oral and written communication tasks in other courses. Open to Geological Engineering students only. (0/0/12/0/0)~ COURSE DELETED IN 2009/10 ~

Requirements: GEOL291  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 300  Geological Field School  Units: 3.00  

An intensive one-week course taken immediately before the beginning of third year. Teams of students design and implement a geological field investigation program to produce and interpret geological field maps.
NOTE The cost of accommodation, transportation and food will be borne by the student. Please consult the Departmental website for more information.
LEARNING HOURS 120 (120Oc).

Requirements: Prerequisite (GEOL 221 and GEOL 235) or permission of the Department. Note Visit the Department of Geological Science and Geological Engineering website for more information about this course.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 301  Field Studies in Geology I  Units: 1.50  

A multi-day field trip that uses stratigraphic, sedimentological, and paleontological data to interpret rock successions in a paleoenvironmental and tectonic context. Enrolment is limited.
NOTE The course runs during the week of Canadian Thanksgiving. Please see the departmental webpage for information on costs. Accommodation fee plus transportation per Diem fee. Estimated cost $500.
LEARNING HOURS 61 (1L;30Pc;15G;15P).

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 238. Corequisite (GEOL 321 or GEOL 337 or GEOL 368). Exclusion GEOL 302; GEOL 368 (prior to 2013); GEOL 478 (prior to 2013); GEOL 488 (prior to 2013). Note Visit the Department of Geological Science and Geological Engineering website for more information about this course.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 302  Problems in Sedimentary Geology  Units: 1.50  

An independent study of the general links between tectonics and the nature of the sedimentary record in a variety of carbonate and siliciclastic depositional environments.
NOTE This course is intended to provide an option for students in lieu of GEOL 301.
LEARNING HOURS 60 (10I;50P).

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 238. Corequisite ([GEOL 321 or GEOL 337 or GEOL 368] and permission of the Department). Exclusion GEOL 301; GEOL 368 (prior to 2013); GEOL 478 (prior to 2013); GEOL 488 (prior to 2013).  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 310  Geological Engr Field School  Units: 5.00  

An intensive two-week course taken immediately after final examinations in second year. Teams of students apply geological field methods and geological engineering assessment techniques learned during second year, as the basis for an engineering assessment of overburden and bedrock for a suite of specific engineering design outcomes. These outcomes include mineral resource evaluation, mine design, geotechnical stability and environmental baseline assessment related to future engineering works. In addition the students are expected to optimize the design of their own site investigation program to maximize the practical value of information obtained. A final site investigation and engineering report, including design solutions for the aforementioned problems, is presented and defended. Field safety regulations and safe practice are emphasized. (0/0/0/15/45)

Requirements: GEOL221 OR (GEOL211 AND GEOL235)  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 319  Applied Geophysics  Units: 3.00  

Geophysical methods (gravity, magnetic, electrical, and seismic) applied to engineering problems, including resource exploration and site investigation. Design of field programs considering physical principles, instrumentation, limitations, field procedures and data interpretation. Laboratory projects with geophysical equipment are undertaken.
LEARNING HOURS 121 (21L;18Lb;22T;12Oc;48P).

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 249 or permission of the Department.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 321  Analysis of Rock Structures  Units: 3.00  

The nature, origin, and interpretation of deformation and fracture of rocks, and the application of structural methods to site-investigation and resource exploitation. Topics include geometric, kinematic and dynamic analysis of brittle and ductile deformation features; and examination of deformation styles in selected tectonic environments.
NOTE One field trip with a transportation fee. Estimated $50.
LEARNING HOURS 122 (36L;18Lb;8Oc;60P).

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 221. Corequisite (GEOL 300 or permission from the Department).  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 333  Terrain Evaluation  Units: 3.00  

An introduction to the principles of geomorphology relevant to Geological Sciences and Geological Engineering. Identification and evaluation of terrain features using analog and digital imagery via traditional and digital (GIS) methods. Digital terrain model acquisition and analysis. Introduction to digital terrain analysis.
LEARNING HOURS 124 (36L;33Lb;55Pc).

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 104 or permission of the Department.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 337  Paleontology  Units: 3.00  

Review of the major groups of invertebrate fossils, emphasizing functional morphology, paleoecology, evolution, and geological significance.
NOTE Course includes a required one-day paleontological field trip. Estimated cost $35.
LEARNING HOURS 129 (36L;24Lb;6Pc;9Oc;54P).

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 238 or BIOL 202 or permission of the Department. Note Visit the Department of Geological Science and Geological Engineering website for more information about this course.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 340  Problems In Engr. Geology  Units: 3.00  

Each student investigates a problem in geological engineering that is not covered in any of the available courses, and submits a written report on the topic. This course is open to students only if a suitable faculty member is available. (0/36/0/0/0)

Requirements: Must be registered in BASC  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 341  Problems in Geology  Units: 3.00  

A problem-oriented course involving a substantial amount of self-directed learning about a topic of the student's choosing, culminating in the submission of a written report. This course is open to students only if a suitable faculty member is available.
LEARNING HOURS 120 (6I;114P).

