State Space Grids

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Welcome to the new home of state space grids and GridWare!

Excel macros for TRJ formatted data (see Downloads below).

State Space Grid analysis now part of Mangold Interact analysis package!

The State Space Grid book:

Hollenstein, T. (2013). State space grids: Depicting dynamics across development. New York: Springer.

State space grids were developed by Marc Lewis and colleagues (Lewis, Lamey & Douglas, 1999 - see Publications tab) as a way to represent synchronous ordinal time series on a 2-D grid. To make this technique freely accessible, we have developed this web site to distribute a software program, GridWare (see GridWare tab below), that creates state space grids from most ordinal or categorical time series.

Any scholarly reference to GridWare should be to:
Lamey, A., Hollenstein, T., Lewis, M.D., & Granic, I. (2004). GridWare (Version 1.1). [Computer software].

State Space Grid Book

State Space Grids Book!

Hollenstein, T. (2013). State space grids: Depicting dynamics across development. New York: Springer.

When publishing or reporting results from GridWare, we request that you please cite Lamey, Hollenstein, Lewis, & Granic (2004) and any of the following publications if relevant:

  1. Lewis, M. D., Lamey, A. V., & Douglas, L. (1999). A new dynamic systems method for the analysis of early socioemotional development. Developmental Science, 2, 458-476.

  2. Granic, I., & Lamey, A. V. (2002). Combining dynamic systems and multivariate analyses to compare the mother-child interactions of externalizing subtypes. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30, 265-283.

  3. Granic, I., & Hollenstein, T. (2003). Dynamic systems methods for models of developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 15, 641-669.

  4. Granic, I., Hollenstein, T., Dishion, T. J., & Patterson, G. R. (2003). Longitudinal analysis of flexibility and reorganization in early adolescence: A dynamic systems study of family interactions.Developmental Psychology, 39, 606-617.

  5. Granic, I., Dishion, T. J., & Hollenstein, T. (2003). The family ecology of adolescence: A dynamic systems perspective on normative development. In G. R. Adams & M. D. Berzonsky (Eds.) Blackwell Handbook of Adolescence, pp. 60-91. Blackwell: Malden, MA.

  6. Lewis, M.D., Zimmerman, S., Hollenstein, T., & Lamey, A.V. (2004). Reorganization in coping behavior at 1 1/2 Years: Dynamic systems and normative change. Developmental Science, 7(1), 56-73.

  7. Hollenstein, T., Granic, I., Stoolmiller, M., & Snyder, J. (2004). Rigidity in Parent-Child Interactions and the Development of Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior in Early Childhood. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 32(6), 595-607.

  8. Dishion, T.J., Nelson, S.E., Winter, C., & Bullock, B. (2004). Adolescent friendship as a dynamic system: Entropy and deviance in the etiology and course of male antisocial behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 32, 651 – 663.

  9. Martin, C.L., Fabes, R.A., Hanish, L.D., & Hollenstein, T. (2005). Social dynamics in the preschool. Developmental Review, 25, 299 – 327.

  10. Hollenstein, T. & Lewis, M.D. (2006). A state space analysis of emotion and flexibility in parent-child interactions. Emotion, 6 , 663 – 669.

  11. Granic, I., O’Hara, A., Pepler, D., & Lewis, M.D. (2007). A Dynamic Systems Analysis of Parent-child Changes Associated with Successful “Real-world” Interventions for Aggressive Children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35, 845 – 857.

  12. Hollenstein, T. (2007). State space grids: Analyzing dynamics across development. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 31, 384 – 396.

  13. Connell, A. M., Hughes-Scalise, A., Klostermann, S., & Azem, T. (2011). Maternal depression and the heart of parenting: Respiratory sinus arrhythmia and affective dynamics during parent–adolescent interactions. Journal of Family Psychology, 25(5), 653-662.

  14. Erickson, K., Côté, J., Hollenstein, T., & Deakin, J (2011). Examining coach athlete interactions using state space grids: An observational analysis in competitive youth sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 12, 645-654.

  15. Lunkenheimer, E.S., Olson, S. L., Hollenstein, T., Sameroff, A., & Winter, C. (2011). Dyadic flexibility and positive affect in parent-child coregulation and the development of children’s behavior problems. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 577 – 591.

  16. Murphy-Mills, J., Bruner, M., Erickson, K., & Cote, J. (2011). The utility of the state space grid method for studying peer interactions in youth sport, Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 23, 159 – 174.

  17. Ribeiro , A. P., Bento, T., Salgado, J., Stiles, W.B., & Gonçalves, M. M. (2011). A dynamic look at narrative change in psychotherapy: A case study tracking innovative moments and protonarratives using state space grids, Psychotherapy Research, 21, 54-69.

  18. Cerezo, M. A., Trenado, R. M., & Pons-Salvador, G. (2012). Mother-infant Interaction and Quality of Child’s Attachment: A Nonlinear Dynamical Systems Approach. Nonlinear Dynamics in Psychology and the Life Sciences, 16.

  19. Dishion, T., Forgatch, M., Van Ryzin, M., & Winter, C. (2012). The Nonlinear Dynamics of Family Problem Solving in Adolescence: The Predictive Validity of a Peaceful Resolution Attractor. Nonlinear Dynamics in Psychology and the Life Sciences, 16.

  20. Granic, I., Meusel, L., Lamm, C., Woltering, S., & Lewis, M.D. (2012). Emotion regulation in children with behavior problems: Linking behavioral and brain processes. Development and Psychopathology, 24, 1019-1029.

  21. Hollenstein, T. (2012). Using state space grids for understanding processes of change and stability in adolescence. In E. S. Kunnen (Ed.) A dynamic systems approach to adolescent development. London: Psychology Press.

  22. Hong, J., Hwang, M., Tam, K., Lai, Y., & Liu, L. (2012). Effects of cognitive style on digital jigsaw puzzle performance: A GridWare analysis. Computers in Human Behavior, 28, 920 – 928.

