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Academic Integrity

The Center for Academic Integrity (CAI) defines academic integrity as a commitment, even in the face of adversity, to five fundamental values: honesty, trust, fairness, respect, and responsibility. From these values flow principles of behavior that enable academic communities to translate ideals into action.

Academic integrity provides the foundation for learning, teaching, research and service at Queen's University. Its central values of honesty, trust, fairness, respect and responsibility enable instructors, students and staff to contribute to a community of knowledge dedicated to the freedom of inquiry and open exchange that characterizes the educational environment at Queen's.

Academic integrity provides a foundation for the freedom of inquiry and exchange of ideas fundamental to the educational environment at Queen's University. As a member of the Centre for Academic Integrity (CAI), Queen's subscribes to the definition of academic integrity as a commitment, even in the face of adversity, to five fundamental values: honesty, trust, fairness, respect and responsibility.

Any behaviour that compromises these values is considered a departure from academic integrity and may be subject to the remedies and sanctions as established by the Faculty of Arts and Science.

General Information on Academic Integrity

Academic integrity is a concept used to support learning, teaching, research and service within Arts and Science, throughout Queen's and at a wide range of institutions across Canada and the United States. The website for the Center for Academic Integrity offers the widest range of online resources for the study and practice of academic integrity, but the following links offer some basic sources of policy and practice in the Faculty of Arts and Science and at Queen's:

Students

Academic practices which demonstrate understanding of and adherence to the fundamental values underlying academic integrity bring the work of the seminar, the essay, the lab, the report, the oral presentation and all other dimensions of student learning into the community of scholarship. Further they should ask instructors wherever there is any uncertainty about proper academic citation. And if faced with an investigation of a departure from academic integrity, students should inform themselves of the process and seek advice on how to deal with such matters.

See Appeal of a Departure from Academic Integrity

What is a departure from Academic Integrity?

A departure from academic integrity is any form of academic misconduct that could result in gaining an unearned advantage over your fellow classmates. It also compromises and violates the University's core values of academic integrity. The following list offers some examples:

  • Plagiarism (presenting anotherís ideas or phrasings as one's own without proper acknowledgement)

Examples: copying and pasting from the internet, a printed source, or other resource without proper acknowledgement; copying from another student; using direct quotations or large sections of paraphrased material in an assignment without appropriate acknowledgement; submitting the same piece of work in more than one course without the permission of the instructor(s).

  • Use of unauthorized materials

Examples: possessing or using unauthorized study materials or aids during a test; copying from another's test paper; using unauthorized calculator or other aids during a test; unauthorized removal of materials from the library, or deliberate concealment of library materials.

  • Facilitation (enabling anotherís breach of academic integrity)

Examples: making information available to another student; knowingly allowing one's essay or assignment to be copied by someone else; buying or selling of term papers or assignments and submitting them as one's own for the purpose of plagiarism. iv Forgery (submitting counterfeit documents or statements) Example: creating a transcript or other official document.

  • Falsification (misrepresentation of one's self, one's work or one's relation to the University)

Examples: altering transcripts or other official documents relating to student records; impersonating someone in an examination or test; submitting a take-home examination written, in whole or in part, by someone else; fabricating or falsifying laboratory or research data.

Academic Integrity FAQ's

How does the Investigation process work?
The instructor's first step is to bring the matter to your attention. Using the Notice of Investigation form letter, the instructor will inform you of the following:

  • the information on which the investigation is based (you should be supplied with all documents related to the investigation);
  • the possible sanctions (as listed in the Academic Integrity Regulation 1 of the Calendar)
  • the opportunity to respond to the investigation in writing or in person; and
  • the right to have representation for any response made to the investigation of departure from academic integrity (for instance, you may contact the Coordinator of Dispute Resolution Mechanisms).

How much time do I have to respond to the instructor?
You have 10 days after receiving the Notice of Investigation to contact the instructor to schedule a meeting or to indicate that you will respond in writing. Do not delay contacting the instructor, even if it is to tell the instructor that you need more time to prepare your response.

