Sport Psychology PLAYS Research Group

Sport Psychology

PLAYS Research Group

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Here you will find a collection of resources that have been developed through past and ongoing research in the lab and are available for use by other researchers. 

Observational Coding Systems

Coach-Athlete Interaction Coding System (CAICS)

The CAICS provides an exhaustive categorization of coach and athlete behaviour. Coach behaviour is coded across 12 categories which were adapted from the Coaching Behavior Assessment System (CBAS; Smith et al., 1977). Athlete behaviour is coded across six categories which were derived from observational systems used in physical education classes and exploratory interviews with youth coaches. Collectively, the CAICS is design to continuously code both coach and athlete behaviour in sport training sessions.

CAICS Coding Manual [PDF]

Erickson, K., Côté, J., Hollenstein, T., & Deakin, J. (2011). Examining coach–athlete interactions using state space grids: An observational analysis in competitive youth sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise,12, 645-654. [PDF]

Para-sport Coach-Athlete Interaction Coding System (Para-CAICS)

Athlete Behaviour Coding System (ABCS)

The ABCS is a coding system that is specifically focused on coding athletes' behaviour in organized sport. This coding system expanded upon the athlete behaviour categories from the CAICS to more accurately capture the unique elements of athlete behaviour in training and competition.

ABCS Coding Manual [PDF]

Vierimaa, M., & Côté, J. (in press). Exploring sociometric status and peer relations in youth sport. Journal of Sport Behavior. [PDF]

Assessment of Coaching Tone (ACT)

The ACT is a coding system that moves beyond the content, or "what" of coaching behaviour to examine the motivational tone of coaching behaviours--in other words, "how" behaviour is delivered. The ACT is deeply rooted in both Self-Determination Theory and Achievement Goal Theory, and provides a parsimonious framework to code both whatcoaches say, and how they say it.

ACT Coding Manual [PDF]

Erickson, K, & Côté, J. (2015). The intervention tone of coaches' behaviour: Development of the Assessment of Coaching Tone (ACT) Observational Coding System. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 10, 699-716. [PDF]

Erickson, K., & Côté, J. (2016). A season-long examination of the intervention tone of coach–athlete interactions and athlete development in youth sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 22, 264-272. [PDF]

Assessment of Coaching Emotion (ACE)

Similar to the ACT, the ACE examines both the whatand how of coaching behaviour. However, the ACE is unique in that it assesses the emotional tone associated with coaches' behaviour.

ACE Coding Manual [PDF]


Youth Experience Survey for Sport (YES-S)

The YES-S is a 37-item questionnaire designed to assess youth's developmental experiences in sport. It emerged as a revised version of the Youth Experience Survey 2.0 (Hansen & Larson, 2005) due to its improved psychometric properties in a sport context.

YES-S Template [PDF]

MacDonald, D. J., Côté, J., Eys, M., & Deakin, J. (2012). Psychometric properties of the youth experience survey with young athletes. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13, 332-340. [PDF]

4 Cs Toolkit

The 4 Cs toolkit is a measurement framework made up of sport-specific measures of the 4 Cs of positive youth development: competence, confidence, connection, and character. Rather than constructing a new measure, this toolkit integrates existing questionnaires and measurement approaches that collectively measure each of the 4 Cs in sport.

4 Cs Athlete Template [PDF]

Vierimaa, M., Erickson, K., Côté, J., & Gilbert, W. (2012). Positive youth development: A measurement framework for sport. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 7, 601-614. [PDF]

Erickson, K., & Côté, J. (2016). A season-long examination of the intervention tone of coach–athlete interactions and athlete development in youth sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 22, 264-272. [PDF]