  23. Lavictoire, L., Snyder, J., Stoolmiller, M., & Hollenstein, T. (2012). Affective dynamics in triadic peer interactions in early childhood. Nonlinear Dynamics in Psychology and the Life Sciences, 16.

  24. Lunkenheimer, E. S., Albrecht, E. C. and Kemp, C. J. (2012). Dyadic Flexibility in Early Parent–Child Interactions: Relations with Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Negativity and Behaviour Problems. Infant and Child Development.. doi: 10.1002/icd.1783

  25. Lunkenheimer, E. S., Hollenstein, T., Wang, J., & Shields, A. M. (2012). Flexibility and Attractors in Context: Family Emotion Socialization Patterns and Children’s Emotion Regulation in Late Childhood. Nonlinear Dynamics in Psychology and the Life Sciences, 16.

  26. Mainhard, M. T., Pennings, H.J.M., Wubbels, T., & Brekelmans, M. (2012). Mapping control and affiliation in teacher–student interaction with state space grids, Teaching and Teacher Education, 28, 1027 – 1037.

  27. Moore, G. A., Powers, C. J., Bass, A. J., Cohn, J. F., Propper, C. B., Allen, N. B. and Lewinsohn, P. M. (2012). Dyadic Interaction: Greater than the Sum of its Parts?. Infancy. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-7078.2012.00136.x

  28. Pollack, C. (2012), The Invisible Link: Using State Space Representations to Investigate the Connection Between Variables and Their Referents. Mind, Brain, and Education, 6, 156–163.

  29. van Dijk, M., Hunnius, S., & van Geert, P. (2012). The dynamics of feeding during the introduction to solid food, Infant Behavior and Development, 35, 226 – 239.

  30. Wubbels, T., Opdenakker, M., & Brok, P. D. (2012). Let’s make things better, Interpersonal Relationships in Education: Advances in Learning Environments Research, 3, 225-249.

  31. DiDonato, M. D., England, D., Martin, C. L., & Amazeen, P. G. (2013). Dynamical analyses for developmental science: A primer for intrigued scientists, Human Development

  32. Smith, J.D., Dishion, T.J., Moore, K.J.,Shaw, D.S., & Wilson, M.N. (2013).Effects of Video Feedback on Early Coercive Parent–Child Interactions: The Intervening Role of Caregivers’ Relational Schemas, Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 42, 405 – 417.

  33. van der Giessen, D., Branje, S.J.T., Frijns, T., & Meeus, W. H.J. (2013). Dyadic variability in mother-adolescent interactions: Developmental trajectories and associations with psychosocial functioning. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42, 96 – 108.

  34. Sravish, A. V., Tronick, E., Hollenstein, T., & Beeghly, M. (2013). Dyadic flexibility during the face-to-face still-face paradigm: A dynamic systems analysis of its temporal organization. Infant Behavior and Development, 36, 432 – 437.

  35. Turnnidge, J., Cote, J., Hollenstein, T., & Deakin, J. (2013). A direct observation of the dynamic content and structure of coach-athlete interactions in a model sport program, Journal of Applied Sport Psychology. doi: 10.1080/10413200.2013.821637

  36. Bento, T., Ribeiro, A. P., Salgado, J., Mendes, I., & Gonçalves, M. M. (2014). The Narrative Model of Therapeutic Change: An Exploratory Study Tracking Innovative Moments and Protonarratives Using State Space Grids. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 27(1), 41-58.

  37. Butler, E. A., Hollenstein, T., Shoham, V., & Rohrbaugh, N. (2014). A dynamic state-space analysis of interpersonal emotion regulation in couples who smoke. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 31, 907 – 927.

  38. Herbers, J. E., Cutuli, J. J., Monn, A. R., Narayan, A. J., & Masten, A. S. (2014). Trauma, Adversity, and Parent-Child Relationships among Young Children Experiencing Homelessness. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 42, 1167 – 1174.

  39. Herbers, J. E., Cutuli, J. J., Supkoff, L. M., Narayan, A. J., & Masten, A. S. (2014). Parenting and coregulation: Adaptive systems for competence in children experiencing homelessness. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 84(4), 420 – 430.

  40. Meindertsma, H. B., van Dijk, M. W., Steenbeek, H. W., & van Geert, P. L. (2014). Stability and Variability in Young Children’s Understanding of Floating and Sinking During One Single‐Task Session. Mind, Brain, and Education, 8(3), 149-158.

  41. Pennings, H.J.M., van Tartwijk, J., Wubbels, T., Claessens, L.C.A., van der Want, A.C., & Brekelmans, M. (2014). Real-time teacher–student interactions: A Dynamic Systems approach. Teaching and Teacher Education, 37, 183 – 193.

  42. Pennings, H. J. M., Brekelmans, M. , Wubbels, T., Van Der Want, A. C., Claessens, L. C. A. & Van Tartwijk, J. (2014). A Nonlinear Dynamical Systems Approach to Real-Time Teacher Behavior: Differences between Teachers. Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences, 18(1), 23-45.

  43. Puche-Navarro, R., & Rodríguez-Burgos, L. P. (2014). Particularities and Universalities of the Emergence of Inductive Generalization. Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science.

  44. Smith, J. D., Dishion, T. J., Shaw, D. S., & Wilson, M. N. (2014). Negative Relational Schemas Predict the Trajectory of Coercive Dynamics During Early Childhood. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology.

  45. Smith, J. D., Dishion, T. J., Shaw, D. S., Wilson, M. N., Winter, C. C., & Patterson, G. R. (2014). Coercive family process and early-onset conduct problems from age 2 to school entry. Development and Psychopathology, 26, 917 – 932.