When agreeing on a meeting date, you should give yourself enough time to review the evidence provided by the instructor, assemble all drafts and related materials relevant to the particular piece of work at issue, and seek advice (if desired) from an informed member of the Queen's community, such as the Coordinator of Dispute Resolution Mechanisms, or anyone whose advice you trust and value (e.g. a friend, close relative, counselor, advisor).

What happens after the instructor finishes the investigation?
If the instructor is satisfied with your explanation and determines that there are no grounds for a finding of departure from academic integrity, all documents related to the case will be destroyed and the instructor will inform you that the matter has been closed.

  1. If the instructor believes that there is evidence that a departure from academic integrity has taken place, the instructor will make a Finding and then determine an appropriate sanction or remedy. At this point, evidence of previous departures from academic integrity becomes relevant, and you can expect that the instructor with check with the Associate Deans (Studies) to find out if there is a previous finding of departure from academic integrity on your record.
  2. If you have a previous finding on record, the instructor will refer the case to the Associate Deans (Studies) for sanctioning. The instructor will use the Finding form to notify you of the finding and the referral.
  3. If there is no previous finding, the instructor will set a remedy or sanction and use the Finding form to notify you of the decision.

What if I have a previous finding of departure from academic integity on record?
If you have a previous finding on record, the instructor will refer the new finding to the Associate Deans (Studies) for sanctioning. The instructor will use the Finding form to notify you of the finding and the referral. The Associate Dean (Studies) will review the case and may set a more serious sanction than an instructor can impose.

What are the purposes of the investigation?

  • To seek the truth.
  • To clarify events or actions.
  • To provide an open and fair forum to both the instructor and the student to explain their actions.
  • To make the best decision based on all of the available evidence.
  • To respect all parties in the process.
  • To maintain an academic environment where all students can be successful and free to explore ideas, to build and advance knowledge and to share the ideas and knowledge that emerges from a range of intellectual pursuits.

May I drop a course before an investigation is undertaken?
You may not drop the course while an investigation is under way; however there is no mechanism on SOLUS to prevent you from doing so prior to the academic deadline. Therefore, the instructor will proceed with the investigation whether or not you drop the course. If your instructor, or the Office of the Associate Deans (Studies), becomes aware that you have dropped the course while under investigation, you will be reinstated by the Faculty Office pending a decision on the case. If the investigation results in a finding of a departure from academic integrity, and it is discovered that you dropped the course, you will be reinstated at that time.

What happens if I do not respond to the Notice of Investigation?
The investigation process can proceed without your participation, and a decision will be reached without your input after the stated time for you to respond has elapsed. The instructor will base the decision on the basis of the available evidence.

What is expected of me?
It is important that you participate in the investigation process!

  • Remember that you are always responsible for your actions.
  • Be aware of your rights and responsibilities 
  • Seek advice from knowledgeable people, such as the Coordinator of Dispute Resolution Mechanisms.
  • Respond promptly to each request for a meeting or information.
  • If you realize you have made a mistake, take responsibility for it. This allows the process to move to the important work of considering an appropriate remedy or sanction. Mitigating circumstances such as prompt admission of a departure from academic integrity or an expression of regret and a willingness to undertake educative remedies can be taken into account by the instructor to ensure that the penalty imposed is fair, reasonable, and proportionate to the gravity of the departure.
  • Bring all information that you think is important to the meeting (e.g. study notes, rough drafts of papers, witness contact information, etc.)
  • Tell the truth. Don't complicate matters by fudging the details. Such a strategy can, and does, lead students into more serious problems.
  • Trust the process - don't be defensive. If you aren't responsible, this will come out in the investigation. Remember the instructor who is investigating your situation is also exploring your innocence. Share everything that helps demonstrate that innocence.
  • You don't have to accept the decision of the instructor. You have the right to appeal the finding and/or the remedy or sanction to the Associate Deans (Studies).

