Assessing Student Awareness of Indigenous Peoples Project

Assessing Student Awareness of Indigenous Peoples Project

Assessing Student Awareness of Indigenous Peoples Project

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Manitoba Resources 

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APTN's First Contact (documentary-series)

Tanya Talaga's Massey Lectures

All My Relations

Cajete, G. A. (2005). American Indian epistemologies. New Directions for Student Services, 109, 69-78.


All My Relations: Interconnectedness

Canadian Government's Approach to Land Claim Agreements

Turn the Tables: Reject the Interim Land Claims Policy

Renewing the Comprehensive Land Claims Policy: Towards a Framework for Addressing Section 35 Aboriginal Rights

Have We Just Witnessed the End of the Modern Treaty Process?

Lawrence, B. (2012). Aboriginal title and comprehensive claims process (pp.54-82). In Fractured Homeland: Federal Recognition and Algonquin Identity in Ontario. Vancouver: UBC Press.

Samson, C. (2016). Canada's strategy of dispossession: Aboriginal land and rights cessions in comprehensive land claims. Canadian Journal of Law and Society, 31(1), 87. doi:10.1017/cls.2016.2

Horizon Treaty Education [Video]

Usher, P. J. (1992). Reclaiming the land: Aboriginal Title, Treaty Rights and Land Claims in Canada. Applied Geography, 12(2), 109-132.

What is Title?

Usher, P. J. (2003). Environment, race and nation reconsidered: Reflections on Aboriginal land claims in Canada. The Canadian Geographer, 47(4), 365-382.

Government of Canada Website: Land Claims

Canada’s 1982 Constitution on Aboriginal and Treaty Rights

Constitution Act, 1982 Section 35: Recognition and Affirmation of Aboriginal Rights

Turpel, M. E. Aboriginal peoples and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms: Contradictions and challenges. Canadian Woman Studies, 10(2&3), 149-157.

McNeil, K. (1982). The Constitutional Rights of the Aboriginal Peoples of Canada. Supreme Court Law Review, 4(255), 255-265.

Aboriginal treaties in Canada are constitutionally recognized agreements between the Crown and Aboriginal peoples. Most of these agreements describe exchanges where Aboriginal groups agree to share some of their interests in their ancestral lands in return for various payments and promises.

Changes in Legal Definitions of Status for Particular Indigenous Groups and Their Impact

A Year After Landmark Ruling, Métis, Non-Status Indians Chart Way Forward

Rulings Impact Métis and Non-Status Indians

Qalipu Mi’kmaq First Nations Rally in Ottawa as Thousands Risk Losing Band Status

Updated Founding Members List for the Qalipu First Nation Adopted Through Order in Council

Bill C-31 and Band Membership

'Club Native' by Tracey Deer

Indian Status and Band Membership Issues

Delgamuukw vs the Queen and Indigenous Legal and Oral Traditions

Borrows, J. (2011). Listening for change: The courts and oral tradition. Osgoode Hall Law Journal, 39(1), 1-38.

Borrows, J. (2005). Indigenous Legal Traditions in Canada. Washington University Journal of Law & Policy

Delgamuukw v British Columbia, [1997] 3 SCR 1010, 1997 CarswellBC 2358

Napolean, V. (2005). Delgamuukw: A legal straightjacket for oral histories? Canadian Journal of Law and Society, 20(2), 123-155.

Oral Traditions 

Aboriginal Title: The Supreme Court of Canada Decision in Delgamuukw v. British Columbia

“Delgamuukw continues to represent a momentous affirmation of the existence and constitutionally protected status of Aboriginal title in Canada. It seems important, however, to underscore the fact that the Court did not rule on the merits of the Gitxsan and Wet’suwet’en Aboriginal title claim. The effects of its decision are therefore more directive than conclusive. Delgamuukw provided government, Aboriginal claimants, and the lower courts with comprehensive new guidelines for the future settlement or litigation of the Gitxsan and Wet’suwet’en and other comprehensive land claims.”

