Multiculturalism Policies in Contemporary Democracies

Multiculturalism Policies

in Contemporary Democracies

Multiculturalism Policies

in Contemporary Democracies

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Research Using the MCP Index

Themes

Research using the MCP Index has focused on a series of questions and themes. Here we list a few illustrative studies that have utilized the Index to explore these issues.

The Effects of MCPs:

What is the impact of MCPs on the welfare state and redistribution?

  • Soroka, Stuart, Matthew Wright, Irene Bloemraad and Richard Johnston. 2018. “Multiculturalism Policy and Support for the Welfare State”, in Elizabeth Goodyear-Grant, Richard Johnston, Will Kymlicka and John Myles, eds., Federalism and the Welfare state in a Multicultural World. Montreal And Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, pp. 263-290.
  • Kwon, Ronald, and Michaela Curran. 2016. “Immigration and support for redistributive social policy: Does multiculturalism matter?” International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 57 (6): 375-400.
  • David Brady and Ryan Finnigan. 2014. "Does Immigration Undermine Public Support for Social Policy?" American Sociological Review, 79 (1): 17-42. •
  • Crepaz, Markus. 2008. Trust beyond Borders. Immigration, the Welfare State, and Identity in Modern Societies. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
  • Banting, Keith and Will Kymlicka. 2006. Multiculturalism and the Welfare State: Recognition and Redistribution in Contemporary Democracies. Oxford: Oxford University Press

What has been the impact of MCPs on interethnic attitudes?

  • Igarashi, Akira. 2020. “Threats and norms: Multicultural policies and natives’ attitudes towards immigrants”, Sociological Quarterly, doi.org/10.1080/00380253.2020.1860724.
  • Pamela Irving Jackson and Peter Doerschler. 2016. "How Safe Do Majority Group Members, Ethnic Minorities, and Muslims Feel in Multicultural European Societies", Democracy and Security, vol. 12 (4): 247-277.
  • Marc Hooghe and Thomas de Vroome. 2015. “How Does the Majority Public React to Multiculturalist Policies? A Comparative Analysis of European Countries”, American Behavioral Scientist, 59 (6):747–768.
  • Guimond, Serge, Roxanne de la Sabionnière and Armelle Nugier. 2014. “Living in a multicultural world: Intergroup ideologies and the social context of intergroup relations”, European Review of Social Psychology, 25(1): 142-188
  • Jack Citrin, Morris Levy and Matthew Wright. 2014. "Multicultural Policy and Political Support in European Democracies", Comparative Political Studies, 47(I): 1531-1557.

What has been the impact of MCPs on social, economic and political participation of minorities?

  • Igarashi, Akira. 2019. “Till multiculturalism do us part: Multicultural policies and national identity of ethnic minorities”, Social Science Research, 77: 88-100.
  • Breton, Charles. 2019. “Do Incorporation Policies Matter? Immigrants’ Identity and Relationships with the Receiving Society”, Comparative Political Studies, 52(9): 1364-1395
  • Bloemraad, Irene and Matthew Wright. 2014. "'Utter Failure' or Unity out of Diversity? Debating and Evaluating Policies of Multiculturalism." International Migration Review 48(S1): S292-S334.
  • Matthew Wright and Irene Bloemraad. 2012. “Is there a trade-off between Multiculturalism and Socio-Political Integration? Policy Regimes and Immigrant Incorporation in Comparative Perspective”. Perspectives on Politics, 10: 77-95.

The Politics of MCPs:

Expansion or contraction of MCPs over time. The gap between MCP policies and discourses about MCPs. The political factors that influence the adoption of MCPs.

