Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures

DEPARTMENT OF

Languages, Literatures and Cultures

DEPARTMENT OF

Languages, Literatures and Cultures

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Languages, Literatures and Cultures (LLCU)

All LLCU courses provide students with valuable transferable skills (communication, critical thinking, analysis, interpretation, argument) for further study or career possibilities. You can take LLCU courses towards LLCU major, as electives, as option courses in your Plan (please consult the Academic Calendar) or as concept courses in the World Language Studies minor. Many LLCU courses and INDG 301 count towards Indigenous Studies minor.

INDG Courses

Course Title Description
INDG 301/3.0 Indigenous Ways of Knowing

INDG 301 001: Hip Hop as Reclamation

This course will look briefly at a history of hip hop in the United States to Indigenous-Black solidarity movements and the proliferation of Indigenous hip hop’s multiple forms today. For many, hip hop is a way to connect to culture, history, politics, confidence, and alternative ways of communicating that importantly shift how we are building the future.

INDG 301 002: Indigenous Migration and Urbanization
This course surveys the changing spatial dynamics of Indigenous-settler relations with a particular focus on the Canadian experience. Themes include: the relationship between Indigenous peoples and urban space; the causes and consequences of Indigenous migration; and the building of urban Indigenous communities. 

INDG 301 003: Anishinaabe Philosophy and Thinking Critically About Current Affairs
In 2006, Dale Turner published This Is Not a Peace Pipe: Towards a Critical Indigenous Philosophy wherein he detailed a new role for Indigenous academics: the Word Warrior. The Word Warrior is an Indigenous academic who acts like a translator of sorts between communities and colonial institutions, learning the jargon and vernacular of both groups. Word Warriors enter colonial institutions to learn any discipline and attempt to build some understanding between Indigenous knowledges and colonial knowledges. The major struggle of the Word Warrior is academia and classrooms are still heavily colonized to the point where only some knowledges are allowed within and all other knowledges are deemed inferior or useless. In this course, we will learn some Anishinaabe ways of knowing, possible ways of decolonizing academia, and the role of the Word Warrior. Exploring current events such as indigenizing/decolonization of classrooms/academia, Indigenous resistance groups, and the political climate post-federal election, we will consider how the Word Warrior will play a pivotal role for all current events inside and outside academia. Students will form groups (size TBD) and work together on a final presentation and paper. To help the creation of the final project, students will write 10 weekly reflections and submit a midterm report including an annotated bibliography, an abstract, and a division of labour.

INDG 301 004: Indigenous Literature and Creative Writing
For the course INDG 301/3.0 we will be approaching Indigenous Literature and Creative writing using a contemporary lens while observing Canadian Indigenous poetics and narratives. By using these texts as a learning tool, we can blend our own writing within the classroom creatively in order to include in-class writing assignments, leading to a final paper which can either be research-based or a Creative writing piece, using elements learned within the course. We will be using a discussion/conversation style, without PowerPoint in order to keep the creative energy in the course as a main component toward the final paper. Rather than a final exam, an oral presentation of the students writing will take place. 

 

 

LLCU Courses

Course Title Description
LLCU 101/3.0 Beginning Language and Culture I Offers a basic level of understanding, speaking, reading and writing for students with no knowledge of the language. 
LLCU 102/3.0 Beginning Language and Culture II Continuation of LLCU 101/3.0: offering a basic level of understanding, speaking, reading and writing in the language.
PREREQUISITE LLCU 101/3.0 in same language.
LLCU 110/3.0

Linguistic Diversity and Identity

This course explores the diversity of human languages, and the nature of linguistic identity across and within speech communities from a linguistics perspective. Topics that will be covered include: language families; linguistic typology; writing systems; language endangerment and revitalization; and situations of language contact, bilingualism,and sociolinguistic variation.

LLCU 111/3.0

Introduction to Cultures

The course offers an overview of the theoretical framework behind the study of Intercultural Communication and proposes practical applications of these theories, including in-class guest speakers and a 4-session workshop on Intercultural Competence by the Queen's University International Centre (QUIC). Students will obtain a Certificate by QUIC.