What is the purpose of meeting with my instructor?
The purpose of the meeting is for the instructor to hear your side of the story and to also explain why they have initiated the investigation. Be prepared to discuss, in detail, the work under question along with how the evidence came about and to explain your line of thinking in preparing the work the way you did. You may also choose to prepare something in writing to leave with the instructor, along with copies of drafts, etc. If you donít wish to meet in person during the investigation process, you may provide your input in writing.

What happens at the meeting with my instructor?

  • This meeting is your opportunity to discuss the situation and to explain your actions from your point-of-view. The instructor will be trying to establish the facts of the case and look for evidence that will either support a finding or show that there is no basis for a finding. You can review the evidence the instructor has provided (e.g., the piece of work in question) and the reasons the instructor thinks the evidence shows that a departure from academic integrity may have taken place. You will have an opportunity to respond and to ask questions about the process.
  • Normally the instructor will not make a decision at the meeting, but will prepare a written decision for you following the meeting. The instructor has 21 days after sending you the Notice of Investigation to investigate the case and come to a decision. Before making a decision, the instructor will review the facts that came out at the meeting, any written response you may have provided, and the other evidence available.

Can I bring a friend or representative with me to the meeting?
To assist you with this investigation meeting you may invite any advisor that you wish, e.g. a friend, advocate, University Dispute Resolution Advisor, or legal support person of your choice. If you decide to bring legal counsel, however, you must advise the instructor in advance.

Do I need legal counsel present during the investigation process?
You do not need legal counsel, but you may have representative counsel with you at the meeting(s) and/or in preparing your response. If you decide to bring legal counsel to the meeting(s), you must advise the instructor in advance.

What are my rights as a student?

  • You have the right to know that you are being investigated for a departure from academic integrity, the evidence upon which the investigation is being mounted, and the academic regulations that govern academic integrity matters, including the possible sanctions or remedies.
  • You have the right to respond fully to the investigation. You may meet with the instructor in person; you may prepare a written response; or you may do both.
  • You have the right to obtain help in preparing your response.
  • If you wish to meet with the instructor, you may be accompanied by an advisor of your choice.
  • You have the right to be considered innocent of the charges until proven responsible by clear and convincing evidence;
  • you have the right to appeal the decision, if desired.

What kind of sanctions will I be given?
Each case is treated individually; therefore, sanctions will vary from case to case. Depending on the nature of the departure, a sanction may consist of a remedy which is meant to an educational process or it may be more severe. Where there is a finding of departure from academic integrity, the instructor is expected to assign an appropriate remedy or sanction that reflects the extent and severity of the departure, and past precedents in the Academic Unit and Faculty. The instructor may consult his or her undergraduate Chair and Department Head concerning the matter. The range of remedies or sanctions that the instructor can impose include:

  • rewriting or revising the assignment
  • the completion of other work
  • a low mark as is judged necessary
  • a failing grade (down to a grade of zero) in the course.
  • Or, if the instructor believes that a more serious penalty is warranted, the case shall be referred to the Associate Deans (Studies), who can impose not only the sanctions listed above, but more serious sanctions including a recommendation to the Senate Committee on Academic Procedures that a student be required to withdraw.
  • Repeated departures from academic integrity will result in increased sanctions.

What factors might influence the sanction that the instructor (or the Associate Deans (Studies)) sets?
Any sanction should reflect the extent and severity of the departure from academic integrity and precedents in the Academic Unit and Faculty taking into account any mitigating circumstances. Factors which should be considered in assigning a remedy or sanction include the following:

  1. Evidence of a deliberate attempt to gain advantage;
  2. Seriousness of the departure having regard to its actual or potential consequences;
  3. The extent to which the work or conduct in question forms a significant portion of the final grade and whether the extent of the departure is substantial as demonstrated by the work or conduct in question;
  4. Injury to another student or to the institution;
  5. Multiple departures within a single incident or multiple departures discovered at one time, rather than an isolated aberration;
  6. The departure has been committed by an upper-year student who ought to be familiar with the expectations for academic integrity in the discipline, department and/or Faculty;
  7. Conduct that intimidated others or provoked the misconduct by others;