  • Daniel Westlake. 2020. “Following the Right: Left and Right Parties' Influence Over Multiculturalism." Canadian Journal of Political Science, 53 (1): 171-188.
  • Felix Mathieu. 2018. "The failure of state multiculturalism in the UK? An analysis of the UK’s multicultural policy for 2000–2015." Ethnicities, 18(1): 43-69. https://doi-org.proxy.queensu.ca/10.1177/1468796817713040
  • Daniel Westlake. 2018. “Multiculturalism, Political Parties, and the Conflicting Pressures of Ethnic Minorities and Far-Right Parties.” Party Politics, 24 (4): 421-433.
  • Banting, Keith and Will Kymlicka. 2013. "Is There Really a Retreat From Multiculturalism Policies? New Evidence from the Multiculturalism Policy Index", Comparative European Politics 11(5): 577-598


Research

Research by the Co-Directors of the MCP Index

The MCP Index Project Publications is a partial list of publications using the Index by the co-directors of the MCP Index project, some co-authored with colleagues. 

  1. Banting, Keith, Will Kymlicka and Daniel Westlake. Forthcoming. “The Politics of Multiculturalism and Redistribution: Immigration, Accommodation and Solidarity in Diverse Democracies”, in Markus M. L. Crepaz (ed.), The Edward Elgar Handbook on Migration and Welfare. Cheltenham, UK.
  2. Keith Banting. Forthcoming. “Multiculturalism: Maximum Misunderstanding” in Ricard Zapata-Barrero, Dirk Jacobs and Riva Kastoryano, eds., Interacting Concepts in Migration Studies. Milton Park: Routledge and Kegan Paul. 
  3. Keith Banting and Will Kymlicka. 2017. Eds. The Strains of Commitment: The Political Sources of Solidarity in Diverse Societies. (Oxford University Press, 2017), xiv, 452pp.
  4. Stuart Soroka, Matt Wright, Richard Johnston, Jack Citrin, Keith Banting and Will Kymlicka. 2017. "Ethnoreligious Identity, Immigration and Redistribution", Journal of Experimental Political Science. Vol 4 (3): 173-182.
  5. Keith Banting and Edward Koning. 2017. "Just visiting? The Weakening of Social Protection in a Mobile World" in Anna Triandafyllidou ed. Multicultural Governance in a Mobile World. (Edinburgh University Press), pp. 108-135.)
  6. Stuart Soroka, Richard Johnston, Anthony Kevins, Keith Banting and Will Kymlicka (2015). “Migration and welfare state spending” European Political Science Review, vol. 8(2): 173-194.
  7. Keith Banting (2014). “Transatlantic Convergence? The Archaeology of Immigrant Integration in Canada and Europe”, International Journal, vol. 69(1): 66-84.
  8. Banting, Keith and Will Kymlicka (2013).  "Is There Really a Retreat From Multiculturalism Policies? New Evidence from the Multiculturalism Policy Index", Comparative European Politics 11(5): 577-598.
  9. Will Kymlicka (2013) “Neoliberal Multiculturalism?”, in Social Resilience in the Neoliberal Era, ed. Peter A. Hall and Michèle Lamont (Cambridge University Press), pp. 99-125.
  10. Soroka, Stuart, Richard Johnston, Keith Banting and Will Kymlicka (2012). “National Identity and Anti-Immigrant Patterns: The Multiple Patterns in Contemporary Democracies”, under review.
  11. Kymlicka, Will (2012). “Multiculturalism: Success, Failure and the Future”, in Migration Policy Institute (ed) Rethinking National Identity in the Age of Migration (Verlag Bertelsmann Stiftung, Berlin), 33-78.
  12. Banting, Keith, Richard Johnston, Will Kymlicka and Stuart Soroka. 2011. “Are Diversity and Solidarity Incompatible?” Inroads, Winter 2011, 28-48.
  13. Banting, Keith. 2008. “Canada as Counter-Narrative: Multiculturalism, Recognition and Redistribution”. In Richard Simeon et al (eds) The Comparative Turn in Canadian Political Science (UBC Press).
  14. Banting, Keith and Will Kymlicka. 2006. Multiculturalism and the Welfare State: Recognition and Redistribution in Contemporary Democracies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  15. Banting, Keith, Richard Johnston, Will Kymlicka and Stuart Soroka. 2006. “Do multicultural policies erode the welfare state? An empirical analysis,” in Keith Banting and Will Kymlicka, eds., Multiculturalism and the Welfare State: Recognition and Redistribution in Contemporary Democracies. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 49-91.
  16. Banting, K. 2006. “Ethnic Diversity and the Welfare State: a North American perspective”, in S. De Lorenzi (ed) Going Places, Neighbourhood, Ethnicity and Social Mobility, Montreal: Institute for Research on Public Policy.
  17. Banting, Keith. 2005. “The Multicultural Welfare State: International Experience and North American Narratives,” Social Policy and Administration, vol. 39 (2): 98-115.
  18. Banting, Keith and Will Kymlicka. 2004. "Do Multiculturalism Policies Erode the Welfare State?", in Philippe Van Parijs (ed) Cultural Diversity Versus Economic Solidarity (Editions De Boeck Université, Brussels), pp. 227-84.

