Geological or Earth Science is the study of planet Earth and its history, either for applied purposes such as the discovery and management of natural resources and the protection of the natural environment, or for purely academic reasons. The complexity of our planet demands that geoscientists must use information and concepts of other sciences such as physics (geophysics), chemistry (geochemistry), biology (paleobiology), geography (paleogeography), astronomy, mathematics and meteorology, and apply these to unravel the complex Earth processes that operate on time scales ranging from seconds to billions of years. All of the sciences, including physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics, give clues that are integrated into a four-dimensional study of the earth.
All geology programs combine a study of the Earth with courses in the other sciences; flexibility in course selection allows you to tailor the program to your interests. Field observation remains the basic technique of geologists, followed by laboratory analysis. Both field and laboratory studies incorporate the latest advances in computer and other technologies. Sophisticated computer models are used to gain insight into the complexly-interacting, multivariate processes which shape the Earth. As geoscientists must develop a keen sense of observation, classroom teaching is supplemented by as much laboratory work and out-of-classroom field trips and field schools as possible.
The multidisciplinary nature of the geological sciences, its unique long-term perspective of the Earth's systems, and its relevance to the fundamental natural controls on human society make the geological sciences a particularly challenging and rewarding career. Our graduates are very highly regarded by graduate schools, governments, and a wide range of industries.
Either GEOL 104* - The Dynamic Earth or GEOL 106* - Environmental Geology and Natural Hazards introduce the physical aspects of the geological sciences for both personal interest and further study. GEOL 107* - History of Life provides an overview of the evolution of life in response to environmental change. GEOL 104* and GEOL 107* are both required if you intend to graduate with a concentration in the Geological Sciences.
Arts (BA) concentrations: Grade 4U Advanced Functions and Introductory Calculus, plus either 4U Chemistry or 4U Physics or recognized equivalents
Science (BSc) concentrations: 4U Advanced Functions and Introductory Calculus, 4U Chemistry, or 4U Physics or recognized equivalents
Subject of Specialization concentrations: Grade 4U Advanced Functions and Introductory Calculus, 4U Chemistry, 4U Physics, and one of 4U Biology or 4U Geometry and Discrete Mathematics or recognized equivalents
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