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Research Prominence

SSHRC president visits Queen’s

Ted Hewitt met with researchers and students to discuss challenges and opportunities within the Canadian social sciences and humanities research landscape.

  • Ted Hewitt, President of SSHRC tours the Agnes Etherington Art Centre
    Ted Hewitt, President of SSHRC, centre, and Sandra den Otter, Associate Vice-Principal (Research and International), listen as Norman Vorano, Queen's National Scholar in Indigenous Art and Material Culture, describes one of the exhibitions at the Agnes. (University Communications)
  • Ted Hewitt, President of SSHRC, and Sandra den Otter, Associate Vice-Principal (Research and International), received a guided tour of Queen's Rembrandt at Agnes exhibit from Alicia Boutilier, Interim Director and Chief Curator at the Agnes.
    Ted Hewitt, President of SSHRC, and Sandra den Otter, Associate Vice-Principal (Research and International), received a guided tour of Queen's Rembrandt at Agnes exhibit from Alicia Boutilier, Interim Director and Chief Curator at the Agnes. (University Communications)
  • Ted Hewitt, President of SSHRC, attends a coffee and Q&A period hosted by Vice-Provost and Dean of the School of Graduate Studies, Fahim Quadir
    Ted Hewitt, President of SSHRC, attends a coffee and Q&A period hosted by Vice-Provost and Dean of the School of Graduate Studies, Fahim Quadir. Graduate students and post-doctoral fellows, including current SSHRC funding recipients, discussed their experiences navigating the Canadian research landscape. (University Communications)
  • Alicia Boutilier, Interim Director and Chief Curator at the Agnes, Tamara de Szegheo Lang, Post-Doctoral Fellow (Film and Media), Ted Hewitt, President of SSHRC, Sandra den Otter, Associate Vice-Principal (Research and International), Norman Vorano (Art History and Art Conservation).
    Providing a guided tour of the Agnes for Ted Hewitt, President of SSHRC, centre, were, from left: Alicia Boutilier, Interim Director and Chief Curator at the Agnes; Tamara de Szegheo Lang, Post-Doctoral Fellow (Film and Media); Sandra den Otter, Associate Vice-Principal (Research and International); and Norman Vorano (Art History and Art Conservation). (University Communications)
  • During his visit to Queen's Ted Hewitt, President of SSHRC met with an interdisciplinary group of researchers working on issues of AI and ethics.
    During his visit to Queen's Ted Hewitt, President of SSHRC met with an interdisciplinary group of researchers working on issues of AI and ethics. (University Communications)

Ted Hewitt, President, Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC) and Inaugural Chair, Canada search Coordinating Committee, visited Queen’s on Friday, Jan. 24. As part of his visit, Dr. Hewitt met with researchers and students, explored research spaces, and learned about the SSHRC-supported work being done at the university. He also sat down with the Gazette to chat about new SSHRC initiatives and how Queen’s is contributing to the advancement of research and research training in Canada. 

Q: For the past seven years, SSHRC has led the Imagining Canada’s Future Initiative. Tell us about the goals of this work.

A: This is a really good way to stimulate thinking about research and societal issues that are not only affecting us currently in Canada, but those that are coming down the road. It’s meant as a reflective exercise, to engage faculty, graduate students, researchers, university administrators, as well as decision-makers from private, public and community sectors in collective discussions on research. Not only are we thinking about areas of future importance, we are also addressing areas that are top of mind within our provincial and federal governments, including immigration, our environment, and the impact of digital technologies. The initiative gives us a great tool to bring together the best minds in our disciplines in order to shed light on issues and create dialogue to promote the value of the social sciences and humanities.

Q: Promoting and supporting Indigenous research is a key pillar for SSRHC and at Queen’s. Collectively, what are we, as a national research community, doing well? How can we continue to grow and learn?

Within the last 10 years, Indigenous research has grown, and now accounts for between eight and 12 per cent of the research we fund. We established an Indigenous research policy a few years ago that laid out some of the ground rules for how we would do this in the right way. We listened to members of our Indigenous Advisory Circle, we listened to the research community, and we were clear that in promoting Indigenous research we wanted to ensure that work is done by and with Indigenous peoples. And when these project proposals are submitted, we want them reviewed by panels that include First Nations, Inuit and Métis peoples. This new thrust in support of Indigenous-led research work has accelerated in the last couple of years since we’ve been working in tandem with the other councils.