LLCU 200/3.0 Semiotics: Interpreting the World Semiotics is the discipline that studies signs and how these participate in creating meaning and communication. This course focuses on the theoretical system on which semiotic analyses is based (F. de Saussure, C. Peirce, R. Barthes, and others) and will be devoted to various subject areas such as literature, art, film, theatre, and other fields.
PREREQUISITE Level 2 or permission of the Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures.
LLCU 201/3.0 Introduction to Romance Philology This course aims at familiarizing students from diverse programs with some of the fundamental concepts of Romance Philology. The analysis of the first literary and non-literary documents of the Romance languages will be a fundamental part of the course together with the understanding of the evolution of Latin into Vulgar Latin and its differentiation into Romance languages. Particular attention will be paid to Spanish, Italian, and French.
LLCU 205/3.0 The Cultures of a Nation This course will introduce major themes and concepts in the cultures of a specific nation with an emphasis on understanding and examining the important social, historical and cultural contexts of the country and its people.  Topics may include art, film, economy, religion, and politics.
PREREQUISITE Level 2 or permission of the Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures.
LLCU 206/3.0 Rebel Cities

This course examines cities from a cultural perspective, focusing through film to see how different urban spaces have, at different moments in time, been incubators of great social changes. It seeks to understand why, when, and with what result such upheavals occur.

PREREQUISITE: Second year standing or permission of the Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures.

LLCU 207/3.0

Representations of Business in the Movies

How are businesses and business people represented in film? This course draws from a range of international films to analyze how business at different levels of development in different places in the world is represented on screen. It asks why Hollywood and other film industries seem to heroize and demonize their usually male, White entrepreneurs. And it asks how such depictions matter.

PREREQUISITE: Second year standing or permission of the Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures.

LLCU 209/3.0

Rio de Janeiro: the Marvelous City (on-line)

Known internationally for its carnival, soccer, tropical beach life, musical rhythms, and tourism, the city of Rio de Janeiro has been the quintessential postcard image of Brazil for much of the twentieth century. At the same time, the city is also infamously known for its social inequalities exemplified by pockets of extreme affluence alongside massive shantytown communities (favelas), homeless youth (meninos e meninas de rua), and ongoing violent confrontations between police and drug gangs. In many ways, the city embodies the idea that Brazil is a land of contrasts. This course goes beyond the typical representations of Rio de Janeiro to provide students with an understanding of the complex social, political, economic, and cultural history that have shaped the city’s development and character.
LLCU 210/3.0 Italy and the Classical Tradition The ancient Greek and Roman tradition in literature, art and the politics of Italy from the Middle Ages to the 18th century. Texts and works of art will be studied in the context of the historical, cultural and political settings of Italy.
PREREQUISITE Level 2 or permission of the Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures.
LLCU 213/3.0

The Social History of Organized Crime in Canada

Students will analyze and understand the most important forms of organized crime present in Canada. Its history and evolution are defined, in an attempt to interpret the relationship between major criminal organizations and economic, social, cultural, political, and demographic changes, both domestically and internationally

PREREQUISITE: Second year standing or permission of the Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures.

LLCU 214/3.0 Mafia Culture and the Power of Symbols, Rituals and Myth The course will analyze the cinematic representation of the Mafia and other criminal organizations, such as Yakuza, Triads, Vory V Zakone.  The course will focus on how North American cinema (Hollywood) often glorifies the mafiosi's lifestyle. As this characterization of the Mafia and Mafiosi began with the archetypal figures of the bosses, special attention will be given to movies of the 1930s and to Francis Ford Coppola’s Godfather trilogy.  The goal is the deconstruction of the romantic portrayal of the gangster life style created on the silver screen and analyses of the atrocities committed by organized crime groups.
LLCU 215/3.0 Dante A study of Dante Alighieri’s life and poetry, especially the Vita Nuova and the Divine Comedy.
PREREQUISITE Level 2 or permission of the Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures
LLCU 226/3.0 Italian Literature and the Cinema Addresses the various issues relating to the film adaptation of a literary text. The reading of narrative texts, the viewing of films and critical readings are required.
PREREQUISITE Level 2 or permission of the Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures.
LLCU 232/3.0 From the Romantics to D’Annunzio The course will focus on the study of Italian Romanticism and its relation to English, German, Spanish and French Romanticism. The rise of Realism and Decadentism will also be discussed and examined.
PREREQUISITE Level 2 or permission of the Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures.
LLCU 233/3.0 Survey of Italian Literature I A survey of Italian literature, through selected texts of representative authors, from the Middle Ages to the eighteenth century.
PREREQUISITE Level 2 or permission of the Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures.
LLCU 234/3.0 Survey of Italian Literature II A survey of Italian literature, through selected texts of representative authors, from the eighteenth century to present.
PREREQUISITE Level 2 or permission of the Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures.
LLCU 244/3.0