First Nations and Inuit Post-Secondary Funding

Indigenous Services Canada: Post-Secondary Student Support Program

First Nations Post-Secondary Education: Fact Sheet

Myths and Facts about Aboriginal Peoples: Education

Carr-Stewart, S. (2011). Post secondary education as a Treaty Right within the context of Treaty 6. First Nations Perspectives, 4(1): 84-109.

First Nations Post-Secondary Education Review: 2018 Interim Report

First Nations Living Off Reserve

Statistics Canada on Aboriginal Peoples in Canada

Recognizing Rights: Strengthening Off Reserve First Nations Communities

Indigenous in the City (8th Fire) [Documentary]

Peters, E., Anderson, C. (Eds.) (2013). Indigenous in the city: Contemporary identities and cultural innovation. Vancouver, BC: UBC Press.

Kermoal, N. (2013). Connecting urban and Aboriginal histories: Towards an urban Aboriginal history in Québec. Revue Internationale sur l'Autochtonie, 5, 1-12.

First Nations, Métis, and Inuit Authors

Lee Maracle

Thomas King. See also: Thomas King

Daniel David Moses. See also: Daniel David Moses

Tomson Highway. See also: Tomson Highway

Maria Campbell. See also: Maria Campbell

Michael Kusugak. See also: Michael Kusugak

Richard Wagamese

Sheila Watt-Cloutier. See also: Sheila Watt-Cloutier 

Leanne Simpson 

Check out these filmmakers on CBC's 8th Fire 

First Nations, Métis, and Inuit Musicians

Indigenous Music in Manitoba: Composers and Songwriters

Ta'Kaiya Blaney

Mob Bounce. Also see: Mob Bounce

Arthur Renwick

Inez Jasper

JB The First Lady

Digging Roots

Dj Kookum


Susan Aglukark

Buffy Sainte-Marie

Crystal Shawanda

A Tribe Called Red. See also: It’s Getting Harder to Ignore Canada’s Genocide

Derek Miller

George Leach

Indigenous CBC Music – Reclaimed

Governments Limiting Land Claims From 1927 to 1951: First Nations Hiring Lawyers Was Illegal 

Fact Sheet - Treaty Negotiations

Aboriginal Law Rising

The Indian Act: A Historical Overview

"Amendments to the [Indian] Act in 1927 made it illegal for First Nations peoples and communities to hire lawyers or bring about land claims against the government without the government’s consent."

Indigenous Conceptions of Health and Wellness

Aboriginal Cultural Safety: Health and Healing [Video]

When Indigenous Healing Practices Meet Modern Medicine [Audio podcast] 

Graveline, F. J. (1998). Circle works: Transforming Eurocentric consciousness. Halifax: Fernwood Publishing.

Howell, T., Auger, M., Gomes, T., Brown, F.L., Leon, A.Y. (2016). Sharing our wisdom: A holistic Aboriginal health initiative. International Journal of Indigenous Health, 11(1): 111-132.

Kirmayer, L. J., & Valaskakis, G. G. (2009). Healing traditions: The mental health of Aboriginal peoples in Canada. Vancouver: UBC Press.

Archibald, L., Dewar, J., Reid, C., Stevens, V., Canadian Electronic Library (Firm), & Aboriginal Healing Foundation (Canada). (2012). Dancing, singing, painting, and speaking the healing story: Healing through creative arts. Ottawa: Aboriginal Healing Foundation.

Oster, R. T., Grier, A., Lightning, R., Mayan, M. J., & Toth, E. L. (2014). Cultural continuity, traditional indigenous language, and diabetes in Alberta First Nations: A mixed methods study. International Journal for Equity in Health, 13(1), 92-92. 

Marquina-Márquez, A., Virchez, J., & Ruiz-Callado, R. (2016). Postcolonial healing landscapes and mental health in a remote Indigenous community in subarctic Ontario, Canada. Polar Geography, 39(1), 20-39.

Indigenous Languages and Language Revitalization

Census in Brief: The Aboriginal Languages of First Nations people, Métis and Inuit

Why Indigenous Languages Should Be Taught Alongside French and English 

McCarty, T. L., Romero, M. E., Zepeda, O. (2006). Reclaiming the gift: Indigenous youth counter-narratives on Native Language loss and revitalization. The American Indian Quarterly, 30(1&2), 28-48.