  46. Turner, J. C. (2014). Theory-Based Interventions with Middle-School Teachers to Support Student Motivation and Engagement. In Motivational Interventions (pp. 341-378). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  47. Turner, J. C., Christensen, A., Kackar-Cam, H. Z., Trucano, M., & Fulmer, S. M. (2014). Enhancing Students’ Engagement Report of a 3-Year Intervention With Middle School Teachers. American Educational Research Journal,51, 1195 -1226.

  48. Van der Giessen, D., Branje, S., Keijsers, L., Van Lier, P. A., Koot, H. M., & Meeus, W. (2014). Emotional variability during mother–adolescent conflict interactions: Longitudinal links to adolescent disclosure and maternal control. Journal of Adolescence, 37(1), 23-31.

  49. Barbot, B.,&Perchec, C. (2015). New directions for the study of within-individual variability in development: The power of “N = 1.” In E. L. Grigorenko (Ed.), The global context for new directions for child and adolescent development. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 147, 57–67.

  50. Chávez, J. D., & Montes, J. A. (2015). Verbalization levels and collaborative ill-structured problem solving. Diversitas: Perspectivas en Psicología, 11(1), 55-66.

  51. Coburn, S. S., Crnic, K. A., & Ross, E. K. (2015). Mother–infant dyadic state behaviour: Dynamic systems in the context of risk. Infant and Child Development, 24(3), 274-297.

  52. Guevara Guerrero, M., & Puche-Navarro, R. (2015). The emergence of cognitive short-term planning: Performance of pre-schoolers in a problem-solving task. Acta Colombiana de Psicología, 18(2), 13-27.

  53. Guo, Y., Leu, S. Y., Barnard, K. E., Thompson, E. A., & Spieker, S. J. (2015). An examination of changes in emotion co‐regulation among mother and child dyads during the strange situation. Infant and Child Development,24(3), 256-273.

  54. Hayes, A. M., & Yasinski, C. (2015). Pattern destabilization and emotional processing in cognitive therapy for personality disorders. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1 – 13.

  55. Hayes, A. M., Yasinski, C., Barnes, J. B., & Bockting, C. L. (2015). Network destabilization and transition in depression: new methods for studying the dynamics of therapeutic change. Clinical Psychology Review, 41, 27-39.

  56. Koster, E.H.W., Fang, L., & Marchetti, I., Ebner-Priemer, U., Kirsch, P., Huffzinger, S., Kühner, C. (2015). Examining the relation between affect and rumination in remitted depressed individuals: A dynamic systems analysis. Clinical Psychological Science, 3(4), 619-627.

  57. Kupers, E., van Dijk, M., & van Geert, P. (2015). Within-teacher differences in one-to-one teacher–student interactions in instrumental music lessons. Learning and Individual Differences, 37, 283-289.

  58. Lougheed, J. P., Hollenstein, T., Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A., & Granic, I. (2015). Maternal regulation of child affect in externalizing and typically-developing children. Journal of Family Psychology, 29, 10 – 19.

  59. Provenzi, L., Borgatti, R., Menozzi, G., & Montirosso, R. (2015). A dynamic system analysis of dyadic flexibility and stability across the Face-to-Face Still-Face procedure: Application of the State Space Grid. Infant Behavior and Development, 38, 1-10.

  60. Puche-Navarro, R., & Rodríguez-Burgos, L. P. (2015). Particularities and universalities of the emergence of inductive generalization. Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, 49(1), 104-124.

  61. Smith, J. D., Dishion, T. J., Shaw, D. S., & Wilson, M. N. (2015). Negative relational schemas predict the trajectory of coercive dynamics during early childhood. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43(4), 693-703.

  62. Tomicic, A., Martínez, C., Pérez, J. C., Hollenstein, T., Angulo, S., Gerstmann, A., … & Krause, M. (2015). Discourse-voice regulatory strategies in the psychotherapeutic interaction: a state-space dynamics analysis. Frontiers in Psychology, 6: 378, 1 -17.

  63. Van der Giessen, D., Hollenstein, T., Hale III, W. W., Koot, H. M., Meeus, W., & Branje, S. (2015). Emotional variability in mother-adolescent conflict interactions and internalizing problems of mothers and adolescents: Dyadic and individual processes. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43(2), 339-353.

  64. Boomstra, N. W., van Dijk, M. W., & van Geert, P. L. (2016). Mutuality in mother–child interactions in an Antillean intervention group. Early Child Development and Care, 186(2), 213-228.

  65. Brinberg, M., Ram, N., Hülür, G., Brick, T. R., & Gerstorf, D. (2016). Analyzing Dyadic Data Using Grid-Sequence Analysis: Interdyad Differences in Intradyad Dynamics. Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, gbw160.

  66. Cerezo, M. Á., Pons-Salvador, G., Trenado, R. M., & Sierra-García, P. (2016). Mother-infant verbal/nonverbal interaction as predictor of attachment: Non-linear dynamic analyses. Nonlinear Dynamics in Psychology and the Life Sciences, 20(4), 458-508.

  67. Couto, A. B., Barbosa, E., Silva, S., Bento, T., Teixeira, A. S., Salgado, J., & Cunha, C. (2016). Client’s immersed and distanced speech and therapist’s interventions in emotion-focused therapy for depression: an intensive analysis of a case study. Research in Psychotherapy: Psychopathology, Process and Outcome, 19(2), 136-149.

  68. Erickson, K., & Côté, J. (2016). A season-long examination of the intervention tone of coach–athlete interactions and athlete development in youth sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 22, 264-272.

  69. Gates, K. M., & Liu, S. (2016). Methods for quantifying patterns of dynamic interactions in dyads. Assessment, 23(4) 459– 471.

  70. Granic, I., & Lougheed, J. P. (2016). The role of anxiety in coercive family processes with aggressive children. The Oxford Handbook of Coercive Relationship Dynamics, 231 – 248.

  71. Ha, T., & Granger, D. A. (2016). Family relations, stress, and vulnerability: biobehavioral implications for prevention and practice. Family Relations, 65(1), 9-23.