Hips Don't Lie?: Music and Culture in Latin America

This survey course explores key aspects of Hispanic history and culture in the twentieth century through the study of its musical production. We will study notions of race, class, gender, and national identity by focusing on specific musical genres.

PREREQUISITE: Second year standing or permission of the Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures.

LLCU 247/3.0 The Dynamic History of Spain This course covers the most significant political, historical, and artistic events and people that have shaped Spanish civilization from prehistoric times to the present. Students will acquire essential knowledge about one of Europe’s most dynamic countries and at the same time improve their analytical, writing, and professional skills.
PREREQUISITE Level 2 or permission of the Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures.
LLCU 248/3.0 Spanish American Cultural Contexts This survey course covers a vast area, several cultures, and many centuries. Students are expected to develop a general understanding of Spanish American culture through an examination of important historical, social, political, economic, and artistic developments in the area.
PREREQUISITE Level 2 or permission of the Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures.
LLCU 249/3.0

Latin Lovers: Love, Sex and Popular Culture

The course explores the emergence, development, and criticism of the Latin Lover figure in the West, from the creation of the archetypical Don Juan in the seventeenth-century to contemporary Hollywood representations of Italian and Latin-American lovers

Only offered online. Consult Continuing and Distance Studies
PREREQUISITES: Level 2 or permission of the Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures.

LLCU 257/3.0 Pirandello's Theatre An in-depth study of Pirandello’s most important dramatic works, together with analysis of his theoretical essays on theatre. Particular attention will be paid to the following plays: Six Characters in Search of an Author; Each in his Own Way, Henry IV, The Feast of Our Lord of the Ships, The New Colony; Tonight We Improvise and The Mountain Giants.
PREREQUISITE Level 2 or permission of the Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures.
LLCU 270/3.0 Contemporary Events and Indigenous Cultural Politics  An interdisciplinary analysis of contemporary events and Indigenous cultural politics, with a focus on how Indigenous writers, filmmakers, artists, and community members participate in and recount defining moments. Indigenous knowledges and epistemologies are mobilised to foster a critical understanding of core questions put forward by events.
REREQUISITE    Level 2 or above.
EXCLUSION    No more than 3.0 units from LLCU 270/3.0; LLCU 295/3.0-002 (2017-18). 
LLCU 295/3.0

Special Topics

Section 001: Cultural Ecology: Ecological Culture (Fall 2019)

This course will introduce students to the world of the environmental humanities through a critical exploration of some of the formative theoretical and literary texts of the fields of cultural ecology, ecocriticism, ecofeminism, and the so-called “post-humanities”.  Questions to be investigated will include: How do people in different cultural and ecological contexts understand the human place in nature? How is environmental change conceptualized and confronted within cultural frameworks of understanding and practice in everyday life? How do non-human others enter into and influence cultural knowledge, practices and behaviours?   Finally, whereas the field of cultural ecology asks how environments influence human culture, in the context of inexorable human impact on globally interconnected ecologies (the anthropocene), a new question must be asked. How can humans foster ecological cultures, cultures of co-existence, interdependence, and sustainability?

Each session of the course will include lectures and small discussion and collaboration groups. Assignments will include weekly reading commentaries (written or oral) and three short essays, with an option for a collaborative workshop or event-based final project.