Indigenous Languages in Canada

First Peoples' Cultural Council Language Revitalization Strategies

Thomas, A., Paynter, F., Manitoba First Nations Education Resource Centre Inc. (2010). The significance of creating First Nation traditional names maps. First Nations Perspectives, 3(1): 48-64.

Indigenous Languages of Manitoba Inc.

An Annotated Bibliography of Aboriginal Language Resources in Manitoba

Winnipeg School that Infuses Indigenous Language, Teachings into Curriculum Celebrates 25 Years

Indigenous Languages are Dying in Canada. Here's How People Are Trying to Save Them

Factors Promoting Indigenous Health

Auger, M., Howell, T., & Gomes, T. (2016). Moving toward holistic wellness, empowerment and self-determination for Indigenous peoples in Canada: Can traditional Indigenous health care practices increase ownership over health and health care decisions? Canadian Journal of Public Health/Revue Canadienne De Sante Publique, 107(4-5), e393. doi:10.17269/CJPH.107.5366

Oster, R. T., Grier, A., Lightning, R., Mayan, M. J., & Toth, E. L. (2014). Cultural continuity, traditional Indigenous language, and diabetes in Alberta First Nations: A mixed methods study. International Journal for Equity in Health, 13(1), 92-92. 

Snowshoe, A., Crooks, C. V., Tremblay, P. F., & Hinson, R. E. (2017). Cultural connectedness and its relation to mental wellness for First Nations youth. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 38(1), 67-86. doi:10.1007/s10935-016-0454-3

Riecken, T., Tanaka, M. T., & Scott, T. (2006). First Nations youth reframing the focus: Cultural knowledge as a site for health education. Canadian Journal of Native Education, 29(1), 29.

Social Determinants of Health: Culture and Language as Social Determinants of First Nations, Inuit and Métis Health

What a Connection to the Land Means for Indigenous Mental Health

Land-based Practice for Indigenous Health and Wellness in the Northwest Territories, Yukon, and Nunavut

Sasakamoose, J., Bellegarde, T., Sutherland, W., Pete, S., McKay-McNabb, K. (2017). Miýo-pimātisiwin developing Indigenous cultural responsiveness theory (ICRT): Improving Indigenous health and well-being. The International Indigenous Policy Journal, 8(4): 1-16. 

Why Traditional Healing Has a Place in Modern Health Care

Auger, M. D. (2016). Cultural continuity as a determinant of Indigenous peoples’ health: A metasynthesis of qualitative research in Canada and the United States. The International Indigenous Policy Journal,7(4). 

Hill, G.L.P. (2008). Understanding Indigenous Canadian traditional health and healing. Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

How Indigenous Elder-Youth Relationships Influence Health and Well-Being

First Nations, Métis, and Inuit Population in Canada

Statistics Canada Population Projections by Aboriginal Identity in Canada, 2006 to 2031

Aboriginal Statistics at a Glace

Statistics Canada National Aboriginal Populations

Aboriginal Peoples in Canada: Key Results from the 2016 Census

Indigenous Population Growing Rapidly, Languages Surging: Census

Infrastructure, Water Quality, and Housing on Reserves: Issues Around Access to Resources and Appropriation of Land

First Nations Poverty in Canada

Ottawa's Promise to Fix First Nations Water Crisis Still Falling Short: Report

The Housing Conditions of Aboriginal People in Canada

First Nations Schools Are Chronically Underfunded 

O'Gorman, M., & Penner, S. (2018). Water infrastructure and well-being among First Nations, Métis and Inuit individuals in Canada: What does the Data tell us? Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 1-18.

Canada's Waterless Communities: Shoal Lake 40

Concerns Mount Over Federal Government's Indigenous Housing Contest

First Nations Housing: Thinking Outside the Box

Inuit in a Changing World

Martin, D.H. (2011). “Now we got lots to eat and they’re telling us not to eat it”: Understanding changes to south-east Labrador Inuit relationships to food." International Journal of Circumpolar Health, 70(4): 384-95.

Climate Change Impact is a way of looking at the effects climate change has on the people and environment of Nunavut, over time.