Requirements: Prerequisite (Level 3 or above and registration in a GEOL Major or Specialization Plan) or permission of the Department.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 342  Special Topics in Geology  Units: 3.00  

Courses offered by visiting faculty on Geological Sciences topics related to their research interests. Consult the departmental homepage for further details of specific course offerings each academic year.
LEARNING HOURS 120 (36L;84P)

Requirements: Prerequisite (Level 3 or above and registration in a GEOL Major or Specialization Plan) or permission of the Department.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 343  Hydrogeology  Units: 3.00  

Development of the equations governing flow and transport; sensitivity to sub-surface complexities. Field instrumentation, installation and sampling protocols, elements of groundwater investigation. Assessment of measurement techniques and interpretation of fundamental hydrogeological properties. Groundwater occurrence, flow system analysis, with a focus on designing extraction scheme.
NOTE One field trip with a transportation fee. Estimated $35.

Requirements: Prerequisite (GEOL 238 and CHEM 112) or permission of the Department. Note Visit the Department of Geological Science and Geological Engineering website for more information about this course.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 352  Topics in Mineralogy  Units: 3.00  

Through lectures, seminars and assigned readings selected topics in mineralogy are explored. Emphasis on the current literature and the details of mineralogical phenomena will lead to better understanding of petrologic systems.
NOTE This course may not be offered every year. Please see Departmental website.
LEARNING HOURS 120 (24L;36Lb;60P).

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 212 or GEOL 232.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 359  Applications of Quantitative Analysis in Geological Sciences  Units: 3.00  

The theory and use of numerical computational procedures to solve geo-engineering and geoscience problems. The utility, significance and widespread applicability of analytical and numerical techniques will be illustrated in the evaluation and solution of practical problems.
LEARNING HOURS 128 (36L;22T;6I;16Oc;48P).

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 249 and (MATH 225 or MATH 232). Corequisite STAT 263. Exclusion GEOL 349.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 362  Petrology Applied to Ore Deposit  Units: 3.00  

Characterization of major ore deposit types using mineralogical, petrological, geochemical, and geophysical attributes. Design and evaluation of ore deposit models and exploration programs, including ore processing and environmental issues. Laboratory work integrates techniques to evaluate paragenetic sequences, ore grades, and engineering issues.
LEARNING HOURS 121 (33L;33Lb;55P).

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 235 or permission of the Department.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 365  Geochemical Characterization of Earth Processes  Units: 3.00  

The application of thermodynamics and kinetics to the understanding of natural processes in the Earth Sciences. Distribution of the elements, and practical uses of isotopes and elemental tracers. Geochemical actions and transactions within, and among, the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere, including the impact of human evolution and environmental geochemistry. Practical application of geochemistry to solving problems in natural systems will be emphasized. A practical involving problems, laboratory experience and field experience will be part of the course.

Requirements: Prerequisite (CHEM 112 and GEOL 232 and GEOL 235) or permission of the Department.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 368  Carbonate Sedimentology  Units: 3.00  

The origin, composition and diagenesis of carbonate rocks. Study of modern carbonate sediments and depositional environments; development of facies models; petrographic and geochemical analysis of limestones and dolostones.
NOTE One field trip with a transportation fee. Estimated $40.
LEARNING HOURS 121 (33L;18Lb;70P).

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 238 or permission of the Department. Corequisite GEOL 301. Note Visit the Department of Geological Science and Geological Engineering website for more information about this course.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 390  Technical Communications II  Units: 1.00  

Offering Term: W  
Offering Faculty: Fac of Engineering Appl Sci  
GEOL 395  Geological Practicum  Units: 3.00  

Students working for a company or government in geology or environmental geology can apply for a practicum credit. Requirements: minimum 12 weeks of continuous employment, securing a faculty member as an advisor and evaluator, agreement with employer prior to commencement of work, and submission of a final report.
LEARNING HOURS 120 (120Pc).

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 104 or permission of the Department.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 400  Advanced Geological Sciences Field School  Units: 3.00  

Intense one-week field course taken after third year. Field assignments of geological interest, local and regional geology and tectonic evolution of the area visited. Daily assignments when in the field on a diversity of geological problems.
NOTE Extra fees will apply to cover the cost of accommodation, travel and food. Will occur in the Fall, Winter or Summer.
LEARNING HOURS 120 (4.5L;4.5S;15G;90Oc;6P).

Requirements: Prerequisite (GEOL 300 and GEOL 321 and GEOL 365) or permission of the Department. Note Visit the Department of Geological Science and Geological Engineering website for more information about this course.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 401  Field Studies in Geology II  Units: 1.50  

A multi-day field trip that uses stratigraphic, sedimentological, paleontological, and structural data to interpret shall-and-deep-marine rock successions in paleoenvironmental and tectonic context. Enrollment is limited. Course runs during the week of Canadian Thanksgiving.
NOTE Accommodation fee plus transportation per diem fee. Estimated cost $500.
LEARNING HOURS 61 (1L;30Pc;15G;15P).

