Multiculturalism Policies in Contemporary Democracies

Multiculturalism Policies

in Contemporary Democracies

Multiculturalism Policies

in Contemporary Democracies

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Decision Rules for Ranking Multiculturalism Policies for Immigrant Minorities

In evaluating multiculturalism policies related to immigrant minorities, this paper uses eight indicators. These are described briefly below. For each indicator, policy documents, program guidelines, legislation, government news releases and secondarysources were examined to assess the extent to which a country has met or exceeded the standard outlined in the indicator. In federal states, we focus on the national level, unless the national level does not have jurisdiction, in which case look at the state/provincial level. In cases where jurisdiction is shared, we focus on the national level when national legislation sets the basic policy parameters for a country-wide policy, leaving detailed design and administration to the states/provinces. In cases when both levels of government have jurisdiction and national legislation governs only in the federal domain and is not determinative for the state/provincial level, we consider the scope of national versus state/provincial programs, making a decision on a case-by-case basis. For each indicator, a quantitative score is provided (see Table 1), along with a qualitative assessment and relevant evidence (see pages 7–109). Note that the following decision rules guided the evaluation of each indicator.

  1. CONSTITUTIONAL, LEGISLATIVE OR PARLIAMENTARY AFFIRMATION OF MULTICULTURALISM AT THE CENTRAL AND/OR REGIONAL AND MUNICIPAL LEVELS AND THE EXISTENCE OF A GOVERNMENT MINISTRY, SECRETARIAT OR ADVISORY BOARD TO IMPLEMENT THIS POLICY IN CONSULTATION WITH ETHNIC COMMUNITIES
    Yes:
    Country has affirmed multiculturalism and has an implementing body.
    Limited:
    Country has not affirmed multiculturalism explicitly, but has a relevant body; multiculturalism may also have been affirmed in some municipalities, but not nationally.
    No:
    Country has not affirmed multiculturalism and does not have an implementing body.
  2. THE ADOPTION OF MULTICULTURALISM IN THE SCHOOL CURRICULUM
    Yes:
    Country has included multiculturalism in its curriculum
    Partially:
    Country has not formally or extensively adopted multiculturalism in its curriculum, but has engaged in rhetoric that supports such inclusion, implemented it in some districts, or developed intercultural or anti-racism education initiatives.
    No:
    Multiculturalism is not included in school curriculum
  3. THE INCLUSION OF ETHNIC REPRESENTATION/SENSITIVITY IN THE MANDATE OF PUBLIC MEDIA OR MEDIA LICENSING
    Yes: 
    Ethnic representation, inclusion, sensitivity or diversity is included in the mandate of public broadcaster or media licensing.
    Partially/Limited: 
    Some representation is included by select broadcasters or in specific regions
    No:
    Ethnic representation not mentioned in mandate of public broadcaster or media licensing.
  4. EXEMPTIONS FROM DRESS CODES (EITHER BY STATUTE OR COURT CASES)
    Yes:
    Country has granted exemptions or accommodations on religious grounds.
    Partially:
    Some exemptions have been granted, but others have been explicitly denied.
    No:
    Country does not grant exemptions or accommodations on religious grounds

    Note: In an earlier version of the Index, the presence (or absence) of Sunday-closing legislation was evaluated as part of this indictor. Although a number of countries were found to have provisions that allow shops to open and close on days of their choosing, it was often not clear whether such policies were a response to multiculturalism, or other—often economic—considerations. As such, this measure has been excluded from this version of the Index. 

  5. ALLOWS DUAL CITIZENSHIP
    Yes:
    Dual citizenship is permitted; foreign nationals may retain their original citizenship even after acquiring the citizenship of the host country. Note that some countries’ citizenship policies distinguish between the citizenship rights of foreign nationals and those of native-born émigrés.
    Partially:
    Dual citizenship is officially prohibited, but tolerated in practice.
    No:
    Dual citizenship is not permitted; foreign nationals must renounce or relinquish their original citizenship before acquiring the citizenship of the host country.
  6. THE FUNDING OF ETHNIC GROUP ORGANIZATIONS OR ACTIVITIES
    Yes:
    Ethnic groups are provided state funding in the form of core- or project-based support.
    Partially/Limited:
    Some ethnic groups receive state funding, but the practice is not widespread and the funding may be restricted to supporting the delivery of integration and settlement programs.
    No:
    Ethnic groups do not receive state support.
  7. THE FUNDING OF BILINGUAL EDUCATION OR MOTHER-TONGUE INSTRUCTION
    Yes:
    Country funds bilingual education or mother-tongue instruction either for children or adults.
    Partially/Limited:
    Available in some provinces, states or areas, but not offered as a general rule.
    No:
    Country does not fund bilingual education or mother-tongue instruction; refers also to cases where bilingual education is provided, but only as a means of facilitating the learning of the country’s official language.
  8. AFFIRMATIVE ACTION FOR DISADVANTAGED IMMIGRANT GROUPS
    Yes:
    Country has an affirmative action policy that targets immigrant minorities; this may be in the public or private sector or both. Initiatives will extend beyond human rights policies and include targeted action aimed at removing barriers or more positive action measures such as quotas or preferential hiring.
    Partially/Limited:
    Some evidence of affirmative action policies, but may be limited in scope or ineffectual in practice.
    No:
    Country has no affirmative action policy for immigrant minorities