Research by Other Scholars

Below is a partial list of papers by other scholars who have used the MCP Index in their analysis. If you have used the Index in your own work and would like your paper added to this list, please contact us. 

  1. Daniel Westlake. 2020. Following the Right: Left and Right Parties' Influence Over Multiculturalism." Canadian Journal of Political Science. 53 (1): 171-188.
  2. Igarashi, Akira. 2020. “Threats and norms: Multicultural policies and natives’ attitudes towards immigrants”, Sociological Quarterly, doi.org/10.1080/00380253.2020.1860724.
  3. Breton, Charles. 2019. “Do Incorporation Policies Matter? Immigrants’ Identity and Relationships with the Receiving Society”, Comparative Political Studies, 52(9): 1364-1395.
  4. Igarashi, Akira. 2019.  “Till multiculturalism do us part: Multicultural policies and national identity of ethnic minorities”, Social Science Research, vol. 77: 88-100.
  5. Tremblay, Arjun. 2019. "Developing a Hypothesis of Multicultural Outcomes: Theory, Case Selection, Methodology and Clarifications." Diversity in Decline?. Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 55-79.
  6. Ward, Colleen, Jessica Gale, Christian Staerklé and Jaimee Stuart. 2018. “Immigration and Multiculturalism in Context: A Framework for Psychological Research.” Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 74 (4): 833-855.
  7. Soroka, Stuart, Matthew Wright, Irene Bloemraad and Richard Johnston. 2018. “Multiculturalism Policy and Support for the Welfare State”, in Elizabeth Goodyear-Grant, Richard Johnston, Will Kymlicka and John Myles, eds., Federalism and the Welfare state in a Multicultural World. Montreal And Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, pp. 263-290.
  8. Guimond, Serge, Roxanne de la Sabionnière and Armelle Nugier. 2014. “Living in a multicultural world: Intergroup ideologies and the social context of intergroup relations”, European Review of Social Psychology, 25(1): 142-188.
  9. Kroeber, Corinna. 2018. "How to measure the substantive representation of traditionally excluded groups in comparative research: a literature review and new data." Representation, 54(3): 241-259.
  10. Stuart, Jaimee, and Colleen Ward. 2018. "Exploring everyday experiences of cultural diversity: The construction, validation, and application of the normative multiculturalism scale." European Journal of Social Psychologydoi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2542
  11. Levrau, François, and Patrick Loobuyck.2018.  "Introduction: mapping the multiculturalism-interculturalism debate." Comparative Migration Studies 6/13. 
  12. Felix Mathieu. 2018. "The failure of state multiculturalism in the UK? An analysis of the UK’s multicultural policy for 2000–2015." Ethnicities, vol. 18(1): 43-69.  https://doi-org.proxy.queensu.ca/10.1177/1468796817713040
  13. Ugland, Trygve. 2018.  Policy Learning from Canada: Reforming Scandinavian Immigration and Integration Policies. University of Toronto Press.
  14. Daniel Westlake. 2018. "Multiculturalism, Political Parties, and the Conflicting Pressures of Ethnic Minorities and Far-Right Parties." Party Politics, 24 (4); 421-433.
  15. Irene Bloemraad. 2017.”Solidarity and Conflict: Understanding the Causes and Consequences of Access to Citizenship, Civic Integration, and Multiculturalism”, in Keith Banting and Will Kymlicka. Eds. The Strains of Commitment: The Political Sources of Solidarity in Diverse Societies. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 327-363.
  16. Pamela Irving Jackson and Peter Doerschler. 2016. "How Safe Do Majority Group Members, Ethnic Minorities, and Muslims Feel in Multicultural European Societies", Democracy and Security , vol. 12 (4): 247-277.