Requirements: Prerequisite (A minimum GPA of 2.90 in GEOL 221; GEOL 238; GEOL 321) or permission of the Department. Corequisite GEOL 488. Exclusion GEOL 402. Note Visit the Department of Geological Science and Geological Engineering website for more information about this course.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 402  Problems in North American Geology  Units: 1.50  

The self-directed detailed study of some aspect of the geological evolution of eastern North America. The topic will complement the knowledge gained in GEOL 488.
NOTE This course is intended to provide an option for students in lieu of GEOL 401.
LEARNING HOURS 60 (10I;50P).

Requirements: Prerequisite (A minimum GPA of 2.90 or a 'PASS' (obtained in Winter 2020) in GEOL 221; GEOL 238; GEOL 321) or permission of the Department. Corequisite (GEOL 488 and permission of the Department). Exclusion GEOL 401; GEOL 368 (prior to 2013); GEOL 488 (prior to 2013).  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 403  Geotech & Geoenv Field Sch  Units: 3.00  

Taylor's theorem, optimization, implicit and inverse function theorems. Elementary topology of Euclidean spaces. Sequences and series of numbers and functions. Pointwise and uniform convergence. Power series. (36/6/0/0/0)

Requirements: (GEOL281 AND GEOL310)  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 413  Eng Geomechanics & Rock Eng De  Units: 4.00  

Rigorous application of geomechanics and rock engineering principles to open-ended design problems related to surface and underground excavation, construction and geo-hazard mitigation. Presentation and discussion of design methodologies and case histories are followed up by related analysis and design problems incorporating industry standard software. Emphasis on the inherent variability of geomaterials and implications for integrated site-investigation planning, quantitative risk assessment, design decision-making and performance-monitoring. A field excursion will be included. (0/0/0/12/36)

Requirements: (GEOL281 AND GEOL310) OR (GEOL281 AND MINE325) OR (GEOL281 AND GEOL310) OR (GEOL281 AND GEOL321) OR (GEOL281 AND GEOL310)  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 418  Petroleum Geology  Units: 3.00  

The origin, migration and accumulation of petroleum resources, emphasizing typical reservoir styles, potential reservoir lithologies, methods of exploration and basic concepts of formation evaluation. Concepts and applications equip students with the basic principles necessary to undertake petroleum industry exploration and production. Laboratory exercises include a major exploration problem and presentation. Offered in 2009-2010 and in alternate years thereafter.
NOTE This course may not be offered every year. Please see Departmental website.
LEARNING HOURS 129 (36L;33Lb;60P).

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 238 or permission of the Department. Corequisite GEOL 321.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 419  Geophysics Field School  Units: 3.00  

This 12-day, intensive field course focuses on field and laboratory techniques using a wide array of geophysical site investigation and exploration methods. Review lectures on instrument theory and principles of exploration program design. The course culminates in an exercise to design and implement an integrated geophysical site investigation.
NOTE Please contact the Department for more information. Estimated cost $800.
LEARNING HOURS 120 (8L;12G;60Pc;40P).

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 319 or permission of the Department. Note Visit the Department of Geological Science and Geological Engineering website for more information about this course.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 438  Topics in Sedimentary and Petroleum Geology  Units: 3.00  

A course on a topic in the field of sedimentary geology, sedimentary geochemistry, basin analysis and/or petroleum geology.
NOTE Consult the Chair of Undergraduate Studies for details of specific course offerings each academic year.

Requirements: Pre Lvl 3 in GEOL Maj/med or s  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 439  Advanced Applied Geophysics  Units: 3.00  

Advanced theory and techniques for acquisition, processing and interpretation of geophysical data. Solve a problem from idea, strategy, data acquisition, processing, to interpretation and deliverables. Design projects exploit seismic, gravity, magnetic, EM methods, in oil/gas/mineral exploration, near-surface prospecting and site investigation.
LEARNING HOURS 128 (21L;24G;35I;24Oc;24P).

Requirements: Prerequisite (GEOL 249 and GEOL 319) or permission of the Department.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 442  Geological Engineering Thesis  Units: 3.00  

Requirements: GEOL442 excludes GEOL443  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 445  Site Invest. & Case Histories  Units: 3.50  

The course provides an overview of current geological engineering problems and innovative solutions, and relies on guest speakers, most of whom are practicing professional engineers. Topics such as professional practice and liability, engineering ethics, provincial and national environmental legislation, and the Occupational Health and Safety Act are presented and discussed. Guest lecture topics may include: buying and selling professional services, water supply management, contaminant abatement and/or remediation, management of engineering construction. Starting in Fall 2009, a one-day field exercise in engineering surveying methods will be held early in the term. (0/0/7/5/30)

Requirements: Must be registered in BASC  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 446  Engineering Design Project I  Units: 3.00  