  72. Hollenstein, T., Allen, N. B., & Sheeber, L. (2016). Affective patterns in triadic family interactions: Associations with adolescent depression.Development and Psychopathology, 28(01), 85-96.

  73. Katerndahl, D. A. (2016). Viewing Mental Health Through the Lens of Complexity Science. In The Value of Systems and Complexity Sciences for Healthcare (pp. 133-145). Springer International Publishing.

  74. Koopmans, M., & Stamovlasis, D. (Eds.). (2016). Complex dynamical systems in education: Concepts, methods and applications. Springer

  75. Lougheed, J. P., Craig, W. M., Pepler, D., Connolly, J., O’Hara, A., Granic, I., & Hollenstein, T. (2016). Maternal and peer regulation of adolescent emotion: Associations with depression symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 44, 963-974.

  76. Lougheed, J. P., & Hollenstein, T. (2016). Socioemotional flexibility in mother-daughter dyads: Riding the emotional rollercoaster across positive and negative contexts. Emotion, 16, 620-633.

  77. Lougheed, J., Hollenstein, T., & Lewis, M. D. (2016). Maternal regulation of daughters’ emotion during conflicts from early to mid-adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 26, 610-616.

  78. Lunkenheimer, E., Kemp, C. J., Lucas‐Thompson, R. G., Cole, P. M., & Albrecht, E. C. (2016). Assessing biobehavioural self‐regulation and coregulation in early childhood: The Parent‐Child Challenge Task. Infant and Child Development.

  79. Mancini, K. J., & Luebbe, A. M. (2016). Dyadic affective flexibility and emotional inertia in relation to youth psychopathology: An integrated model at two timescales. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 19(2), 117-133.

  80. Pennings, H. J., & Mainhard, T. (2016). Analyzing teacher–student interactions with state space grids. In Complex Dynamical Systems in Education (pp. 233-271). Springer International Publishing.

  81. Reuben, J. D., & Shaw, D. S. (2016). Parental depression and the development of coercion in early childhood. The Oxford Handbook of Coercive Relationship Dynamics, 69.

  82. van Vondel, S., Steenbeek, H., van Dijk, M., & van Geert, P. (2016). “Looking at” Educational Interventions: Surplus Value of a Complex Dynamic Systems Approach to Study the Effectiveness of a Science and Technology Educational Intervention. In Complex dynamical systems in education (pp. 203-232). Springer International Publishing.

  83. Bardack, S., Herbers, J. E., & Obradović, J. (2017). Unique Contributions of Dynamic Versus Global Measures of Parent–Child Interaction Quality in Predicting School Adjustment. Journal of Family Psychology.

  84. Brinberg, M., Fosco, G. M., & Ram, N. (2017). Examining inter-family differences in intra-family (parent–adolescent) dynamics using grid-sequence analysis. Journal of Family Psychology, 31(8), 994-1004.

  85. Busuito, A., & Moore, G. A. (2017). Dyadic flexibility mediates the relation between parent conflict and infants’ vagal reactivity during the Face‐to‐Face Still‐Face. Developmental Psychobiology, 59(4), 449-459.

  86. Cerezo, A., Sierra-Garcia, P, Pons-Salvador, G., & Trenado, R. (2017). Parental and Infant Gender Factors in Parent–Infant Interaction: State-Space Dynamic Analysis. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1 – 13.

  87. Dishion, T. J., Mun, C. J., Tein, J. Y., Kim, H., Shaw, D. S., Gardner, F., … & Peterson, J. (2017). The Validation of Macro and Micro Observations of Parent–Child Dynamics Using the Relationship Affect Coding System in Early Childhood. Prevention Science, 18(3), 268-280.

  88. Guastello, S. J. (2017). Nonlinear dynamical systems for theory and research in ergonomics. Ergonomics, 60(2), 167-193.

  89. Guo, Y., Garfin, D. R., Ly, A., & Goldberg, W. A. (2017). Emotion Coregulation in Mother-Child Dyads: A Dynamic Systems Analysis of Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology.

  90. Kupers, E., van Dijk, M., & van Geert, P. (2017). Changing Patterns of Scaffolding and Autonomy During Individual Music Lessons: A Mixed Methods Approach. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 26(1), 131-166.

  91. Lunkenheimer, E., Kemp, C. J., Lucas‐Thompson, R. G., Cole, P. M., & Albrecht, E. C. (2017). Assessing Biobehavioural Self‐Regulation and Coregulation in Early Childhood: The Parent‐Child Challenge Task. Infant and Child Development, 26(1).

  92. Lunkenheimer, E., & Wang, J. (2017). It’s OK to Fail: Individual and Dyadic Regulatory Antecedents of Mastery Motivation in Preschool. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 26, 1481-1490.

  93. McIntyre, N. A., Mainhard, M. T., & Klassen, R. M. (2017). Are you looking to teach? Cultural, temporal and dynamic insights into expert teacher gaze. Learning and Instruction, 49, 41-53.

  94. Sesemann, E. M., Kruse, J., Gardner, B. C., Broadbent, C. L., & Spencer, T. A. (2017). Observed Attachment and Self-Report Affect Within Romantic Relationships. Journal of Couple & Relationship Therapy, 16, 102-121.

  95. van Dijk, R., Deković, M., Bunte, T. L., Schoemaker, K., Zondervan-Zwijnenburg, M., Espy, K. A., & Matthys, W. (2017). Mother-child interactions and externalizing behavior problems in preschoolers over time: inhibitory control as a mediator. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology.

  96. van Vondel, S., Steenbeek, H., van Dijk, M., & van Geert, P. (2017). Ask, don’t tell; A complex dynamic systems approach to improving science education by focusing on the co-construction of scientific understanding. Teaching and Teacher Education, 63, 243-253.