In addition, there may be occasions where there may be mitigating circumstances, that is, circumstances beyond your control. Although mitigating circumstances do not exonerate or excuse from the finding of a departure from academic integrity, these factors should be taken into account to ensure that the penalty imposed is fair, reasonable, and proportionate to the gravity of the departure found. The decision must outline the evidence supporting reliance on the mitigating circumstances. The onus is on the student to produce evidence of mitigating circumstances. The sorts of mitigating circumstances that may be relevant include:

  1. Documented evidence from an appropriate health professional of factors directly compromising the student's capacity to adhere to the standards of academic integrity at the relevant time;
  2. Prompt admission to the alleged departure from academic integrity by the student and expression of contrition and willingness to undertake educative remedies;
  3. Evidence that reasonable steps were not taken in the circumstances to bring the standards and expectations regarding academic integrity to the attention of the student at the relevant time.

What sanctions (penalties) may an instructor impose for a finding of departure of academic integrity?
The instructor may consider a range of remedies or sanctions including:

  • an oral or written warning that such infractions constitute unacceptable behaviour;
  • a learning experience involving a rewriting or revision of the original piece of work;
  • the submission of a new piece of work;
  • the completion of other work;
  • the deduction of partial or total loss of marks for the assignment/exam;
  • or a failing grade (down to a grade of zero) in the course.

What sanctions (penalties) may the Associate Deans (Studies) impose for a finding of departure of academic integrity?
If there is a finding of a departure from academic integrity, a range of remedies or sanctions including, but not limited to, one or more of the following may be assessed:

  1. an oral or written warning;
  2. the submission of a revised or new piece of work;
  3. partial or total loss of marks for the assignment/examination;
  4. partial or total loss of marks for the course in which the departure of academic integrity took place;
  5. an official written warning that the penalty for a subsequent offence could be a requirement to withdraw from the Faculty or University for a specified minimum period of time;
  6. the rescinding of University- or Faculty-awarded scholarships, prizes and/or bursaries;
  7. a requirement to withdraw from the Faculty for a specified minimum period of time;
  8. a recommendation to withdraw from the University for a specified minimum period of time;
  9. a recommendation for the revocation or rescinding of a degree.

When will I learn of the instuctor's decision and remedy (or sanction)?
After considering the available evidence and your explanation, the instructor will make a decision within 21 days of notifying you of the investigation. If the instructor makes a a finding of departure of academic integrity, this will be sent to you with a copy to the Office of the Associate Deans (Studies). The finding will include the following:

  1. the decision or finding of departure from academic integrity
  2. the remedy or sanctions
  3. the type of departure Level I or Level II
  4. the opportunity to appeal the finding and/or the sanction to the Associate Deans (Studies)
  5. the deadline for appealing to the Associate Deans (Studies)
  6. the resources available for consultation (the instructor should inform you of the services provided by the Coordinator of Dispute Resolution Mechanisms)

What if I do not agree with the decision of the investigation?
If you do not agree with the instructor's decision, you may appeal the finding of departure from academic integrity and/or the sanction imposed as a result of an instructor's finding to the Associate Deans (Studies). You have 21 calendar days after receiving the decision to submit a written appeal and copies of the relevant documents. Normally, the Associate Deans (Studies) will meet with the student (and his or her representative), the instructor (and his or her representative), and witnesses where appropriate to conduct a thorough investigation of the evidence. See Appeals Regulation 2 for more information.

Will this finding stay on my record?
Whether the finding remains on your record depends on the severity of the behaviour that leads to the finding and your academic experience.

  • A Level I finding will not be kept in your main file, but in a separate special file that will only be accessed if there is a future finding.
  • Level II finding will be kept in your main student file.