Student teams research, prepare a design work plan and carry out a "Phase I" engineering investigation for a major, open-ended geological engineering project, in consultation with a Management Board comprising geological engineering faculty. Work plans adhere to current national and/or provincial regulations as appropriate, and include scope definition, development of a range of technical solutions to the engineering problem, cost analyses and project scheduling tasks. Design meetings are recorded in the form of minutes submitted to the course Management Board and time sheets are submitted. Engineering project work plans are presented and defended to a committee comprising faculty and external engineers. Evaluation is based on the presentation and the team-written preliminary design report. These reports form the basis for more in depth design work in Geol 447 in the winter. Students must register in both GEOL 446 and 447. (0/0/6/0/30)

Requirements: Must be registered in BASC  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 447  Engineering Design Project II  Units: 5.00  

Student teams carry out design work, including detailed analysis, synthesis, and presentation for the open-ended engineering projects proposed and initiated in GEOL 446. Projects adhere to current national and/or provincial regulations as appropriate, and include further development of engineering solutions while controlling project schedule, budget and critical path design objectives. Data are obtained from industrial sources, government documents, engineering reports, the appropriate literature, and field studies and testing. Design projects, including methodologies, budgeting and technical components will be defended in class to a committee. Evaluation is based on two presentations and the team-written design report. Students must register in both GEOL 446 and 447. (0/0/0/0/60)

Requirements: (GEOL445 AND GEOL446) OR (GEOL445 AND GEOL472) OR (GEOL445 AND GEOL446)  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 452  Instrumental Techniques Applied to the Study of Solids  Units: 3.00  

The theory and practical aspects of the techniques of X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy are studied. Other techniques including Mossbauer, infra-red spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy will also be covered. An extensive term project is required where the student employs these techniques to study a material of their choice.
NOTE This course may not be offered every year. Please see Departmental website.
LEARNING HOURS 120 (24L;36Lb;60P).

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 232 or permission of the Department.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 462  Advanced Petrogenesis and Metallogenesis  Units: 3.00  

Igneous petrology, geochemistry and fluid-rock interaction applied to metallogeny and ore genesis. Case studies in mineral chemistry and geochemistry. Lectures, critical reading, laboratory work and seminars will provide an advanced understanding of the major ore-forming processes in a geodynamic setting and applications to mineral exploration.
LEARNING HOURS 120 (24L;12S;36Lb;48P).

Requirements: Prerequisite (GEOL 362 and GEOL 365) or permission of the Department.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 463  Spatial Information Management in the Geosciences  Units: 3.00  

An introduction to spatial information management focusing on methods to support and extend geological mapping, mineral and petroleum exploration, and engineering site investigation. Computers and computation, GIS software and theory, spatial simulation and analysis, databases and data management, and design of effective decision support solutions.
NOTE This course may not be offered every year. Please see Departmental website.
LEARNING HOURS 112 (33L;24Lb;55Pc).

Requirements: Prerequisite GPHY 243 or GEOL 333 or permission of the Department.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 464  Visualization in the Geosciences  Units: 1.50  

An introduction to 3D visualization of natural sciences data with a focus on methods relevant to geological engineering, mineral exploration, and geoscience research. Perception, representation, and analytical methods. Design tools and data integration methods. Temporal analysis of natural sciences data. LiDAR data analysis. Global and local models.
LEARNING HOURS 58 (18L;18Lb;22Pc).

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 463 or permission of the Department.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 466  Isotopes and the Environment  Units: 3.00  

This course is designed to expose advanced students in the fields of biology, chemistry, geography or geology to the principles of stable isotope and radiogenic isotope systematics in natural processes. Emphasis will be placed on the use of isotopes in tracing elemental cycles, biological cycles and hydrologic cycles and how some isotopes can be used to place constraints on the timing of specific events in these cycles.
NOTE This course may not be offered every year. Please see Departmental website.
LEARNING HOURS 120 (36L;12S;12Lb;60P).

Requirements: Prerequisite CHEM 112 or permission of the Department.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 472  Economic Analysis Methods in Geological Engineering  Units: 3.00  

Cost, risk, and return characteristics of mineral exploration; introduction to economic evaluation; cash flow and time value concepts; discounted cash flow methods; mining taxation considerations; sensitivity and risk analysis techniques; exploration economics and strategies; evaluation of exploration projects; exploration planning issues.

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 235 and permission of the Department.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 475  Exploration and Environmental Geochemistry  Units: 3.00  

Rock-water interaction and element migration in near surface environments applied to environmental and exploration problems. Students learn field and analytical techniques, evaluate and interpret geochemical data, and design solutions related to geochemical hazards to human health, environmental impact of mining, and detection of mineral deposits.

Requirements: PRE geol365 and excl  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 478  Terrigenous Clastic Sedimentology  Units: 3.00  

Principles of sequence stratigraphy. Depositional processes, facies models, and sequence stratigraphy of fluvial, coastal, shelf, and deep-marine environments. Introduction to analysis of sedimentary basins.
NOTE This course may not be offered every year. Please see Departmental website.
LEARNING HOURS 130 (48L;10S;36Lb;36P).