  97. Carper, M. M., Makover, H. B., & Kendall, P. C. (2018). Future directions for the examination of mediators of treatment outcomes in youth. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 47(2), 345-356.

  98. Champion, C., Ha, T., & Dishion, T. (2018). Interpersonal emotion dynamics within young adult romantic and peer relationships. In A. K. Randall & D. Schoebi (Eds.) Interpersonal Emotion Dynamics in Personal Relationships, (pp. 149– 161). New York: Cambridge University Press.

  99. Kupers, E., Van Dijk, M., & Lehmann-Wermser, A. (2018). Creativity in the here and now: A generic, micro-developmental measure of creativity. Frontiers in psychology, 9, 2095.

  100. Lehmann-Willenbrock, N., & Allen, J. A. (2018). Modeling Temporal Interaction Dynamics in Organizational Settings. Journal of Business and Psychology, 33(3), 325-344.

  101. Lougheed, J. & Hollenstein, T. (2018). Methodological Approaches to Studying Interpersonal Emotion Dynamics. In A. K. Randall & D. Schoebi (Eds.) Interpersonal Emotion Dynamics in Personal Relationships, (pp. 75 – 92). New York: Cambridge University Press.

  102. Perry, N. B., & Calkins, S. D. (2018). A biopsychosocial perspective on the development of emotion regulation across childhood. In P. M. Cole & T. Hollenstein (Eds.) Emotion Regulation: A Matter of Time (pp. 21 – 48). New York: Routledge.

  103. de Ruiter, N., Hollenstein, T., van Geert, P. L. C., & Kunnen, S. (2018). Self-esteem as a complex dynamic system: Intrinsic and extrinsic micro-level dynamics. Complexity. 1 – 19.

  104. Sels, L., Ceulemans, E., & Kuppens, P. (2018). A general framework for capturing interpersonal emotion dynamics. In A. K. Randall & D. Schoebi (Eds.) Interpersonal Emotion Dynamics in Personal Relationships, (pp. 27 – 46). New York: Cambridge University Press.

  105. Valentovich, V., Goldberg, W. A., Garfin, D. R., & Guo, Y. (2018). Emotion Coregulation Processes between Mothers and their Children With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorder: Associations with Children’s Maladaptive Behaviors. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 48(4), 1235-1248.

  106. van der Giessen, D., & Bögels, S. M. (2018). Father-Child and Mother-Child Interactions with Children with Anxiety Disorders: Emotional Expressivity and Flexibility of Dyads. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 46(2), 331-342.

  107. Andre, A., Louvet, B., Despois, J., & Velez, C. (2019). A Preliminary Exploration of the Inclusion of a Child With Autism in a Preschool With Complex Dynamic Systems. The Journal of Special Education.

  108. Broadbent C.L., Spencer T.A., Gardner B.C., Hardy N. (2019). The Heart of Conversation: Using State Space Grids to Disentangle Cardiovascular and Affect Dynamics During Couple Interaction. In: Harrist A., Gardner B. (eds) Biobehavioral Markers in Risk and Resilience Research. Emerging Issues in Family and Individual Resilience. (pp. 31- 48) Springer.

  109. Colegrove, V. M., Havighurst, S. S., & Kehoe, C. E. (2019). Emotion regulation during conflict interaction after a systemic music intervention: Understanding changes for parents with a trauma history and their adolescent. Nordic Journal of Music Therapy, 28, 405 – 425.

  110. Fang, L., Marchetti, I., Hoorelbeke, K., & Koster, E. H. (2019). Do daily dynamics in rumination and affect predict depressive symptoms and trait rumination? An experience sampling study. Journal of behavior therapy and experimental psychiatry, 63, 66-72.

  111. Fu, X., Nelson, E. E., Borge, M., Buss, K. A., & Pérez-Edgar, K. (2019). Stationary and ambulatory attention patterns are differentially associated with early temperamental risk for socioemotional problems: Preliminary evidence from a multimodal eye-tracking investigation. Development and psychopathology.

  112. Fu, X., & Pérez-Edgar, K. (2019). Threat-related attention bias in socioemotional development: A critical review and methodological considerations. Developmental Review, 51, 31-57.

  113. Gainforth, H. L., Lorencatto, F. , Erickson, K. , Baxter, K. , Owens, K. , Michie, S. and West, R. (2019). Use of dynamic systems methods to characterize dyadic interactions in smoking cessation behavioural support sessions: A feasibility study. Br J Health Psychol, (24) 192-214.

  114. Ghafarpour, H., & Moinzadeh, A. (2019). A dynamic systems analysis of classrooms: teacher experience and student motivation. Learning Environments Research, 1-16.

  115. Ha, T., Kim, H., & McGill, S. (2019). When conflict escalates into intimate partner violence: The delicate nature of observed coercion in adolescent romantic relationships. Development and psychopathology, 31(5), 1729-1739.

  116. Hollenstein, T. & Tsui, T. (2019). Systems in Transition: The Adolescent Phase Transition. In E. S. Kunnen (Ed.) Psychosocial Development in Adolescence: Insights from the Dynamic Systems Approach, (pp. 17 -31). New York: Routledge.

  117. Meinecke, A. L., de Sanchez, C. S. H., Lehmann-Willenbrock, N., & Buengeler, C. (2019). Using State Space Grids for Modeling Temporal Team Dynamics. Frontiers in psychology, 10, 863.

  118. Olenick, J., Blume, B. D., & Ford, J. K. (2019). Advancing training and transfer research through the application of nonlinear dynamics. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 1-15.

  119. Skoranski, A., Coatsworth, J. D., & Lunkenheimer, E. (2019). A Dynamic Systems Approach to Understanding Mindfulness in Interpersonal Relationships. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 1-14.

  120. Slagt, M., Dubas, J. S., Ellis, B. J., Van Aken, M. A., & Deković, M. (2019). Linking emotional reactivity “for better and for worse” to differential susceptibility to parenting among kindergartners. Development and psychopathology, 31(2), 741-758.