Adaptation is the way we change our behaviour to deal with the impacts of climate change. In Nunavut, that can mean anything from finding new hunting routes as sea levels change to altering the way we build our homes as permafrost thaws. 

Inuit Must Adapt to Climate Change

Not Just the Face of Climate Change: Inuit Want a Say in Canada's Climate Strategy

The Inuit Way: A Guide to Inuit Culture, Produced by Pauktuutit Inuit Women of Canada

 5 Indigenous Artists Keeping Cultural Traditions Alive with Their Work

Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami: We Work to Improve the Health and Wellbeing of Inuit

Welcome to Nuluaq: The Inuit Community-Based Food Initiatives Mapping Project

National Strategy on Inuit Education

Inuktitut Magazine

National Inuit Youth Council

Cultural and Community Connections: Manitoba Inuit Association

Inuit Relocation, 1950s and 1960s

An Apology for the Inuit Five Decades in the Making

Broken Promises – The High Arctic Relocation [Film]

Inuit View on Canada’s Arctic Sovereignty

The High Arctic Relocation: A Report on the 1953-55 Relocation

Jordan’s Principle Addresses Jurisdictional Disputes

Jordan’s Principle Youth PSA

The Government of Canada: Jordan's Principle

Jordan’s Principle Summary of Orders from the Canadian Human Rights Tribunal

Jordan's Principle - Timeline and Documents

Families Share How Jordan's Principle Has Helped Their Children at Winnipeg Summit

Dennis Ward Sits Down with Cindy Blackstock [Video]

Laws of Indigenous Assimilation in Canada: The Loss of Status and Barriers to Community Well-Being

Coates, K. (2008). The Indian Act and the future of Aboriginal governance in Canada. Research Paper for the National Centre for First Nations Governance.

An Act for the Gradual Enfranchisement of Indians

Got Status? Indian Status in Canada Explained, Sort Of

Union of B.C. Indian Chiefs Position Paper

Losing Legal Status (Enfranchisement)

Enfranchisement as a Canadian Federal Government Assimilation Policy

Gradual Civilization Act, 1857

“Indian,” Status, and the Indian Act’s Role in Defining Identity

Indian Act and Enfranchisement of Indigenous Peoples

The Long-Term Impact of Métis Leader Louis Riel’s Execution in 1885


Proclamation by the Provisional Government, Dec. 8, 1869

Louis Riel. Also see: Louis Riel—A Timeline 

Red River Colony – A Timeline

Fulfilling Canada’s Promise: Métis Rights. Recognized and Affirmed.

Doyle, D. G. (2017). Louis Riel: Let justice be done. Vancouver: Ronsdale Press.

R. v. Powley was the first major Aboriginal Rights case concerning Métis peoples. The Powley decision resulted in “the Powley Test,” which laid out a set of criteria to not only define what might constitute a Métis right, but also who is entitled to those rights.  Although the Powley decision defined Métis rights as they relate to hunting, many legal experts and Métis leaders view the Powley case as potentially instrumental in the future of recognizing Métis rights.”

Nation-to-Nation Relationships

Nickerson, M. (2017). Characteristics of a nation-to-nation relationship. Institute on Governance.

Sovereignty: Do First Nations Need It?  

Sovereignty and Indigenous Peoples in North America

APTN's Nation-To-Nation [Videos]

Ongomiizwin: The Indigenous Institute of Health and Healing

Ongomiizwin 'Clearing a path for generations to come'

The Indigenous Institute of Health and Healing

Organizational Structure

UM Launches Ongomiizwin—An Indigenous Institute That Will Clear a Path for Generations To Come

Positive Changes Driven by First Nations, Métis and Inuit Peoples

Enabling the Autumn Seed: Toward a Decolonized Approach to Aboriginal Knowledge, Language, and Education

Aboriginal Language Preservation

Indigenous Political Organization and Activism in Canada

Aboriginal Self-Government

Indigenous Self-Government in Canada

In a First for a Canadian Court, the SCC Recognizes Aboriginal Title for Tsilhqotin Nation

First Nations Self-Government

Castellano, M. B., Archibald, L. (2013). Healing historic trauma: A report from the Aboriginal Healing Foundation

At the Crossroads (8th Fire series) [Documentary]