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 238 or permission of the Department.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 479  Appl Geoph: Field&Elecmag Meth  Units: 3.00  

Advanced theory and practical considerations for static potential and time-varying electromagnetic fields as applied to near-surface prospecting and site-investigation. Implications of wide-ranging physical responses for technique selection and design, implementation, modelling and interpretation of an extended Earth system. Potential theory, rock physical properties, diffusive electromagnetic signals in the Earth, boundary-value problems, frequency and time-domain field systems, design limitations and advantages. (7/15/0/10/10)~ COURSE DELETED IN 2009/10 ~

Requirements: (MATH227 AND MATH338) OR (MATH227 AND GEOL319) OR (MATH227 AND MATH334) OR (MATH227 AND GEOL319)  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 481  Advanced Structural Analysis  Units: 3.00  

Applications of the principles of brittle and ductile deformation to the fabric analysis of rocks in the optimization of strategies for open-ended resource exploration, resource engineering, continental tectonics studies, and geotechnical engineering problems. Emphasis is on fracture, fault, and vein analysis; structures in fold and thrust belts and continental collision zones; and studies of superposed deformation and their impact on effective and economical mineral resource development.
NOTE This course may not be offered every year. Please visit Departmental website.
LEARNING HOURS 120 (24L;24Lb;12T;60P).

Requirements: Prerequisite GEOL 321 or permission of the Department.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 488  Geology of North America  Units: 3.00  

An advanced course discussing the principles of earth evolution as exemplified by North America. The holistic approach illustrates the way in which geodynamics, geochemistry, sedimentation, paleo-biology and oceanography are used to unravel the history of the continent.
LEARNING HOURS 120 (36L;36S;48P).

Requirements: Prerequisite (GEOL 107 and GEOL 235 and GEOL 238 and GEOL 249 and GEOL 300 and GEOL 321 and GEOL 365) or permission of the Department. Note GEOL 321 may be taken concurrently with permission of the Department.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 489  Appl Geoph: Seismic Methods  Units: 3.00  

Characterization, processing and interpretation of exploration seismic digital data for the oil and gas, and mineral industries. Vector waves; Green functions and diffraction; attenuation, anisotropy and poroelasticity of earth materials; geometrical rays; resolution limits and survey design; processing sequence design, data optimization, depth-model building of earth systems. Theory and practice of pre and post-stack migration, limitations and advantages; examples of partially and fully processed data, consequences of different processing design decisions. (5/0/0/30/7)~ COURSE DELETED IN 2009/10 ~

Requirements: (MATH227 AND MATH334) OR (MATH227 AND GEOL319) OR (MATH227 AND MATH338) OR (MATH227 AND GEOL319)  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 543  Research and Thesis  Units: 6.00  

Directed, independent research on geological problems. The thesis may be based on data or material collected during summer fieldwork or in the fall/winter around Kingston, on laboratory research, or using published data. Monthly tutorials will cover various aspects of literature review, writing skills and oral presentations. A seminar concerning the thesis topic will be presented at the end of Winter term.
NOTE An electronic copy of the final thesis, formatted to the supervisor's satisfaction, must be uploaded to Qspace. The supervisor may require one hardcopy.
LEARNING HOURS 258 (6L;12S;48I;192P).

Requirements: Prerequisite Level 4 or above and registration in a (GEOL Major or Specialization Plan) and a (GPA of 3.30 (obtained in any term) or a 'Pass' (obtained in Winter 2020) in 36.0 units in GEOL) and permission of the Department.  
Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 594  Independent Study  Units: 3.00  

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 595  Independent Study Program  Units: 6.00  

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 800  Foundations Of Geosciences  Units: 3.00  

The course will consist of three, seminar-based sections, each worth 1/3 of 0.5 credits:  (1) Principles of scientific methodology in the Geosciences: will provide an overview of the scientific method and tools for effective scientific communication. Professional practice and ethical aspects will also be discussed. (2) Mathematical methods for Geosciences: will provide a foundation in numerical methods and mathematical analysis. Topics include spatial statistics, probability, linear regression, and an introduction to numerical modeling techniques. (3) Experimental/Analytical Techniques in Geosciences: will provide an overview of analytical techniques and equipment available to geoscientists. Intended as an introduction to more advanced methods modules, this last section will provide a fundamental knowledge of the theory and operation of instruments and techniques available to members of our department. .

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 802  Graduate Field School  Units: 3.00  

Graduate field school held in several regions of the world consisting of field trips to selected areas of geological interest, emphasizing relationships between local and regional geological environments and their natural resources and hazards, in the context of the tectonic evolution of the area visited. Students are expected to research background on areas to be visited and must produce one or more substantial reports and present one or more seminars. Extra fees may apply to cover the cost of travel. Field excursions in the fall, winter and/or beginning of spring term.