  121. Eenshuistra, A., Harder, A. T., & Knorth, E. J. (2020). Professionalizing Care Workers: Outcomes of a ‘Motivational Interviewing’ Training in Residential Youth Care. Residential Treatment for Children & Youth, 1-21.

  122. Gray, D. L., McElveen, T. L., Green, B. P., & Bryant, L. H. (2020). Engaging Black and Latinx students through communal learning opportunities: A relevance intervention for middle schoolers in STEM elective classrooms. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 60, 101833.

  123. Hayes, A. M., & Andrews, L. (2020). Early warning signs in complex systems: the study of transitions in psychotherapy. In Selbstorganisation–ein Paradigma für die Humanwissenschaften (pp. 113-132). Springer, Wiesbaden.

  124. Katerndahl, D., Burge, S. K., Ferrer, R. L., Becho, J., & Wood, R. (2020). Complex relationship between daily partner violence and alcohol use among violent heterosexual men. Journal of interpersonal violence, 0886260519897324.

  125. Lobo, F. M., & Lunkenheimer, E. (2020). Understanding the parent-child coregulation patterns shaping child self-regulation. Developmental Psychology.

  126. Lougheed, J. P., Brinberg, M., Ram, N., & Hollenstein, T. (2020). Emotion socialization as a dynamic process across emotion contexts. Developmental psychology, 56(3), 553 – 565.

  127. Lougheed, J. P., Main, A., & Helm, J. L. (2020). Mother–adolescent emotion dynamics during conflicts: Associations with perspective taking. Journal of Family Psychology.

  128. Lunkenheimer, E., Hamby, C. M., Lobo, F. M., Cole, P. M., & Olson, S. L. (2020). The role of dynamic, dyadic parent–child processes in parental socialization of emotion. Developmental psychology, 56(3), 566.

  129. Pennings, H. J. M. & Hollenstein, T. (2020). Teacher-Student Interactions and Teacher Interpersonal Styles: A State Space Grid Analysis. Journal of Experimental Education, 88, 382 – 406.

  130. Pérez-Edgar, K., MacNeill, L. A., & Fu, X. (2020). Navigating Through the Experienced Environment: Insights From Mobile Eye Tracking. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 0963721420915880.

  131. Armstrong‐Carter, E., Sulik, M. J., & Obradović, J. (2021). Self‐regulated behavior and parent‐child co‐regulation are associated with young children's physiological response to receiving critical adult feedback. Social Development, 63(7), 30(3), 730-747

  132. Armstrong‐Carter, E., Sulik, M. J., & Obradović, J. (2021). Self‐regulated behavior and parent‐child co‐regulation are associated with young children's physiological response to receiving critical adult feedback. Social Development, 30(3), 730-747.

  133. Carper, M. M., Silk, J. S., Ladouceur, C. D., Forbes, E. E., McMakin, D., Ryan, N., & Kendall, P. C. (2021). Changes in Affective Network Variability Among Youth Treated for Anxiety Disorders. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 1-12.

  134. Cerezo, M. A., Abdelmaseh, M., Trenado, R. M., Pons-Salvador, G., & Bohr, Y. (2021). The temporal dimension in the understanding of maternal sensitivity in caregiver-infant interactions: The ‘Early Mother-Child Interaction Coding System’. Infant Behavior and Development, 63, 101563.

  135. Eenshuistra, A., Harder, A. T., & Knorth, E. J. (2021). Professionalizing care workers: Outcomes of a ‘motivational interviewing’ training in residential youth care. Residential Treatment for Children & Youth, 38(3), 248-268.

  136. Gao, M. M., Papp, L. M., & Cummings, E. M. (2021). Typologies of daily relationship quality in marital and parent–child subsystems: Implications for child adjustment. Journal of Family Psychology.

  137. Geeraerts, S. B., Endendijk, J., Deater-Deckard, K., Huijding, J., Deutz, M. H., van den Boomen, C., & Deković, M. (2021). The role of parental self-regulation and household chaos in parent-toddler interactions: A time-series study. Journal of Family Psychology, 35(2), 236.

  138. Ghafarpour, H., & Moinzadeh, A. (2021). Interpersonal Behavior: More vs. Less Favorable Teachers. Two Quarterly Journal of English Language Teaching and Learning University of Tabriz, 13(28), 79-94.

  139. Guo, Y., Spieker, S. J., & Borelli, J. L. (2021). Emotion Co-Regulation Among Mother-Preschooler Dyads Completing the Strange Situation: Relations to Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 30(3), 699-710.

  140. Hilliard, L. J., & Liben, L. S. (2021). Parental socialization about sexism: Do socialization beliefs match behavior? Research in Human Development, 18(4), 274-294.

  141. Katerndahl, D., Burge, S. K., Ferrer, R. L., Becho, J., & Wood, R. (2021). Complex relationship between daily partner violence and alcohol use among violent heterosexual men. Journal of interpersonal violence, 36(23-24), 10912-10937.

  142. Lunkenheimer, E., Skoranski, A. M., Lobo, F. M., & Wendt, K. E. (2021). Parental depressive symptoms, parent–child dyadic behavioral variability, and child dysregulation. Journal of Family Psychology, 35(2), 247.

  143. MacNeill, L. A., Fu, X., Buss, K. A., & Pérez-Edgar, K. (2021). Do you see what I mean?: Using mobile eye tracking to capture parent–child dynamics in the context of anxiety risk. Development and psychopathology, 1-16.

  144. Mancini, K., & Luebbe, A. M. (2021). Dyadic affective flexibility: Measurement considerations and the impact of youth internalizing symptoms on flexibility. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 43(1), 131-141.

  145. Menninga, A., van Geert, P., van Vondel, S., Steenbeek, H., & van Dijk, M. (2021). Teacher-Student Interaction Patterns Change During an Early Science Teaching Intervention. Research in Science Education, 1-27.