Reclaiming Identity: Band Membership, Citizenship and the Inherent Right

Aboriginal Business: Promise and Prosperity

A Look at 6 Aboriginal-Run Businesses in Canada

Aboriginal Peoples Television Network

First Nations University of Canada

As Number of Indigenous Grads Grows, So Do Calls for Funding and Programs That Reflect the History of Their Communities 

List of Indigenous Canadian Politicians

Prime Minister's Apology to Aboriginal Peoples Concerning Indian Residential Schools, June 11 2008

Henderson J., Wakeham, P. (2009). Colonial reckoning, national reconciliation?: Aboriginal Peoples and the Culture of Redress in Canada. ESC, 35(1), 1-26.

Dorell, M. (2009). From reconciliation to reconciling: Reading what “we now recognize” in the Government of Canada’s 2008 Residential Schools Apology. ESC, 35(1), 27-45.

Stephen Harper’s Apology and the Forgotten Residential Schools of Labrador

MacKinnon, S. (2012). Fast facts: The Harper 'apology': Residential schools and Bill C-10. Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives.

The Statement of Apology, Stephen Harper

Prime Minister Justin Trudeau’s Statement of Apology to Former Students of the Newfoundland and Labrador Residential Schools

Relationship Between Reserves and Traditional Territories 

Land and Resources: “…reserves cover just 0.4 per cent of the BC land base—a tiny portion of First Nations traditional territory.”

Reserves and Traditional Territory

Our Homes Are Bleeding: “stories of cut-off lands in British Columbia” [Digital Collection]

First Nation Profiles Government of Canada Interactive Map Featuring Reserves

Interactive Map of Indigenous Ancestral Territories in North America

Treaties, Land Claims and Reserves – “During the 19th century, Indigenous people were moved off their land and onto reserves, which represented only a portion of their original territory. These reserves were allocated through the establishment of treaties and through the Indian Reserve Commission. Today, federally recognized First Nations live on and operate their own governments on reserves. However, First Nations have traditional territories beyond reserves.”

Harris, C. (2002). Making native space: Colonialism, resistance, and reserves in British Columbia. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.

Urban Reserves in Manitoba

Manitoba Offers Traditional Lands to Sayisi Dene First Nation Forced to Relocate in 1950s

Significant Barriers to Health for Indigenous Peoples in Canada

Goodman, A., Fleming, K., Markwick, N., Morrison, T., Lagimodiere, L., Kerr, T., & Western Aboriginal Harm Reduction Society. (2017). "They treated me like crap and I know it was because I was native": The healthcare experiences of Aboriginal peoples living in Vancouver's inner city. Social Science & Medicine, 178, 87. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.01.053

Close the Gap Between Indigenous Health Outcomes and the Rest of Canada

Brown, H. J., McPherson, G., Peterson, R., Newman, V., & Cranmer, B. (2012). Our land, our language: Connecting dispossession and health equity in an Indigenous context. The Canadian Journal of Nursing Research/Revue Canadienne De Recherche En Sciences Infirmieres, 44(2), 44.

Nelson, S. E., & Wilson, K. (2018). Understanding barriers to health care access through cultural safety and ethical space: Indigenous people's experiences in Prince George, Canada. Social Science & Medicine, doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.09.017

Webster, P. (2018). Language barriers restricting access to health care for Indigenous populations. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 190(24), E754-E755. doi:10.1503/cmaj.109-5613

Larson, B., Herx, L., Williamson, T., & Crowshoe, L. (2011). Beyond the barriers: Family medicine residents’ attitudes towards providing aboriginal health care. Medical Education, 45(4), 400-406. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2923.2010.03892.x

Auger, M., Howell, T., & Gomes, T. (2016). Moving toward holistic wellness, empowerment and self-determination for Indigenous peoples in Canada: Can traditional Indigenous health care practices increase ownership over health and health care decisions? Canadian Journal of Public Health/ Revue Canadienne De Sante Publique, 107(4-5), e393. doi:10.17269/CJPH.107.5366