Research at Queen's
Did you know that the university recently launched a new central website for Queen’s research? From in-depth features to the latest information on the university’s researchers, the site is a destination showcasing the impact of Queen’s research. Discover Research at Queen’s.

All three councils (CIHR, NSERC and SSHRC) have adopted similar principles based on an engagement exercise that lasted well over a year and involved engaging with First Nations, Inuit and Métis peoples, collectives and communities across Canada, and talking to Indigenous researchers and students in order to develop ways of better meeting Indigenous research and research training needs. And we’ve just released a strategic plan, Setting new directions to support Indigenous research and research training in Canada, which will guide our efforts to strengthen Indigenous research capacity still further. The new plan emphasizes building  relationships with First Nations, Inuit and Métis peoples; supporting their research priorities; creating greater funding accessibility to granting agency programs for Indigenous organizations and students; and championing Indigenous leadership, self-determination and capacity building in research.

Q: On your visit to Queen’s University you met with several different researcher groups representing different fields – from the creative arts and humanities to the health sciences and engineering. What does the future look like for interdisciplinary research in Canada?

A: It looks brighter than it did 10 years ago. Most researchers in Canada could be defined as disciplinary in terms of the work that they do, but we have started funding more interdisciplinary work and we are continually opening new opportunities to do just this. By offering more interdisciplinary funding opportunities, we are responding to a need while still maintaining a base that supports disciplinary research. There seems to be an increasing call and need for novel approaches to old problems, and to new problems, and we need to invest in combining disciplines in new ways that might help us to tackle specific issues in innovative and creative ways.

Q: What did you learn about the research happening at Queen’s? How does it align with the future vision of SSHRC?

The most remarkable part of my visit was the recognition that Queen’s researchers are working on issues aligned with the themes that we had previously discussed within the context of the Imagining Canada’s future initiative -- particularly around interdisciplinarity. With respect to AI for example, it wasn’t all robots and systems and computer science, it was the more philosophical, ethical, social issues that surround AI. I thought that was remarkable and it’s in line with what SSHRC has been saying about the need to include social science and humanities research from the beginning. Sooner or later everything in the world comes back to people and the best science in the world has been managed by humans, so it’s time to start talking to social scientists and humanists at the beginning. I saw evidence here at Queen’s that this integration is really happening, and I find that refreshing.

Working to improve Canada's mental health

Heather Stuart, the Bell Mental Health and Anti-Stigma Chair at Queen’s, has increased her focus on connecting people with resources.

Heater Stuart speaks about mental health to an audience in Mitchell Hall
Heather Stuart speaking about mental health to an audience in Mitchell Hall in 2019.

Every year on Bell Let’s Talk Day, it’s clear that the movement to end the stigma against mental illness has come a long way. It’s also a day when the Queen’s community can take pride in Heather Stuart, Bell Canada Mental Health and Anti-Stigma Chair, who has played a key role in this national movement.

Throughout her career, Dr. Stuart has committed herself to raising awareness about the damaging effects of stigma. While she’s still active on that front, she has also started taking on more projects that connect people with mental health resources.

“Over the past year and a half, my research has included more practical implementation than before. I’ve been working on ways to help people find the resources they need. While we still have work to do on stigma awareness, as a society we also need to think about what steps to take next,” says Dr. Stuart.

Supporting students and the military community

One of Dr. Stuart’s major projects over the past year has been a partnership with Queen’s, IBM, and the Department of National Defense. This project is creating an app to help members of the military address feel more comfortable addressing mental health concerns. When using this tool, military personnel and their families can have confidential, anonymous conversations with an AI interface. The AI will then make recommendations about next steps, including potential treatment options, such as recommending that someone consider approaching a mental health professional or their family doctor.

Dr. Stuart has also been actively working on supporting the mental health of post-secondary students. Along with Queen’s post-doctoral fellow Brooke Linden, she has been working to evaluate a tool that helps students develop resiliency. Called Surviving to Thriving, this pilot project provides students with a workbook that helps them identify mental health resources available to them. Surviving to Thriving was initiated by the Canada Life Assurance Company, which plans to spread the tool across Canadian universities.