What is the difference between a Level I and Level II finding?
Normally, a finding will be considered Level I, unless one of the following factors applies, in which case it will be characterized as Level II:

  • a departure that involves an essential component of the course for which a failing grade would normally result in a failure in the course
  • an upper-year student who has taken several previous courses in the discipline (for instance, a fourth-year student in a concentration course)
  • previous departure(s) from academic integrity (the instructor would refer the new case to the Associate Deans)
  • significant and unacknowledged use of one or more sources
  • additional misconduct involving forgery, facilitation, etc.
  • direct negative effect on other students (e.g. stealing another studentís paper, assignment, laboratory)

If a finding is classified as Level I AND there is no other finding of departure from academic integrity on your record, then the finding will remain in a sealed file and only to be consulted upon subsequent findings of departures from academic integrity.

If a finding is classified as Level II (regardless of whether it is a first finding or a subsequent one), the finding will be held in your main file in the Office of the Associate Deans (Studies).

Students Receiving Notice

When an instructor sees evidence in your work that suggests that a departure from academic integrity may have taken place, it is the instructor’s responsibility to investigate the situation. These are the steps that will be followed:

1. You should receive a written notice of the potential departure from academic integrity.

The first step is to bring the matter to your attention. Using a Notice of Investigation  form letter, the instructor will inform you of the following:

  • the information on which the investigation is based (you should be supplied with all documents related to the investigation);
  • the possible sanctions as outlined in the Academic Integrity Regulation;
  • your right to respond to the investigation in writing or in person; and
  • your right to have representation for any response made to the investigation of departure from academic integrity (you will be given contact information for the Coordinator of Dispute Resolution Mechanisms who will be able to advise you on matters of process and on obtaining an advisor).

You may not drop the course while an investigation is under way. However, there is no mechanism on SOLUS to prevent you from doing so before the academic drop date. Therefore, the Associate Deans (Studies) has the authority to reinstate you in the course pending a decision on the investigation. If the outcome of the investigation results in a finding of a departure from academic integrity, the course will remain on your record (or, if dropped, it will be reinstated at that time).

2. You should have the opportunity to respond to the Notice of Investigation

It is important that you respond to the investigation. If you donít respond, your instructor will make a decision on the available evidence, without the benefit of hearing from you.

You may choose to respond either by: 1) submitting a written response to the instructor, or 2) meeting with your instructor to discuss the matter. If you prefer to respond in writing, please sign your response and send it to your instructor no later than ten days after receiving the Notice of Investigation. If you prefer to meet, you must contact your instructor no later than five days after receiving the Notice of Investigation to arrange a mutually agreeable time.

In advance of the meeting or in preparing your written response, you should 1) review the evidence provided by the instructor, 2) collect all drafts and related materials relevant to the particular piece of work at issue, and 3) seek advice from an informed member of the Queen's community, such as the Coordinator of Dispute Resolution Mechanisms, or anyone whose advice you trust and value (e.g. parents, a close relative, friend, counselor, etc.). Take these steps into consideration when estimating the time it will take you to prepare your response, whether it is in writing, in person, or both.

Whether meeting in person or responding in writing, you need to provide the instructor with a detailed explanation of your side of the story, including how the information in question came about, and your line of thinking in preparing the work the way you did. Also provide copies of earlier drafts of your work and other relevant documentation. If you meet in person, you may also choose to prepare something in writing to leave with the instructor, along with copies of drafts and other relevant documentation.

To accompany you to the meeting, you may invite an advisor such as a University Dispute Resolution Advisor, friend, advocate, or legal support person of your choice. If you decide to bring legal counsel, however, you must advise the instructor in advance. Normally the instructor will invite the Chair of Undergraduate Studies or other departmental delegate who may take on the limited role of chairing the meeting and/or providing clarification of the procedures related to departures from academic integrity.

Many investigations are resolved at this early stage.

3. Make a decision on the case.

After considering the available evidence and your explanation, the instructor will make a decision within 21 days of meeting with you.

  • If the instructor is satisfied with your explanation and determines that there are no grounds for a finding of departure from academic integrity, all documents related to the case will be destroyed and the instructor will inform you that the investigation has been dropped.
  • If the instructor believes that there is evidence that a departure from academic integrity has taken place, the instructor will make a finding of departure from academic integrity and will also determine an appropriate sanction or remedy. Up to this point, a record of previous departures from academic integrity is not relevant in making a finding of a departure from academic integrity.
4. The instructor will determine a remedy or sanction.