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 803  Basin Analysis and Economics Deposits  Units: 1.50  

A review of the tectonic origin and filling of various types of sedimentary basins, followed by an examination of the diagenesis of siliciclastic, carbonate and rganic sediments, and the implications for the occurrence of hydrocarbons and mineral deposits. (1.5 credit units). Prerequisite: GEOL 238* or equivalent; GEOL 365* or equivalent

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 804  Focused Topics in Geological Engineering  Units: 1.50  

This course consists of a short and focused exploration of a pre-approved topic in engineering geology removed from the thesis research. The course may be hosted at Queen¿s or offsite under the co-supervision of the designated departmental instructor. Course delivery may vary from special lecture series to supervised field/lab course. Deliverables would include a self-directed report and presentation. Field trip fee may apply. (1.5 credit units). PREREQUISITE: Permission of the instructor.

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 805  Focused Topics in Applied Geology  Units: 1.50  

This course consists of a short and focused exploration of a pre-approved topic in applied geology removed from the thesis research. The course may be hosted at Queen's or offsite under the co-supervisor the designated departmental instructor. Course delivery may vary from special lecture series to supervised field/lab course. Deliverables would include a self-directed report and presentation. Field trip fee may apply. (1.5 credit units). PREREQUISITE: Permission of the instructor

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 806  Applications of Scanning Electron Microscopy and Microprobe Analysis  Units: 1.50  

The theory and practical aspects of the techniques of Scanning Electron Microscopy and the Electron microprobe. A project is required where the student employs these techniques to study a material of their choice. (1.5 credit units). PREREQUISITE: Permission of the instructor. EXCLUSION: GEOL 452

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 807  Applications of X-ray Powder Diffraction and Mineral Spectroscopy  Units: 1.50  

The theory and practical aspects of the techniques of X-ray powder diffraction and mineral spectroscopy. Techniques include Vis-infra-red spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and Mossbauer spectroscopy. A project is required where the student employs these techniques to study a material of their choice. (1.5 credit units). PREREQUISITE: Permission of the instructor. EXCLUSION: GEOL 452

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 808  Visualization in the Geosciences  Units: 1.50  

An introduction to 3d visualization of natural sciences data with a focus on methods relevant to geological engineering, mineral exploration, and geoscience research. Perception, representation, and analytical methods. Design tools and data integration methods. Temporal analysis of natural sciences data. LiDAR data analysis. Global and local models. Virtual worlds. (1.5 credit units). PREREQUISITE: GEOL/GEOE463 or GEOL 855 or Permission of the instructor

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 809  Mine Waste Geochemistry  Units: 1.50  

This course will expose students to the concepts and the current practice of mine waste management including acid mine drainage, neutral-pH metal leaching, secondary mineral precipitates, prediction and permitting, site remediation, etc. Those who complete this course will have a comprehensive understanding of the nature of mining environmental impact, the scientific principles behind the interaction between mine waste and the surface environment, and the tools (including speciation software) that professionals use to predict, control, remediate and regulate metal mining activities. (1.5 credit units). PREREQUISITE: Permission of the instructor EXCLUSION: GEOL 835

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 810  Microtectonics and orogenic systems  Units: 1.50  

Mechanisms of brittle and ductile deformation, strain, rheology, and deformation mechanisms applied to geological structures and rock fabrics, with an emphasis on microstructural development of fabrics, flow paths and vorticity analysis. Applications to problems in continental tectonics studies. (1.5 credit units). PREREQUISITE: Permission of the instructor EXCLUSION: GEOL 481, GEOL-816

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 811  Introduction to GIScience  Units: 1.50  

An overview of the major themes, approaches, and methods of geographic information science and related GIS software tools. Spatial analysis, fundamentals of cartography, and fundamentals of data management. Students will gain exposure at a level appropriate for effectively managing and using spatial data for graduate level projects. (1.5 credit units). PREREQUISITE: Permission of the instructor EXCLUSION: GEOL 463, GPHY 243

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 812  Resources and Sustainability  Units: 1.50  

This course addresses the major challenges of mineral exploration and mining industries in providing well-being for people and ecosystems; includes discussions of the global distribution of, and demand for, water, energy and mineral resources, and the major geological, technological, economic, environmental, social and governance issues. It involves 20 h of lectures and discussion of papers and it culminates with the presentation of comprehensive seminar and report by the participants. (1.5 credit units)

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 813  Rock Engineering Concepts And Case Histories  Units: 3.00  

Overview of development of rock engineering; discussion of acceptability criteria for engineering design; site characterization techniques and objectives; rockmass classification methodology and property determination; analysis of structural instability; assessment of stress; design of underground structures in weak rock; rock support design; risk management for rock engineering. Three term hour lecture, two hour tutorial. Fall. Instructor: D. Jean Hutchinson or M.S. Diederichs.  Not offered 2010-2011. 