Section 002: Cultural Diplomacy (Fall 2019)

This course focuses on the theories, histories, and practices of Cultural Diplomacy: the processes through which state and non-state actors mobilize culture and cultural practices to advance specific narratives, support political and economic agendas, and create lasting relationships between peoples. Cultural diplomacy has traditionally been understood by scholars and practitioners as an instrumental practice whereby governments and state-based actors support or direct intercultural relations to achieve specific economic and political outcomes. However, the state-based diplomacy associated with the Cold War period has now, in the global era, shifted to a “networked” environment within which a variety of actors undertake diplomatic work with a focus on intercultural dialogue, horizontal communication, and the multidirectional movement of information. Scholars increasingly recognize the importance of the so-called “new” diplomats: the non-state actors, including cultural institutions, museums, artists, cultural workers, activists, non-profit organizations, and non-governmental organizations, who participate in cultural diplomacy and intercultural relations work both in collaboration with and independently from traditional state-based actors. These non-state actors are not necessarily “new” to the scene of diplomacy; they have in fact always existed alongside states and governments, contributing to the work of politicians and diplomats by creating narratives, symbols, and signifying systems that are utilized by states for political purposes. As Paul Bové (2002) explains, these non-state actors “mak[e] available as a knowledge form [the] symbolic systems [which] politicians and state players can manipulate and deploy” (208). Drawing from the fields of cultural studies, international relations, global studies, museum studies, history, and media studies, this course consists of a mixture of lectures, seminar-style discussions, group activities, workshops, and guest speakers. Students will be assessed through three in-class tests and two short written assignments.

Section 001: Introduction to Sociocultural Anthropology (Winter 2020)

This course will offer students a broad introduction to the field of sociocultural anthropology, covering the major topics and methods that anthropologists use to understand the diversity of cultures, forms of social organization, and ways of knowing around the world. Anthropology is broadly defined as "the study of humans", and cultural anthropologists contribute to our understanding of human life by examining the diversity of ways that contemporary human societies are organized and understand their place in the world. Topics to be covered include economics, politics, religion, and identity (race, gender, sexuality), and emphasis will be placed on the contributions that anthropology can make to understanding the most important social issues of our time. The course will consist of a mixture of lectures, seminar-style discussions, and group activities. Students will be assessed through two tests, as well as through a choice of written assignments (either one research paper or a series of shorter assignments throughout the term). 

Section 002: Semiotics of Arts (Winter 2020)

A broad-ranging introduction to the role the arts play in human society through the study of the unique and particular sign systems that make up what is considered an artistic production. Through the semiotics lens, students will explore how words and other signs produce meaning in art and, in contrast to, how or if, these signs’ meanings differ in non-artistic endeavors. Through a series of readings, students will engage with arts' philosophical and abstract being and the practices that are embedded in cultures, politics and identities when creating a work of art. Paintings, sculptures, narratives, storytelling and other art forms will be studied and discussed in the classroom both synchronically and diachronically.

Lecture format; students will be assessed through three in-class tests and a short written assignment.

 

PREREQUISITE: Second year standing or permission of the Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures.

LLCU 301/3.0 Oral Tradition and Innovation in Cultural Transmission An examination of traditional and innovative forms of oral cultural transmission in a selection of American, African and European contexts with particular focus on the interaction of narrative and technology.
PREREQUISITE Level 3 or permission of the Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures.
LLCU 302/3.0

Unsettling: Indigenous Peoples & Canadian Settler Colonialism

An intersectional/interdisciplinary approach to the analysis of, and possible alternatives to, Canadian settler colonialism. Primacy given to indigenous voices/theories/ methods related to the history of indigenous lands and associated traditions/identities, the course focuses on the theory/practice of 'unsettling' the settler colonial societies.
PREREQUISITES: DEVS 220/3.0 or DEVS 221/3.0.

LLCU 303/3.0 Applied Intercultural Communication This course examines the main concepts of intercultural communication;identifies the obstacles for successful intercultural communication, and explores strategies for overcoming these barriers.Students apply their conceptual understanding as well as their language skills to real‐world situations as part of the applied portion of the course.
PREREQUISITE: Level 3 and LLCU 111/3.0.