With Bell and the Canadian Standards Association, Dr. Stuart has been part of a large team tasked with developing and evaluating voluntary standards for post-secondary student mental health. This will establish criteria that post-secondary institutions can adopt to ensure that they are meeting the wellness needs of their students. Dr. Stuart is on both the steering committee and the evaluation committee for this project.

Still challenging paradigms 

On top of her implementation work, Dr. Stuart is keeping up with her ongoing anti-stigma research. Recently, she has signed contracts to produce two books for Oxford University Press. One will be a collection that she is editing with a colleague from the University of Calgary. In this book, various contributors will reflect on the past ten years of anti-stigma work in Canada.

Her other book project is a sequel to her landmark study Paradigms Lost. Published in 2011, this book upended many common conceptions about stigma and how to fight it. Its sequel, Paradigms Lost and Paradigms Found, will explore what’s on the horizon for stigma reduction. 

Research @ Queen’s: Answering a global call for student mental health services

Queen's researcher Anne Duffy is addressing a global knowledge gap in understanding university student mental health needs.

[Illustration of students under a cloud]
Illustration by Gary Neill

Post-secondary institutions around the world take great pride in enhancing the talents of the best and brightest people that society has to offer, an undertaking that yields tangible benefits as graduates contribute back to that same society during the course of their careers. This prospect animates campus life with promise and excitement, representing the opportunity of a lifetime that is usually fondly remembered as a time of growth, learning, and fulfillment.

RESEARCH@QUEEN’S 
Did you know that the university recently launched a new central website for Queen’s research? From in-depth features to the latest information on the university’s researchers, the site is a destination showcasing the impact of Queen’s research. Discover Research@Queen’s.

Less fondly recalled may be those inevitable bumps in the road as students find their way, especially if they are living away from home for the first time. Some of the challenges are easily identified and addressed, such as learning to do laundry or shopping for groceries on a budget. Other issues may be more subtle. For example, young people who easily excelled in high school may find themselves surrounded by capable peers with whom they are evenly matched. This can lead them to question their abilities and even temporarily affect their sense of self. While most students build skills and develop resiliency as they settle into a new educational setting and phase of life, this period of social and academic transition can trigger self-doubt and anxiety that, for some students, can also compromise their long-term potential to succeed.

[Anne Duffy]
Dr. Anne Duffy (Psychiatry)
 

In fact, while late-adolescence and early-adulthood represent an important step toward more autonomy, new personal relationships, and the embrace of a broader perspective on life, it is also a time of heightened exposure to stress and risk. In the absence of support to help an individual stay on track, negative influences such as alcohol, drugs, or poor sleep habits can introduce mental health problems. As distress turns into the early stages of mental illness for some individuals, it does not discriminate on the basis of education or social status — it affects us all in one way or another.

Continue the story on the Research@Queen’s website.

Inspiring budding researchers

IGnite: Research Stories to Inspire Generations will feature talks on neutrinos, fundamental building blocks of the universe, and molecular interactions

[IGnite takes place on January 30, 2020]

Featuring topics from environmental solutions to gender policy, the IGnite lecture series has showcased the diversity of research happening at Queen’s to a captivated audience of campus and community members. On Thursday, Jan. 30 another lecture will take place on the topics of the underground search for neutrinos and the importance of molecular left- or right-handedness.

IGnite is a collaboration between the Arthur B. McDonald Canadian Astroparticle Physics Research Institute and the University Relations portfolio. Each event features two researchers from different fields discussing their projects and research experiences, while also including interactive demonstrations and poster presentations from students and additional researchers. The series offers a public platform where researchers can share what first ignited their curiosity and motivates them to pursue their research.

RESEARCH@QUEEN’S
Did you know that the university recently launched a new central website for Queen’s research? From in-depth features to the latest information on the university’s researchers, the site is a destination showcasing the impact of Queen’s research. Discover Research@Queen’s.

Mark Chen (Physics, Engineering Physics and Astronomy) holds the Gordon and Patricia Gray Chair in Particle Astrophysics and is a Fellow at CIFAR. At the SNOLAB, he leads the SNO+ project, repurposing for a new mission the research infrastructure once vital to Queen’s emeritus professor Art McDonald’s Nobel Prize-winning work. Dr. Chen will present on how SNO+ is exploring the nature of neutrino mass and oscillations while also searching for neutrinos generated on Earth called geoneutrinos. His research will help solve physics mysteries such as why the Earth has a “neutrino glow”.  