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 815  Topics In Tectonics  Units: 3.00  

A seminar-based course focussing on advanced concepts in structural geology and Tectonics. Topics may include flow concepts applied to ductile deformation, description and interpretation of microstructural fabrics, subduction processes, fluid and faulting, modelling approaches to Tectonic problems, and exhumation processes of metamorphic rocks. Far field effects such as lithosphere rheology, climate, and erosion will also be discussed.

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 816  Advanced Structural Geology  Units: 3.00  

Mechanisms of brittle and ductile deformation applied to geological structures and rock fabrics. Emphasis is on structures in fold and thrust belts, fracture and vein analysis, and studies of superposed deformation. (Offered jointly with GEOL-481*, but extra assignments are given.)

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 817  Presenting Science  Units: 1.50  

This course covers key theoretical principles and practical applications for presenting science. Students will learn about different types of presentations and means for presenting scientific data based on their target audience. It should be emphasized that the "science" component of this course is also critically important and therefore students are expected to select their presentation topics according to their scientific discipline. (1.5 credit units) PREREQUISITE: Permission of the instructor.

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 822  Metallogeny In Mineral Explor.  Units: 3.00  

The major geological environments considered from a plate tectonic perspective, and their associated ore deposits: approaches to the definition of the characteristics of ore deposit types, with particular emphasis on the role of theories of ore genesis in defining geological criteria for area selection in mineral exploration. (May be offered jointly with GEOL-422*, depending on enrolment.)

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 824  Ore Deposits  Units: 6.00  

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 835  The Environ. Impact Of Mining  Units: 3.00  

This course will expose students to the concepts and the current practice of mine waste management including acid mine drainage, neutral-pH metal leaching, secondary mineral precipitates, prediction and permitting, site remediation, etc. Students who complete this course will have a comprehensive understanding of the nature of the environmental impact of mining on ecological and human health, the scientific principles behind the interaction between mine waste and the surface environment, and the tools that professionals use to predict, control, remediate and regulate metal mining activities.

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 838  Basin Analysis and Economic Deposits  Units: 1.50  

A review of the tectonic origin and filling of various types of sedimentary basins, followed by an examination of the diagenesis of siliciclastic, carbonate and organic sediments, and the implications for the occurrence of hydrocarbons and mineral deposits. PREREQUISITE: GEOL 238* or equivalent; GEOL 365* or equivalent

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 839  Geochemistry of Fluids Associated with Economic Ore Deposits  Units: 3.00  

Basic principles of litho- and aqueous-geochemistry. New principles involving stable and radiogenic isotope geochemistry will follow. The hydrologic cycle will be examined from a geochemical perspective, leading to discussion of hydrothermal fluids and ore deposits associated with hydrothermal alteration. Phase equilibrium, mineral stability, oxidation-reduction reactions, isotope geochemistry, and other characteristics of hydrothermal fluids. The origin and chemical compositions of magmatic and metamorphic fluids. (Portions of course given jointly with GEOL-465*.)

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 840  Problems In Geology  Units: 3.00  

An investigation of selected geological problems. Staff.

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 841  Geology And Geoeng Modules I  Units: 3.00  

A course unit composed of two modules on topics in the geological sciences and geological engineering. Each module will consist of a workshop, short course or extended field trip, as approved by the Department. The unit will be completed within two years. Specific modules during each academic year will be announced on the department's web site in September or, in exceptional circumstances, as opportunities arise. Modules taken for GEOL-851* are not eligible.

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 843  Problems In Geological Engr.  Units: 3.00  

An investigation of selected geological engineering problems. Staff.

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 847  Topics In Paleontology  Units: 3.00  

An investigation of selected paleontological problems. Seminar weekly plus a project and a major essay.   

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 849  Econ Guidelines-Explor Planing  Units: 3.00  

The course develops those evaluation skills which enable exploration geologists and engineers to translate their technical knowledge and expertise into economic planning criteria. Cost, risk, and return characteristics of mineral exploration; introduction to economic evaluation; cash flow and time value concepts; discounted cash flow methods; mining taxation consideration; sensitivity and risk analysis techniques; exploration economics and strategies; evaluation of exploration projects; exploration planning issues, financial statement analysis.

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 851  Geology And Geoeng Modules II  Units: 3.00  

A course unit composed of two modules on topics in the geological sciences and geological engineering. Each module will consist of a workshop, short course or extended field trip, as approved by the Department. The unit will be completed within two years. Specific modules during each academic year will be announced on the department's web site in September or, in exceptional circumstances, as opportunities arise. Modules taken for GEOL-841* are not eligible.

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 853  Methods Of Geol. Data Analysis  Units: 3.00  

A broad base of digital and analog methods will be used to examine the collection, correction, and analysis of geologic data. Field data collection using GPS and handheld computers will lead to a discussion of field data semantics, Geographic Information Systems technology, and the acquisition and distribution of data across the Internet. Manipulation of air photo and remotely sensed imagery will lead to a discussion of state of the art geologic sensing systems including Radar and Hyperspectral methods. The underlying theme of the labs and assignments will be the application of these techniques to resource and environmental assessment. (Offered jointly with GEOL-463*.)