  17. Ronald Kwon and Michaela Curran. 2016. “Immigration and support for redistributive social policy: Does multiculturalism matter?”, International Journal of Comparative Sociology, vol. 57 (6): 375-400.
  18. Boris Heizmann. 2016. "Symbolic boundaries, incorporation policies, and anti-immigrant attitudes: what drives exclusionary policy preferences?", Ethnic and Racial Studies.  http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01419870.2015.1124128
  19. Ng, Eddy and Isabel Metz. 2015. “Multiculturalism as a Strategy for National Competitiveness: The Case for Canada and Australia”, Journal of Business Ethics 128/2: 253-266.
  20. Sara Wallace Goodman. 2015.” Conceptualizing and Measuring Citizenship and Integration Policy:  Past Lessons and New Approaches”,  Comparative Political Studies, 48(14): 1905-1941.
  21. Marc Hooghe and Thomas de Vroome. 2015. “How Does the Majority Public React to Multiculturalist Policies? A Comparative Analysis of European Countries”, American Behavioral Scientist, Vol. 59(6) 747–768.
  22. Charles Breton (2015). Incorporation Policies, Identity, and Relationships between Host Societies and Immigrants (PhD dissertation, Political Science, University of British Columbia).
  23. Nasar Meer, Per Mouritsen, Daniel Faas, and Nynke de Witte (2015). "Examining ‘Postmulticultural’ and Civic Turns in the Netherlands, Britain, Germany, and Denmark", American Behavioral Scientist Vol. 59 no. 6: 702-726.
  24. Irene Bloemraad and Matthew Wright (2014). "'Utter Failure' or Unity out of Diversity? Debating and Evaluating Policies of Multiculturalism." International Migration Review 48(S1): S292-S334.
  25. David Brady and Ryan Finnigan (2014). "Does Immigration Undermine Public Support for Social Policy?", American Sociological Review. Vol. 79(1): 17-42.
  26. Jack Citrin, Morris Levy and Matthew Wright (2014). "Multicultural Policy and Political Support in European Democracies", Comparative Political Studies, Volume 47(I): 1531-1557.
  27. Ian Holliday (2014). "Addressing Myanmar’s Citizenship Crisis", Journal of Contemporary Asia, Vol. 44, No. 3, 404–421.  
  28. Pamela Irving Jackson and Peter DOERSCHLER (2014). "Multiculturalism and Minority Well-Being in Fourteen European States" https://www.researchgate.net/publication/268108234_Multiculturalism_and_Minority_Well-Being_in_Fourteen_European_States.
  29. Daniel Westlake (2014). "Political Parties and Development of Multiculturalism Policy". ftp://host-209-183-27.static.dsl.primus/cpsa-acsp/2014event/Westllake.pdf.
  30. Guimond, S., Crisp, R. J., de Oliveira, P., Kamiejski, R., et al. (2013). Diversity policy, social dominance, and intergroup relations: Predicting prejudice in changing social and political contexts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104(6): 941-958.
  31. Marc Helbling (2013). Validating integration and citizenship policy indices, Comparative European Politics 11(5): 555-576.
  32. Maarten Peter Vink and Marc Helbling (2013). Guest Editors: Special Issue: The Use and Misuse of Policy Indices in the Domain of Citizenship and Integration, Comparative European Politics,  Volume 11, Issue 5.
  33. Nils Holtug (2012). "Danish Multiculturalism, Where Art Thou?", in Ray Taras (ed) Challenging Multiculturalism: European Models of Diversity (Edinburgh University Press).
  34. Katie Kleinert (2012). "Terrorism and the Disintegration of Europe: The Effect of Multicultural Government Policy on Domestic Terrorism in Europe", Student Connections: Center for the Study of Europe Special Issue, Brigham Young University.
  35. Koopmans, R., Michalowski, I. and Waibel, S. (2012). Citizenship Rights for Immigrants: National Political Processes and Cross-National Convergence in Western Europe 1980-2008. American Journal of Sociology 117(4): 1202-1245.