For Dr. Chen, curiosity is an important part of the research process.

“Asking simple questions, asking big questions – that’s what research is about,” he says. “I’m always delighted to talk about where curiosity has led us in our understanding of the world around us, and what questions we are still seeking answers to.”   

Canada Research Chair in Metal Organic Chemistry Cathleen Crudden (Chemistry) will present on the topic of molecular left- or right-handedness. Her research investigates how organic compounds interact with metals to develop new catalysts important to pharmaceutical and biosensor innovations. In understanding how carbon-to-metal bonds can be significantly more stable than metal-to-organic linkages, her research group focuses on films 100,000 times thinner than human hair and nanoscopically ordered particles. Understanding which "hand" a molecule uses can make all of the difference in whether they work as intended when interacting with certain materials.

The event will take place Thursday, Jan 30, 6:30-9 pm at the Kingston Frontenac Public Library Central Branch (130 Johnson St.).

Registration is free on Eventbrite and light refreshments will be served.

For more information on the series, visit the McDonald Institute’s website.

 

New internal funding for research

Queen's Vice-Principal (Research) launches Wicked Ideas Competition.

Wicked problems are issues so complex and dependent on so many factors that it is hard to grasp what exactly the problems are or how to tackle them. Wicked ideas are needed to solve these problems, and demand the input of multiple disciplines, multiple perspectives, and relevant practical expertise.

The Vice-Principal (Research) has launched the Wicked Ideas competition as a pilot initiative to fund and support research collaborations that respond to local, national, and global challenges. Aligned with the concept of the Government of Canada’s New Frontiers in Research Fund – Exploration program, the competition “seeks to inspire projects that bring disciplines together beyond traditional disciplinary or common interdisciplinary approaches by research teams with the capacity to explore something new, which might fail but has the potential for significant impact.” Along with both disciplinary and interdisciplinary funding streams, the competition offers a “global challenge” stream, featuring climate change as a global challenge area.  Teams of researchers are invited to submit notices of intent by Feb. 3, 2020.

“This funding is designed to remove some of the financial barriers to high-risk, high-reward research, allowing scholars to push the boundaries of knowledge into uncharted territory,” says Dr. Kent Novakowski, Acting Vice-Principal (Research). “I greatly look forward to hearing about some of the paradigm-shifting ideas that come out of this new exploratory opportunity.”

Up to 15 teams will be awarded $75,000 each in the first phase of the competition in spring 2020. The 15 teams then will be eligible to compete for one of an additional five awards of up to $150,000 in the 2021 Wicked Ideas competition. The competition is open to all Queen's faculty across all disciplines. Co-investigators and team members also must be Queen's faculty members.

This is just one of several internal funding programs that have been launched by the Vice-Principal (Research) recently.  Other programs include the Queen’s Research Opportunities Fund (QROF) Post-doctoral Fund, as well as the Catalyst Fund – designed to enhance areas of research excellence by giving scholars an opportunity to accelerate their research programs.

A revised Prizes for Excellence in Research competition, which has recognized scholarly achievement at Queen’s since 1980, is set to launch soon.

More information about all of these programs, including terms of reference, is available on the Vice-Principal (Research) website.

Bird droppings provide clues to environmental change

Queen's University researchers John Smol and Matthew Duda have identified concerning trends in a vulnerable seabird.

Led by Queen’s researchers, a collaborative research team of Canadian universities (Queen’s University, University of Ottawa, Memorial University of Newfoundland) and government scientists have identified concerning trends in the population size of Leach’s Storm-petrels, a vulnerable seabird that mainly lives on Baccalieu Island, 64 km north of St. John’s, Nfld.

The study led by Matthew Duda, and co-authored by John Smol, suggests that marine wildlife, including the Leach’s storm-petrel, are not only confronting a range of recent human-induced pressures, but are also responding to longer-term environmental factors.

A sediment core collected from Baccalieu Island. (Photo by Matthew Duda)

“The seabirds act as ‘environmental engineers’ by depositing large volumes of nutrient-rich feces and other refuse, thereby changing the aquatic and terrestrial landscape,” says Dr. Smol, a biology professor and the Canada Research Chair in Environmental Change at Queen’s University. “By taking sediment cores from storm-petrel impacted ponds, we can reconstruct past population trends going back centuries or millennia, where many important clues lay hidden.”