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 859  Advanced Applied Geophysics  Units: 3.00  

This course emphasizes theory and practise of advanced applied geophysical methods and the applications in engineering and science. Design of geophysical surveys considering the intrinsic limitations and sources of uncertainty.
Prerequisites: GEOE319 or permission of the instructor.

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 862  Resources And Sustainability  Units: 3.00  

This course addresses the role of mineral exploration and mining industries in providing wellbeing for people and ecosystems; includes discussions of the global distribution of, and demand for, water, energy and mineral resources, and the major geological, technological, economic, environmental, social and governance issues. It culminates with the design of solutions based on sustainable management.

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 866  Isotopes And The Environment  Units: 3.00  

A course for advanced students in the fields of biology, chemistry, geography or geology in the principles of stable isotope and radiogenic isotope systematics in natural processes. Emphasis will be placed on the use of isotopes in tracing elemental cycles, biological cycles and hydrologic cycles and how some isotopes can be used to place constraints on the timing of specific events within these cycles. (Offered jointly with GEOL-466*.)

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 873  Applied Num. Analysis For Rock Engr.  Units: 3.00  

Course focuses on a comprehensive suite of numerical analysis techniques suited to geotechnical design of rock structures and analysis of rockmass stability in natural and engineered settings. Finite element, finite difference, discrete/distinct element and boundary element methods are all discussed with hands-on application workshops using state-of-the-art geomechanics software. Analytical models and pre- and post processing techniques suited to typical rock engineering problems are developed through assignments. Strength criteria and non-linear inelastic constitutive models for continuum plasticity, brittle fracture and discontinuum deformation are explored in detail. Projects involving real case histories are undertaken to highlight the application of and engineering judgment associated with numerical analysis for problems involving rockmasses.

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 875  Exploration and Environmental Geochemistry  Units: 3.00  

Principles of rock-water interaction and element migration in the near surface environment applied to environmental and exploration geochemistry. Students learn field and analytical techniques, evaluate and interpret geochemical data, and design solutions related to geochemical hazards to human health, environmental impacts of mining, and formulation of strategies for detecting mineral deposits. Field trip fee: $50
PREREQUISITE: Permission of the instructor
EXCLUSION: GEOL 475, GEOL- 865 and GEOL-885

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 878  Terrigenous Clastic Sediment.  Units: 3.00  

Detailed examination of depositional processes and external controls on the facies organization and sequence stratigraphy of fluvial, coastal, shelf and deep-marine environments. Introduction to sedimentary basin types. Required extended field trip during term. 

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 879  Satellite Geophysics  Units: 3.00  

Theory and application of observing geophysical fields from space-borne platforms. Orbital mechanics, signal propagation, uncertainty will be addressed. Current missions including radar and laser altimetry, gravimetry and magnetometry, and synthetic aperture radar. Applications in science and engineering (site investigation, geodynamics, ocean and ice, natural resources) through student projects.

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 882  Petrogenesis of Carbonate Rocks  Units: 3.00  

The alteration of carbonate sediments in different diagenetic environments leading to the formation of limestone and dolomite. Topics addressed will include biological and chemical modification, cementation, neomorphism, porosity evolution and karst. Emphasis to be on rock-water interactions as revealed through petrography as well as trace element and isotope geochemistry.

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 883  Carbonate Facies Dynamics  Units: 3.00  

Principles of carbonate facies models as derived from modern environments and ancient successions. Assessment of current trends in modelling and the temporal response of carbonate systems to intrinsic and extrinsic controls.

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 884  Satellite Positioning  Units: 3.00  

Principles and applications of space-based systems for geo-spatial data acquisition with particular focus on Global Navigation Satellite Systems and Geodetic Satellite Missions. Applications for small to mid-scale engineering problems and larger scale Earth monitoring systems.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of the instructor.

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 888  Geol. Evol. Of North America  Units: 3.00  

An advanced course discussing the principles of earth evolution as exemplified by North America. The holistic approach illustrates the way in which geodynamics, geochemistry, sedimentation, paleo-biology and oceanography are used to unravel the history of the continent. (Offered jointly with GEOL-488*.)

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 889  Exploration Seismology  Units: 3.00  

Theory of elastic waves and seismic processing methods. Application of seismic reflection and refraction methods to oil and gas exploration. Hands-on experience in seismic data processing using leading-edge software systems. PREREQUISITE: Permission of the instructor.

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 898  Master's Project  Units: 6.00  

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 899  Master's Thesis Research  Units: 6.00  

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 978  Topic In Clastic Sedimentology  Units: 3.00  

An investigation of selected problems related to sediment transport and deposition, environmental dynamics, external controls on sedimentation, and sequence stratigraphy of clastic sediments. Seminar weekly.

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science  
GEOL 999  Ph. D. Thesis Research  Units: 6.00  

Offering Faculty: Faculty of Arts and Science