Lavoie, J. G., Kaufert, J., Browne, A. J., Mah, S., O'Neil, J. D., Sinclair, S., & BlueSky, K. (2015). Negotiating barriers, navigating the maze: First Nation peoples' experience of medical relocation. Canadian Public Administration, 58(2), 295-314. doi:10.1111/capa.12111

Habjan, S., Prince, H., & Kelley, M. L. (2012). Caregiving for elders in First Nations communities: Social system perspective on barriers and challenges. Canadian Journal on Aging / La Revue Canadienne Du Vieillissement, 31(2), 209-222. doi:10.1017/S071498081200013X

National Report of the First Nations Regional Health Survey, 2018

Government of Canada Publications on Aboriginal Health

Chambers, L., & Burnett, K. (2017). Jordan's Principle: The struggle to access on-reserve health care for high-needs Indigenous children in Canada. American Indian Quarterly, 41(2), 101-124. doi:10.5250/amerindiquar.41.2.0101

Ottawa's Legal Bills Mount Over Aboriginal Teen's Bid for Care

Doctor of Pharmacy Incorporates Traditional Ways of Learning into Classroom [Radio]

Li, R. (2017). Indigenous identity and traditional medicine: Pharmacy at the crossroads. Canadian Pharmacists Journal / Revue Des Pharmaciens Du Canada, 150(5), 279-281. doi:10.1177/1715163517725020

Systemic Racism

Educators Call on Universities to Help Fight Institutional Racism Following Stanley Verdict

Forms of Racism: Individual and Systemic Racism

Canada’s First Nations: A Legacy of Institutional Racism

Aboriginal Groups Fume When 'Systematic Racism’ Not Explored for Reason Behind Man’s Death After Waiting 34 Hours in ER

Systemic Racism and Aboriginal Women

Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women

Public Inquiry Commission on Relations Between Indigenous Peoples and Certain Public Services in Québec

Broken System: Why is a Quarter of Canada’s Prison Population Indigenous?

Foster Care System One of the Paths to Murdered and Missing Indigenous Women

First Nations Schools Are Chronically Underfunded 

Health and Health Care Implications of Systemic Racism on Indigenous Peoples in Canada

Social Determinants of Health: Aboriginal Experiences with Racism and Its Impacts

The Aim of Residential Schools

Bev, S. (2013). They called me number one. Vancouver, BC: Talonbooks. 

Kelm, M. (1996). A scandalous procession”: Residential Schooling and the Re/formation of Aboriginal bodies, 1900-1950. Native Studies Review, 11(2), 51-88.

Milloy, J. S. (1999). A national crime. Winnipeg: The University of Manitoba Press.

What Was the Residential School System?

Residential Schools in Canada

Smith, D. (2001). The "Policy of Aggressive Civilization" and projects of governance in Roman Catholic Industrial Schools for Native peoples in Canada, 1870-95. Anthropologica, 43(2), 253-271.

Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada

Was There a Residential School Near You? Find Out With Our Interactive Map

Métis History and Experience and Residential Schools in Canada

The Legacy of Duncan Campbell Scott: More Than Just a Canadian Poet

The Consequences of Residential Schools For First Nations, Métis, and Inuit People

A Lost Heritage: Canada’s Residential Schools. Topic spans: 1955 - 2002 [Video]

Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada & University of Manitoba. National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation. (2016). A knock on the door: The essential history of residential schools from the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (& abridg ed.). Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press.

Grant, A. (1996). No end of grief: Indian Residential Schools in Canada. Winnipeg: Pemmican Pub.

Bombay, A., Matheson, K., & Anisman, H. (2014). The intergenerational effects of Indian residential schools: Implications for the concept of historical trauma. Transcultural Psychiatry, 51(3), 320-338. 

O’Neill, L., Fraser, T., Kitchenham, A., & McDonald, V. (2018). Hidden burdens: A review of intergenerational, historical and complex trauma, implications for Indigenous families. Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma, 11(2), 173-186. doi:10.1007/s40653-016-0117-9

Partridge, C. (2010). Residential schools: The intergenerational impacts on Aboriginal peoples. Native Social Work Journal, 7: pp.33-62. 

