Multiculturalism Policies in Contemporary Democracies

Multiculturalism Policies

in Contemporary Democracies

Multiculturalism Policies

in Contemporary Democracies

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This annual dataset includes a score for each MCP policy for immigrants in each country from 1960 to 2011. The data identifies the precise year in which a country adopted and/or retrenched each MCP. It also includes the year of adoption of each MCP in countries such as Canada and Australia, which introduced such policies prior to 1980. 

This dataset was compiled by Dr. Daniel Westlake for his doctoral dissertation research at the University of British Columbia. We are very grateful to him for sharing this data with the wider research community.  

  • Individual policy adoption over time annual data graph
  • Multiculturalism Policy Adoption over time annual data graph
    NOTE: “This graph groups the eight items in the MCP Index into three clusters: Recognition (affirmation; school curricula; media), Accommodation (dual citizenship; dress codes) and Support (funding, bilingual education, affirmative action).


Table 1: Multiculturalism Policy Index for immigrant minorities: annual data

These annual scores are based on the decision rules set out in the original evidence document: “Multiculturalism Policy Index: Immigrant Minority Policies: Revised Edition, by Erin Tolley, with revisions by Madison Vonk (2011; 2016). The evidence supporting the year of adoption/retrenchment is set out in the document entitled “Evidence: Annual Scores.” 

Table 1 Excel [36 KB]


EVIDENCE: Annual Scores

This data set extends the original Multiculturalism Policy Index for Immigrant Minorities in two ways. First, it fills in the years between the 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2010 scores that the Banting/Kymlicka index includes. The data set scores countries on a year by year basis, identifying the year in which a country adopted a particular multiculturalism policy and any years in which retrenchment on that policy occurred. Second, this data set goes further back historically, including scores from 1960-2011.

Evidence Document PDF [823 KB]