  146. Morrison, S., Henderson, A. M., Sagar, M., Kennedy-Costantini, S., & Adams, J. (2021). Peek-a-who? Exploring the dynamics of early communication with an interactive partner swap paradigm and state space grid visualization. Infant Behavior and Development, 64, 101576.

  147. Obradović, J., Sulik, M. J., & Shaffer, A. (2021). Learning to let go: Parental over-engagement predicts poorer self-regulation in kindergartners. Journal of Family Psychology.

  148. Paoletti, J., Bisbey, T. M., Zajac, S., Waller, M. J., & Salas, E. (2021). Looking to the middle of the qualitative-quantitative spectrum for integrated mixed methods. Small Group Research, 52(6), 641-675.

  149. Shaw, R. B., Giroux, E. E., Gainforth, H. L., McBride, C. B., Vierimaa, M., & Ginis, K. A. M. (2021). Investigating the influence of interaction modality on the communication patterns of spinal cord injury peer mentors. Patient education and counseling.

  150. Solomon, D. H., Brinberg, M., Bodie, G. D., Jones, S., & Ram, N. (2021). A dynamic dyadic systems approach to interpersonal communication. Journal of Communication, 71(6), 1001-1026.

  151. Trenado, R. M., Cerezo, M., Sierra-García, P., & Pons-Salvador, G. (2021). Sequential coding of maternal sensitivity: Application of nonlinear dynamic analyses and reliability. Quality & Quantity, 55(3), 827-844.

  152. van Dijk, M. (2021). A complex dynamical systems approach to the development of feeding problems in early childhood. Appetite, 157, 104982.

  153. Brown, K. M., Pérez‐Edgar, K., & Lunkenheimer, E. (2022). Understanding how child temperament, negative parenting, and dyadic parent–child behavioral variability interact to influence externalizing problems. Social Development.

  154. David, L. Z., Schraagen, J. M., & Endedijk, M. (2022). Toward the incorporation of temporal interaction analysis techniques in modeling and understanding sociotechnical systems. Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing & Service Industries, 32(1), 35-49.

  155. Lepola, J., Kajamies, A., & Tiilikainen, M. (2022). Opportunities and participation in conversations: The roles of teacher’s approaches to dialogic reading and child’s story comprehension. Journal of Early Childhood Education Research, 11(1), 204-232.

  156. McKone, K. M., & Silk, J. S. (2022). The Emotion Dynamics Conundrum in Developmental Psychopathology: Similarities, Distinctions, and Adaptiveness of Affective Variability and Socioaffective Flexibility. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 1-31.

  157. Mellado, A., Guastello, S. J., Martínez, C., Tomicic, A., & Krause, M. (2022). Self‐organisation in dialogical patterns of a patient with borderline personality disorder and their therapist: A case study from nonlinear dynamics perspective. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research.

  158. Smit, N., van Dijk, M., de Bot, K., & Lowie, W. (2022). The complex dynamics of adaptive teaching: observing teacher-student interaction in the language classroom. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 60(1), 23-40.

  159. André A, Despois J, Amiot L and Deneuve P (2022). Dynamics of the interaction between adults and a preschool child with autism: Transition from segregated to inclusive settings. Front. Educ. 7:1003750. doi: 10.3389/feduc.2022.1003750

  160. Jacobson, S., & Degotardi, S. (2022). A dynamic systems approach to joint attention in an infant-toddler early childhood centre. Learning, Culture and Social Interaction, 32, 100574-.

  161. Jacobson, S., & Degotardi, S. (2022). A dynamic systems methodological approach to understanding the collaborative nature of joint attention in early childhood settings. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 47(4), 320–334.

  162. MacNeill, L. A., Fu, X., Buss, K. A., & Pérez-Edgar, K. (2022). Do you see what I mean?: Using mobile eye tracking to capture parent–child dynamics in the context of anxiety risk. Development and Psychopathology, 34(3), 997–1012.

  163. Mellado, A., Martínez, C., Tomicic, A., & Krause, M. (2022). Identification of Dynamic Patterns of Personal Positions in a Patient Diagnosed With Borderline Personality Disorder and the Therapist During Change Episodes of the Psychotherapy. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, 716012–716012.

  164. Ryttinger, R., Serralta, F., Pires, N., Basto, I., Melo, G., & Ribeiro, E. (2022). Therapeutic collaboration in a comfort zone: a non-improved borderline patient psychotherapy case study (Colaboración terapéutica en una zona de confort: estudio de un caso de psicoterapia de un paciente borderline que no experimentó mejoría). Estudios de Psicología, 43(3), 639–665.

  165. Shaw, R. B., Giroux, E. E., Gainforth, H. L., McBride, C. B., Vierimaa, M., & Martin Ginis, K. A. (2022). Investigating the influence of interaction modality on the communication patterns of spinal cord injury peer mentors. Patient Education and Counseling, 105(5), 1229–1236.

  166. Stanger, S. B., & Abaied, J. L. (2022). Predictive utility of a novel observational assessment of child coping. Social Development (Oxford, England), 31(2), 265–280.

  167. Zhang, J., Buchanan, G. J. R., Piehler, T. F., Gunlicks-Stoessel, M., & Bloomquist, M. L. (2022). The Relationship Between Parent-Adolescent Conflict Dynamics and Adolescent Depression. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 31(9), 2535–2544.

  168. Hoekstra, F., Martin Ginis, K. A., Collins, D., Dinwoodie, M., Ma, J. K., Gaudet, S., Rakiecki, D., & Gainforth, H. L. (2023). Applying state space grids methods to characterize counsellor-client interactions in a physical activity behavioural intervention for adults with disabilities. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 65, 102350–102350.