The researchers took advantage of the fact that storm-petrels build burrow nests on islands, often around freshwater ponds. Therefore, the ponds’ sediments preserve the effects of changes in the amounts of seabird fecal matter and provide a ‘history book’ of past changes in the environment.

Using a variety of biological and chemical indicators in dated sediment cores, the researchers could track changes in seabird populations going back more than 1,700 years.

Ongoing observations indicate that the seabird population has been declining in recent decades, but that striking changes have also occurred in the past, prior to human impacts.

“Our approach identified striking changes in the colony size of storm-petrels on Baccalieu Island," says Matthew Duda, Queen’s University doctoral candidate in the Paleoecological Environmental Assessment and Research Laboratory (PEARL). "First, we confirmed that the population has been declining since the 1980s. More surprisingly, however, we determined that the current colony underwent marked changes in the past, including rapid growth in the early-1800s. Furthermore, we identified an earlier colony about 1,500 years ago that declined without the influence of human stressors. So now in response to the ever-increasing pressure imposed by human activity, the situation is likely even more risky for this important oceanic bird.”

The authors caution that their paleoecological data further reinforce the fragility of seabird colonies and the critical need for evidence-based management.

The research was published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B.

A network of research excellence

  • Anna Panchenko is the Tier 1 CRC in Computational Biology and Biophysics
    Anna Panchenko, the Tier 1 CRC in Computational Biology and Biophysics, talks about how the CRC program allows her to focus on her research, gives her research visibility among her peers, and opens the door to collaborations.
  • Lindsay Morcom, is the Tier 2 CRC in Language Revitalization and Decolonizing Education
    Lindsay Morcom, the Tier 2 CRC in Language Revitalization and Decolonizing Education, discusses her research.
  • Heather Aldersey is the Tier 2 CRC in Disability and Inclusive Development;
    Heather Aldersey, the Tier 2 CRC in Disability and Inclusive Development, speaks at the first Canada Research Chair networking event.

In an effort to increase collaboration and create a greater sense of community, the Office of the Vice-Principal (Research) at Queen’s University hosted its first Canada Research Chair (CRC) networking event. Speaking at the event were new CRC chairholders Anna Panchenko, Lindsay Morcom, and Heather Aldersey, in an effort to highlight the diversity of research happening at the university.

“Collaborations are at the heart of science, they allow each one of us to see the big picture from different angles,” says Dr. Panchenko. “CRC events bring together CRC researchers from different fields, this opens tremendous possibilities for interactions and collaborations.”

Dr. Panchenko is the Tier 1 CRC in Computational Biology and Biophysics; Dr. Aldersey is the Tier 2 CRC in Disability and Inclusive Development; and Dr. Morcom is the Tier 2 CRC in Language Revitalization and Decolonizing Education.

Dr. Panchenko works in the field of cancer research and is studying how mutations arise in DNA and then spread throughout the body.

“These areas of study require new computational methods and techniques,” she explains. “My laboratory develops algorithms to understand cancer progression at the molecular level to come up with new targeted therapeutic strategies.”

The CRC program, Dr. Panchenko says, allows her to focus on her research, gives her research visibility among her peers, and opens the door to collaborations.

Queen’s currently is home to 46 CRC chairs and the university is taking part in a national effort to meet new equity and diversity targets amongst chairholders. The university has developed an action plan to identify potential barriers to equity and inclusion in the CRC program at Queen’s and specific actions to address them.

The Office of the Vice-Principal (Research) (OVPR) is responsible for ongoing monitoring and updating of this plan and, in concert with the Provost’s Office, Deans, and departments and units, ensuring that the it is successfully enacted.

“I believe diversity helps drive the progress in science and in the world,” says Dr. Panchenko. “Recognizing and acknowledging differences in views and opinions is a crucial step in scientific thinking, it allows scientists to overcome the confirmation bias.”

Mixing cannabis and pregnancy

New research from Queen's and Western universities show real risks associated with cannabis exposure during pregnancy.

A new study from researchers at Queen’s University and Western University is the first to definitively show that regular exposure to THC, the main psychoactive ingredient in cannabis, during pregnancy has significant impact on placental and fetal development. With more than a year since the legalization of recreational cannabis in Canada, the effects of its use during pregnancy are only now beginning to be understood.