 

LLCU 308/3.0 From Fellini to Benigni This course will examine social, historic and political realities of the twentieth century through the lens of the unique Italian humorist tradition of film making. The course will focus on films by F.Fellini, L.Comencini, E.Scola, G.Tornatore, G.Salvatores, N.Moretti, R.Benigni and other film makers.
PREREQUISITE Level 2 or permission of the Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures.
LLCU 309/3.0 The Films of Pedro Almodóvar Students will view and analyze a selection of Almodóvar’s films within the context of Spain and other countries. The study of gender, sexual, cultural and societal identity and other fundamentals of contemporary theory will be central to this course.
PREREQUISITE Level 3 or permission of the Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures.
LLCU 316/3.0 Introduction to Contemporary Literary Theory and Analysis An introduction to contemporary literary theories and the analysis of Hispanic texts from reader-, structural-, and author-oriented perspectives.
PREREQUISITE Level 3 or permission of the Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures.
LLCU 319/3.0 Roots of Fascism: Resistance to Liberalism in the 19th Century A survey of various currents of thought from 19th-century Europe that illustrate conservative discomfort with industrial society and help to make the outbreak of fascism understandable after 1918. The course will distinguish between conservative, nationalist, aesthetic, and religious trends, illustrated by relevant readings from different countries.
PREREQUISITE Third year standing of permission of the Department of Languages, Literatures, and Cultures.
LLCU 320/3.0 Fascism in Europe from Napoleon to Hitler An introduction to the growth of the fascist mentality in Europe from a cultural perspective. The course will treat the Third Reich as part of the broader conservative and nationalist challenge to liberalism.
NOTE Administered by the Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures.
PREREQUISITE Level 2 or above.
LLCU 322/3.0 Conflict and Culture: Literature, Law, and Human Rights An examination of international discourses on conflict and resolution, including theories of reconciliation, human rights, and international law, as portrayed in various media (fiction, theatre and film) and diverse cultural contexts (e.g. ancient Greece, Germany, South Africa and Canada [indigenous settler relations]).
PREREQUISITE Level 2 or permission of the Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures.
LLCU 326/3.0 Film in the New Europe European film is our starting point for investigating the connections between work and art. Topics include: urban space; (post- and para-); socialist societies; border crossings, especially gendered labour and cultural flows. This course will investigate how the new Europe and film shape each other.
PREREQUISITE Level 2 or permission of the Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures.
LLCU 327/3.0 Sickness and Health – Cultural Representations in Medical Discourse The course investigates German cultural images and metaphors of disease, with an emphasis on the evolution of normalcy. We will study representations of disease (photography, museum exhibit, literary text), their historic development, and theories of media with respect to both historical and contemporary notions of sickness and health.
PREREQUISITE Level 2 or above or permission of the Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures.
LLCU 328/3.0 Gender, Development and Film in Latin America This course will explore major themes of development in relation to gender in Latin America through its manifestation in film. Films will be chosen from all regions of Latin America, including Brazil.
PREREQUISITE Level 3 or permission of the Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures
LLCU 329/3.0 Uncanny Encounters: Narrative Analysis of the Fantastic Genre This course offers an overview of the related genres of the Fantastic, the Fairy Tale, Dystopia, Science Fiction, and Horror. Examples will include popular works such as the Twilight Saga, Harry Potter, and/or The Hunger Games, but also traditional texts by Hoffman and Kafka. Parallel to the fictional works, the course offers theoretical analysis.
PREREQUISITE Level 3 or permission of the Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures
LLCU 330/3.0 Cervantes I: Earlier Works A study of Don Quijote I and a selection of his short theatrical Interludes. The course will consider the socio-economic and historical context and the literary implications of these works to provide a better understanding of 17th century Spain and the significance Cervantes' works still hold today.
PREREQUISITE Level 3 or permission of the Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures.
LLCU 331/3.0 Cervantes II: Later Works In this course students will study Don Quijote II and a selection of novellas from Cervantes' Exemplary Novels. The course will consider the socio-ecomonic and historical context and the literary implications of the continuation of Don Quijote I to provide a better understanding of 17th century Spain and the significance Cervantes' works hold today.
PREREQUISITE LLCU 330/3.0 or permission of the Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures
LLCU 332/3.0 Spanish Baroque Short Theatre Short theatre played an important role in the theatre of Spanish Golden Age. In this course students will study the literary particularities of the genre and the social ramifications of the themes present in short theatre (gender, battle of the sexes, diversity, authority amongst others) and their historical and contemporary relevance.
PREREQUISITE Level 3 or permission of the Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures.
LLCU 333/3.0