  169. Li, X., Chen, H., Hu, Y., Larsen, R. J., Sutton, B. P., McElwain, N. L., & Gao, W. (2023). Functional neural network connectivity at 3 months predicts infant-mother dyadic flexibility during play at 6 months. Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y. 1991), 33(13), 8321–8332.

  170. Quiñones-Camacho, L. E., Whalen, D. J., Luby, J. L., & Gilbert, K. E. (2023). A Dynamic Systems Analysis of Dyadic Flexibility and Shared Affect in Preschoolers with and Without Major Depressive Disorder. Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology, 51(8), 1225–1235.

  171. Smit, N., van Dijk, M., de Bot, K., Lowie, W. (2023). The Teacher’s Turn: Teachers’ Perceptions of Observed Patterns of Classroom Interaction. In: Maulana, R., Helms-Lorenz, M., Klassen, R.M. (eds) Effective Teaching Around the World. Springer, Cham.

  172. Sosa-Hernandez, L., Wilson, M., & Henderson, H. A. (2023). Emotion Dynamics Among Preadolescents Getting to Know Each Other: Dyadic Associations With Shyness. Emotion (Washington, D.C.), 23(4), 949–960.

  173. Soucie, K., Scott, S. A., Partridge, T., Hakim-Larson, J., Babb, K. A., & Voelker, S. (2023). Meta-Emotion and Emotion Socialization by Mothers of Preschoolers During Storytelling Tasks. Journal of Child and Family Studies.

  174. Yang, B., Xie, C., Liu, T., Xu, J., & Li, W. (2023). Exploring the relationship between teacher talk supports and student engagement from the perspective of students’ perceived care. Interactive Learning Environments, 1–20.

  175. Zeinstra, L., Kupers, E., Loopers, J., & de Boer, A. (2023). Real-time teacher-student interactions: The dynamic interplay between need supportive teaching and student engagement over the course of one school year. Teaching and Teacher Education, 121, 103906-.

  176. de Barbaro, K., Khante, P., Maier, M., & Goodman, S. (2024). Maternal Contingent Responses to Distress Facilitate Infant Soothing but Not in Mothers With Depression or Infants High in Negative Affect. Developmental Psychology, 60(2), 294–305.

  177. Despois, J., & André, A. (2024). Inclusion of children with autism spectrum disorder in preschool: Investigation of adult–child interactions in two inclusive classes over one school year. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs : JORSEN.

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  180. Zeinab Mousavi, S., Borhani, K., Gharibzadeh, S., & Bakouie, F. (2024). Looking at self-control development in adolescence through dynamic systems concepts: An agent-based modeling approach. Developmental Review, 71, 101116-.

Tom Hollenstein, PhD
SSG Project Coordinator

Email: Tom Hollenstein


For Windows and Mac OS X.

GridWare is a versatile visualization and data manipulation tool for multivariate time series of sequential (ordinal or categorical) data. The original application was written by Alex Lamey, and is based on the work of Marc Lewis and colleagues, who devised state space grids based on dynamic systems principles. It is recommended that new users read the GridWare manual and Hollenstein (2007) (see Publications tab) before setting up data for GridWare.

There are now 3 programs that can be downloaded (from the GridWare Download tab below):

  1. GridWare 1.1 is the original program [GridWare Manual PDF, (PDF, 1.2 MB)] which has also been translated into Spanish by J. Carola Perez STATE-SPECE-GRID_ESPAÑOL.pdf (PDF, 2.4 MB)

  2. GridWare 1.15(beta) is a recently revised form of the program that includes measures of entropy and transitional propensities – however, this is a beta version and there may be bugs so check results carefully. Explanation of Entropy and Transitional Propensities Calculations (PDF, 114 KB)

  3. GridWare File Converter for reformatting ODF files from the Noldus Observer and for reformatting existing GridWare projects. GridWare File Converter Manual (PDF, 1.2 MB)

All GridWare programs are written in Java and can be run on both Mac and Windows computers. We are currently seeking the funding to upgrade the program to enhance usability and add many display, measurement, and analysis features.

GridWare 1.1 is freeware, and is copyrighted (2004) by Alex Lamey, Tom Hollenstein, Marc D. Lewis, and Isabela Granic. Any scholarly reference to this program should be to: Lamey, A., Hollenstein, T., Lewis, M.D., & Granic, I (2004). GridWare (Version 1.1).

In order to download GridWare, please fill in the following form, so that we can stay informed about who is using it, and how, and alert you when future releases are available. We may also invite you to post a description of your research on this site. We will not use your email address for any other purpose, nor release it to anyone.

There are now 3 programs that can be downloaded:

  1. GridWare 1.1 is the original program (**NOTE: Mac users are advised to use version 1.15a)

  2. GridWare 1.15 is a revised form of the program that includes measures of entropy and transitional propensities

  3. GridWare File Converter for reformatting ODF files from the Noldus Observer and for reformatting existing GridWare projects.

Clink link to download. If any problem occurs, email via contact page.

Quick Links

Windows 7, 8, & XP (may also work on 98/NT/ME/2000)

Mac OS X (NOTE: we have discontinued version 1.1 for Mac as this version will only work for OS 10.5 or earlier. Please contact the administrator if you require this version)

Excel Macros

Excel macros for working with TRJ files. Our team (Ellen O’Donoghue, Kate Jackson, Samantha Goldsmith, Jordan Theriault, Effie Pereira, Jess Lougheed, and Tom Hollenstein) has created many macros over the years. Kate Jackson and Samantha Goldsmith have compiled these and made them usable for the general public. These macros handle graphing, preparation of time series (e.g., combining psychophysiological data with observational data in TRJ format), appending TRJs into one long file, creating new variables within TRJs, correlations among state variables within TRJs, file naming, and conversion from Noldus Observer’s XML format to TRJ.

These are all contained in one zipped file (newest version October 22, 2015): (Zip file, 4.3 MB)

Please contact Tom Hollenstein with any problems downloading or using these macros.