Where there is a finding of departure from academic integrity, the instructor is expected to assign an appropriate remedy or sanction that reflects the extent and severity of the departure. After the finding is made, the instructor may consult the Undergraduate Chair, Department Head or departmental delegate concerning the matter of an appropriate sanction. Also you can expect the instructor will contact the Office of the Associate Deans (Studies) to determine if there have been any previous departures from academic integrity. In the case of a second finding, or multiple findings, a more severe sanction may be warranted.

The range of remedies or sanctions that the instructor can impose include:

  • rewriting or revising the assignment
  • the completion of other work
  • a low mark as is judged necessary
  • a failing grade (down to a grade of zero) in the course. If the penalty amounts to a failure in the course, the student may NOT drop the course regardless of the drop deadlines.

Normally, a finding will be considered Level I, unless one of the following factors applies, in which case it will be characterized as Level II:

  • a departure that involves an essential component of the course for which a failing grade would normally result in a failure in the course
  • an upper-year student who has taken several previous courses in the discipline (for instance, a fourth-year student in a concentration course)
  • previous departure(s) from academic integrity (the instructor would refer the new case to the Associate Deans (Studies)
  • significant and unacknowledged use of one or more sources
  • additional misconduct involving forgery, facilitation, etc.
  • direct negative effect on other students (e.g. stealing another studentís paper, assignment, laboratory)

If a finding is classified as Level I AND there is no other finding of departure from academic integrity on your record, then the finding will remain in a sealed file and only to be consulted upon subsequent findings of departures from academic integrity.

If a finding is classified as Level II (regardless of whether it is a first finding or a subsequent one), the finding will be held in your main file in the Office of the Associate Deans (Studies).

Or, if the instructor believes that a more serious penalty is warranted, the case shall be referred to the Associate Deans (Studies). See item 6 below, Referral of Finding for Departures from Academic Integrity.

5. The instructor will inform you in writing of the decision and remedy (or sanction).

If, in the instructorís assessment, the finding warrants a sanction within the scope of those available to the instructor (Section 4 above), the instructor will inform you in writing of the following:

  • the details of the decision or finding of departure from academic integrity, using the Finding of Departure from Academic Integrity form
  • the remedy or sanctions
  • the right to appeal the finding and/or the penalty to the Associate Deans (Studies)
  • the deadline for appealing to the Associate Deans (Studies)
  • the resources available for consultation (the Coordinator of Dispute Resolution; Mechanisms is available to advise you on matters of process and on obtaining an advisor) to the Associate Deans (Studies).

A copy of the Finding of Departure from Academic Integrity  form and all related documentation must be forwarded to the Associate Deans (Studies). Instructors will retain a copy of all documents related to the case in the event you appeal the finding, but to maintain your confidentiality, no documents (including the finding form) will be retained in Departmental student files.

6. In some cases, the instructor will refer the sanction associated with a finding or departure from academic integrity to the Associate Deans (Studies).

If the matter appears to warrant a sanction more serious than the instructor may impose, the instructor may refer the case to the Associate Deans (Studies) who has the authority to impose a heavier sanction than the instructor can impose. The Associate Deans (Studies) may impose sanctions ranging from those noted above to a recommendation to Senate that the student be required to withdraw from the University. If your case is referred to the Associate Deans (Studies), the instructor must advise you, in writing, of:

  • the details of the finding of departure from academic integrity, using the Finding of a Departure from Academic Integrity form;
  • the evidence on which the finding is based (you should be supplied with all documents related to the investigation);
  • the reason for referral
  • the possible penalties
  • the right to respond; and
  • the right to have representation for any response; the instructor will advise you to contact the Coordinator of Dispute Resolution Mechanisms.

Instructors will retain a copy of all documents related to the case to be able to participate in the Associate Dean's investigation and in the event you appeal the finding, but to maintain your confidentiality, no records will be retained in Departmental student files.

Have Questions?

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