Acting Out: Sexual and Gender Subversion in Baroque Theatre

Baroque playwrights took full advantage of the actor Juan Rana's well-known queerness to subvert implicitly and explicitly the social norms of sexual and gender identity still questioned today. Course will examine Spanish Baroque short theatre in general and historically contextualize its subversion of social, sexual, gender and patriarchal norms
PREREQUISITE:Level 3 or permission of the Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures.

LLCU 339/3.0 XX-Century Italian Playwrights: In Search of the Theatre Investigate the life and works of 20 internationally renowned Italian playwrights (including two Nobel Prize winners Luigi Pirandello and Dario Fo) in a philosophical, political, social, and historical context. Particular emphasis will be given on the aesthetic solutions proposed by the playwrights to deal with the new realities of the 21st-Century.
PREREQUISITE Third year standing or permission of the Department of Languages, Literatures, and Cultures.
LLCU 340/3.0 European Romanticism The course will focus on the major trends of European Romanticism, mainly English, French, German and Italian. A comparison of both the 'poetics' together with a comparative analyses poems will serve as the backbone of the course.
PREREQUISITE Level 3 or permission of the Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures.
LLCU 354/3.0 Women’s Voices in Latin America  A study of recent contributions to Latin American cultural production by women, including an overview of gender issues and the role women have played in their nations’ history. The course will also explore the variety of voices that make up the cultural production of women in Latin America in terms of class, ethnicity, race, and sexual orientation.
NOTE    Readings are in translation.
PREREQUISITE    Level 3 or above.
EXCLUSION    No more than 3.0 units from LLCU 354/3.0; SPAN 354/3.0. 
LLCU 358/3.0 Film and Politics in Argentina  This course will examine critically a variety of representative Latin American films from a historical and filmic perspective. Beginning with the Peron era in the 1940s and 50s, and continuing through the dictatorship years of 1976 to 1983 and its aftermaths, we will examine how Argentine filmmakers express national reality and identity.
NOTE    Films and readings are in translation.
PREREQUISITE    Level 3 or above.
EXCLUSION    No more than 3.0 units from LLCU 358/3.0; SPAN 458/3.0. 
LLCU 370/3.0 Indigenous Women and Power  This course presents an interdisciplinary examination of Indigenous women and power through the lens of Indigenous scholars, writers, filmmakers, artists, and activists. Close reading methodologies are used to examine what it may mean for Indigenous women, including girls and LGBTQ2S+, “to reclaim their power and place.”
PREREQUISITE    Level 3 or above. 
LLCU 432/3.0 Field Research Practicum at Fudan University Provides students with an opportunity to conduct field research under the guidance of a Fudan instructor. Queen's students are paired with Fudan counterparts and undertake research on an important development/cultural theme, submit a written paper and do a class presentation. The research project will involve at least 10 hours of field work per week for 12 weeks. Fall Term.
NOTE This course is part of a Study Abroad program in Shanghai, which will require students to pay a program fee to cover costs over and above tuition, as well as travel, accommodation and subsistence. Further details of the estimated costs can be obtained from the Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures.
PREREQUISITE Departmental approval in advance from the course instructor and the Placement Coordinator, Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures.
LLCU 495/3.0 Special Topics I Special topics. For detailed information, consult the Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures.
PREREQUISITE Level 3 or permission of the Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures.
LLCU 501/3.0

Directed Readings in Languages, Literatures and Cultures

This course enables a student or a group of students to explore a body of literature on a selected topic in Languages, Literatures and Cultures. The focus may be by theme, by region or by academic approach and can span the humanities, social sciences and environmental sciences.