  36. Matthew Wright and Irene Bloemraad (2012). Is there a trade-off between Multiculturalism and Socio-Political Integration? Policy Regimes and Immigrant Incorporation in Comparative Perspective. Perspectives on Politics, Volume 10: 77-95.
  37. Fraser, R. (2011). Redistribution and Recognition for Migrants and Refugees in Aotearoa, New Zealand: Neo-liberal and Multicultural Discourses in NGO claims-talk. Master Thesis, University of Waikato.
  38. Heibling, M. (2011). Validating Citizenship Indicators. Paper for presentation at the 6th ECPR General Conference, Reyjavik, 25-27 August 2011.
  39. Torpe L. and Lolle H. (2011). Identifying Social Trust in Cross-Country Analysis: Do We Really Measure the Same? Social Indicators Research 103(3): 481-500.
  40. Matthew Wright (2011). Policy Regimes and Normative Conceptions of Nationalism in Mass Public Opinion. Comparative Political Studies 44 (5): 598-624.
  41. Duviesart Dery C. (2010). Reification in the Census? Multiculturalism Policies and Identity Markers in 36 Democracies in Wilson, K. ED 2010 Looking at Ourselves. Multiculturalism, Conflict and Belonging, Oxford: Inter-disciplinary Press.
  42. Humpage L. (2010). Revisioning comparative welfare state studies: an ‘indigenous dimension’. Policy Studies 31(5): 539-557.
  43. Humpage, L. (2010). Institutions, interests and ideas: explaining social policy change in welfare states incorporating an indigenous population. Journal of European Social Policy 2010 20(3): 235-247.
  44. Kesler, C. and Bloemraad, I. (2010). Does Immigration Erode Social Capital? The Conditional Effects of Immigration-Generated Diversity on Trust, Membership, and Participation across 19 Countries 1981-2000. Canadian Journal of Political Science 2010 42(2): 319-347.
  45. Schonwalder, K. (2010). Germany Integration policy and pluralism in a self-conscious country of immigration in Vertovec, S. and Wessendorf, S EDS 2010, The Multiculturalism Backlash, European discourses, policies and practices, Abingdon: Routledge.
  46. Van Geel, M. and P. Vedder (2010). The adaptation of non-western and Muslim immigrant adolescents in the Netherlands: An immigrant paradox? Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 51: 398-402.
  47. Kim, N.-K. (2009). Multicultural Challenges in Korea: the Current Stage and a Prospect. International Migration 2009: 1-22.
  48. Damron, R.W. (2009). The Welfare State, Multicultural Policies, and Trust: Examining the Determinants of Immigrant Integration, Paper for the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association 2009.
  49. Regan Damron (2009), "The Welfare State, Multicultural Policies and Trust: Examining the Determinants of Immigrant Integration" (prepared for 2009 APSA). http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1450325
  50. Bloemraad I, Korteweg A and G Yurdakul (2008). Citizenship and Immigration: Multiculturalism, Assimilation and Challenges to the Nation-State. Annual Review of Sociology 34: 153-179.
  51. Crepaz, Markus. 2008. Trust beyond Borders. Immigration, the Welfare State, and Identity in Modern Societies. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
  52. Levey, G. B. (2008). Multiculturalism and Australian National Identity in Levey GB ED 2008 Political Theory and Australian Multiculturalism, Berghahn Books.
  53. Hooghe, M., Reeskens T. and Stolle D. (2007). Diversity, Multiculturalism and Social Cohesion: Trust and Ethnocentrism in European Societies in Banting K., Courchene TJ and Seidle F.L. EDS 2007 Belonging? Diversity, Recognition and Shared Citizenship in Canada. Montreal: Institute for Research on Public Policy.
  54. Bloemraad, I. (2007). Unity in Diversity? Bridging Models of Multiculturalism and Immigrant Integration. Du Bois Review 4(2): 317-336.