The study, published today in Scientific Reports, uses a rat model and human placental cells to show that maternal exposure to THC during pregnancy has a measurable impact on both the development of the organs of the fetus and the gene expression that is essential to placental function.

“Marijuana has been legalized in Canada and in many states in the US, however, its use during pregnancy has not been well studied up until this point," says Queen's University associate professor David Natale (Obstetrics and Gynaecology). "This study is important to support clinicians in communicating the very real risks associated with cannabis use during pregnancy."

The researchers demonstrated in a rat model that regular exposure to a low-dose of THC that mimics daily use of cannabis during pregnancy led to a reduction in birth weight of eight per cent and decreased brain and liver growth by more than 20 per cent. The research team was also able to characterize how THC prevents oxygen and nutrients from crossing the placenta into the developing fetus.

"This data supports clinical studies that suggest cannabis use during pregnancy it is associated with low birth weight babies," says Western University associate professor Dan Hardy. "Clinical data is complicated because it is confounded by other factors such as socioeconomic status. This is the first study to definitively support the fact that THC alone has a direct impact on placental and fetal growth.”

The researchers point out that there are currently no clear guidelines from Health Canada on the use of cannabis in pregnancy and some studies have shown that up to one in five women are using cannabis during pregnancy to prevent morning sickness, for anxiety or for social reasons.

Research @ Queen’s: Starting a scintillating search

Over the last decade, SNO+ has taken advantage of a unique piece of research infrastructure and set out on a new mission.

Mark Chen
Mark Chen, the Gordon and Patricia Gray Chair in Particle Astrophysics, holds a photomultiplier tube (PMT). PMTs are very sensitive light detectors, capable of sensing single light photons and producing an electrical pulse that travels to the data acquisition electronics.

 

Like a beloved book or movie that you hope has a sequel, the most successful scientific projects cry out for a second act. That is just what has happened to the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO), which over the last decade has reinvented itself as SNO+, led by Mark Chen, the Gordon and Patricia Gray Chair in Particle Astrophysics, a project that has taken advantage of a unique piece of research infrastructure and set it on a new mission.

Continue the story on the Research@Queen’s website.

Who is stronger, David or Goliath?

New research from Queen’s University says the answer depends on your culture.

New research from Queen’s University has revealed the way people evaluate an opponent in a competition can be drastically different depending on cultures.

Li-Jun Ji, a professor in the Department of Psychology, and Albert Lee, a former Queen’s PhD student (now a professor at Nanyang Technological University), have found that people around the world decipher the appearance of their opponents in competitions in different ways. For many North Americans of European descent, an opponent is perceived as threatening when he or she shows signs of strength or advantages in appearance, such as looking powerful, strong, confident, intimidating, and so on.

For many people in Asia, such as the Chinese, an opponent is perceived as threatening when he or she shows no sign of strength. It is not a tough-looking opponent that the Chinese would fear, but an opponent who looks ordinary or weak.

“We are borrowing on the story of Goliath (a gigantic, mighty-looking warrior) and David (a small, weak-looking shepherd) from the Bible,” says Dr. Ji. “So, if we ask people ‘Who do you watch out for in a tournament, Goliath or David?’ our research suggests that the answer depends. If you were a Canadian or American of European descent, you tend to fear Goliath. If you came from a Chinese background, you tend to fear David.”

Dr. Ji explains such cultural differences can be explained by the differences in philosophical stances between Western and Eastern cultures. Grounded in many schools of Eastern philosophy is the principle that appearance is misleading. This principle, however, is much less apparent in the Western philosophical traditions.

The new research translates into everyday life as we are often competing with others for a goal.

“We could be competing with others for a spot in hiring, a medal at a sporting event or a slice of the market if we are working in business,” Dr. Lee says. “From this angle, I believe that an average person would benefit from knowing a little more about the role culture plays in how people behave and think, especially in situations involving head-to-head encounters among people.”

The next steps of the research include broadening the scope to other areas of life, such as situations that are not competitive in their nature, but they still require people to make judgments based on appearance. The team of the researchers are also interested in investigating whether people from different cultures would choose to present themselves in different ways, especially in competitive settings.

The research was published in Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.

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