Residential Schools: Manitoba Trauma Information and Education Centre

The Roles of the Churches in Administering Residential Schools

The Role of the Churches

Pope Will Not Apologize for Abuse in Canada's Indigenous Schools

Former Head of TRC Decries Pope’s Refusal to Apologize for Residential Schools

Truth and Reconciliation Commission's Call to Action about Churches Apologies and Reconciliation: "58. We call upon the Pope to issue an apology to Survivors, their families, and communities for the Roman Catholic Church’s role in the spiritual, cultural, emotional, physical, and sexual abuse of First Nations, Inuit, and Métis children in Catholic-run residential schools. We call for that apology to be similar to the 2010 apology issued to Irish victims of abuse and to occur within one year of the issuing of this Report and to be delivered by the Pope in Canada."

Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada & University of Manitoba. National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation. (2016). A knock on the door: The essential history of residential schools from the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (& abridg ed.). Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press.

The Burden of Continuity and Proof for Indigenous Peoples' Rights and Its Effects on Canadian Society

Borrows, J. (2016). Freedom and Indigenous Constitutionalism. London: University of Toronto Press.

Borrows, J. (2012). (Ab)originalism and Canada’s Constitution. The Supreme Court Law Review: Osgoode’s Annual Constitutional Cases Conference58.

McCreary, T. (2014). The burden of sovereignty: Court configurations of Indigenous and state authority in Aboriginal title litigation in Canada. North American Dialogue, 17(2), 64-78. doi:10.1111/nad.12016

Aboriginal Title in British Columbia and the Burden of Proof

Proving a Constitutional Right to the Land for Aboriginal Peoples of Canada

Borrows, J. (2011). Wampum at Niagara: The Royal Proclamation, Canadian legal history, and self-government. Aboriginal and Treaty Rights in Canada. Asch, M (Ed.). Vancouver, BC: UBC Press.

The Royal Proclamation

Arnot, David. (2010, June 10). The honour of First Nations – The honour of the Crown: The unique relationship of First Nations with the Crown. Unpublished paper presented at The Crown in Canada: Present Realities and Future Options, Ottawa.

The 1876 Indian Act: Defining "Indian" Status and Exclusion From Full Membership in Canadian Society 

Assimilation: Not a Hidden Objective

“An Act to amend and consolidate the laws respecting Indians.”

Background: The Indian Act

Borrows, J. (2008). Seven generations, seven teachings: Ending the Indian Act. Research Paper for the National Centre for First Nations Governance

Cannon, M. J. (2006). First Nations citizenship. Canadian Review of Social Policy, 56, 40-71.

The 1876 Indian Act: Gender Discrimination and its Continuing Effects

Lawrence, B. (2003). Gender, race, and the regulation of native identity in Canada and the United States. Hypatia, 18(2), 3-31.

Bill C-31 and Gender Discrimination

Borrows, J., Rotman, L.I. (2012). Aboriginal women. In Aboriginal legal issues: Cases, materials and commentary (2nd ed). Markham: LexisNexis Canada.

Cannon, M.J. (2014). Race Matters: Sexism, Indigenous Sovereignty, and McIvor. Canadian Journal of Women and the Law/Revue Femmes Et Droit, 26(1), 23-50. 

Palmater, P. (2011). Beyond blood: Rethinking Indigenous identity. Saskatoon: Purich. 

McIvor, S.D. (2004). Aboriginal women unmasked: Using equality litigation to advance women's rights. Canadian Journal of Women and the Law/Revue Femmes Et Droit, 16(1), 106-36. 

The 1927 Indian Act Amendment: Raising Money or Hiring Lawyers to Pursue Land Claims Is Illegal

Section 141: "When Aboriginal political organizing became more extensive in the 1920s and groups began to pursue land claims, the federal government added Section 141 to the Indian Act. Section 141 outlawed the hiring of lawyers and legal counsel by Indians, effectively barring Aboriginal peoples from fighting for their rights through the legal system. Eventually, these laws expanded to such a point that virtually any gathering was strictly prohibited and would result in a jail term.  These amendments presented a significant barrier to Aboriginal political organizing and many organizations had to disband. However, it did not entirely stop political organizing—Aboriginal organizations such as the Nisga’a Land Committee and the Native Brotherhood of British Columbia managed to continue to organize the fight for their rights underground."

An Act to Amend the Indian Act, 1927

The Indian Act Said What?

The Obligation to Uphold Treaties 

Treaties with Indigenous Peoples in Canada

We Are All Treaty People

Manitoba Numbered Treaties Map

The 1969 White Paper : Canada’s attempt to “absolv[e] itself of its … obligation to uphold treaty rights”

'Children of the Broken Treaty' Exposes Canada's Shameful Treatment of Indigenous People

Treaties from 1760-1923: Two Sides to the Story: Oral Agreements Often Differed from What Appeared in Printed Documents

Trick or Treaty?  [Film]

Maps of Treaty-Making in Canada

Coyle, M., & Borrows, J. (2017). The right relationship: Reimagining the implementation of historical treaties. London: University of Toronto Press.

Traditional Territories

An Overview of Guides to Research: First Nations & Maps

Interactive Map of Indigenous Ancestral Territories in North America

Territory Acknowledgement

Get to Know the Indigenous Peoples of Manitoba

Métis Community Maps

Traditional First Nation Community Names Map

University of Manitoba Traditional Territories Acknowledgement

Canadian Students Recognize Indigenous Land [Video]

Inuit in Manitoba

Tuberculosis Rates Are Higher for Indigenous Peoples

Patterson, M., Finn, S., & Barker, K. (2018). Addressing tuberculosis among Inuit in Canada. Canada Communicable Disease Report, 44(3), 82-85.

Tuberculosis Task Force

Maud, V. (2013). Perceptions of the Métis and tuberculosis: An examination of historical works. Canadian Journal of Native Studies, 33(2), 55.

Meijer Drees, L. (2013). Healing histories: Stories from Canada's Indian hospitals (First, first printing, 2013. ed.). Edmonton: The University of Alberta Press.

Khan, F.A., Fox, G.J., Lee, R. S., Riva, M., Benedetti, A., Proulx, J., Menzies, D. (2016). Housing and tuberculosis in an Inuit village in Northern Quebec: A case-control study. Canadian Medical Association Journal Open, 4(3), E496-E506.

Komarnisky, S., Hackett, P., Abonyi, S., Heffernan, C., & Long, R. (2016). "Years ago": Reconciliation and First Nations narratives of tuberculosis in the Canadian Prairie provinces. Critical Public Health, 26(4), 381.

The Time is Now - Chief Public Health Officer Spotlight on Eliminating Tuberculosis in Canada

Vachon J, Gallant V, Siu W. (2018) Tuberculosis in Canada, 2016. Centre for Communicable Disease and Infection Control, 44(3/4), 75-81.

Unceded Territory

“There's a big difference between treaty land and unceded land”

Horgan's Acknowledgment of Unceded Indigenous Territory a Milestone for B.C.

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United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples on Informed Consent and the Behaviour of Businesses and the Government of Canada

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Lenzerini, F. (2017). The land rights of Indigenous Peoples under international law. In M. Graziadei & L. Smith (Eds.), Comparative property law: Global perspectives (pp. 393–411). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Lightfoot, S. R. (2012). Selective endorsement without intent to implement: Indigenous rights and the anglosphere. International Journal of Human Rights, 16(1), 100–122.

United Nations Declaration. (2008). United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. United Nations General Assembly, (Resolution 61/295), 10.

Venne, S. H. (2011). The road to the United Nations and Rights of Indigenous peoples. Griffith Law Review, 20(3), 557–577.

Watson, I. (2011). The 2007 Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples: Indigenous survival-- Where to from here? Griffith Law Review, 20(3), 507–514.

Ski Resort Development Free to Proceed on Sacred First Nation Land

Court Quashes Trudeau’s Approval of Trans Mountain Pipeline

Recognition of Rights or Termination of Rights Framework?

Hoogeveen, D. (2015). Sub‐surface property, free‐entry mineral staking and settler colonialism in Canada. Antipode, 47(1), 121-138.

Peterson St-Laurent, G., & Billon, P. L. (2015). Staking claims and shaking hands: Impact and benefit agreements as a technology of government in the mining sector. The Extractive Industries and Society, 2(3), 590-602.

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