Department of Political Studies

Department of Political Studies
Department of Political Studies

Undergraduate Courses


Courses Offered in 2018 - 2019


Course Descriptions

100 Level Courses
POLS 101: Contemporary Issues in Politics

Instructor: Wayne Cox

Description An examination of current political issues. By examining an issue or problem students will be exposed to political institutions, processes and concepts in political science. The subject matter will change depending on the instructor and current political events.

NOTE: This course does not lead to further courses in Political Studies. Not available for credit towards any POLS Plan.

POLS 110: Introduction to Politics and Government

Instructor: Kim Richard Nossal (Fall), Jonathan Rose (Winter)

Description: An introduction to political science that provides both a framework for thinking about politics and the institutions of governance, and some of the vocabulary necessary for political analysis.

200 Level Courses
POLS 211: Canadian Government

Instructor: Adrienne Davidson

Description: An examination of the institutions and constitutional foundations of government and politics in Canada.

POLS 212: Canadian Politics

Instructor: Adrienne Davidson

Description: An analysis of the processes, groups, parties, voters, and culture of Canadian politics.

POLS 230: American Elections

Instructor: Catherine Conaghan

Description: This course provides a general introduction to the institutions and politics of the electoral process in the United States. The course integrates literature on the electoral system (including the system of primary elections), campaign financing, political parties, voting behaviour, political sociology, and political communication.

POLS 241: Comparative Politics: Transformations

Instructor: G. Grant Amyot

Description: An examination of how and why societies change and the context in which transformation occurs.

POLS 242: Comparative Politics: Contemporary Regimes

Instructor: Oded Haklai

Description: The nature of political regimes in advanced industrial countries and the developing world. 

POLS 243: States, Ethnic Diversity, and Conflict

Instructor: John McGarry

Description: A comparative examination of the ways in which states around the world respond to national, ethnic, linguistic, religious, and racial diversity. The course examines responses that include the morally reprehensible, such as genocide, and the morally defensible, such as federalism and power-sharing.

POLS 244: Comparative Politics: Democracy & Democratization

*Not offered in 2019-20

Description: A comparative exploration of the apparent disjuncture between the normative assumptions of liberal democratic theory and the realities of democracy-building. 

POLS 250 A/B: Political Theory

Instructor: Colin Farrelly

Description: A survey of the principal ideas of Western political theorists from ancient to modern times, focusing in particular on the role and scope of government; the proper organisation of governmental power; the nature of political obligation; and the ethics of political power and authority.

POLS 251: Political Ideologies

*Not offered in 2019-20

Description: This course introduces students to a range of contemporary ideologies, such as liberalism, socialism, conservatism, fascism, feminism, anarchism, ecologism, fundamentalism, and nationalism. It includes primary and secondary readings, and will focus on the critical interpretation of these competing belief systems.

POLS 261: International Politics

Instructor: Kim Richard Nossal

Description: An introduction to the major issues in the study of international relations: questions of war and peace, national security, the role of the 'state', foreign and defence policy, gender and international relations, and international institutions.

POLS 262: International Political Economy

Instructor: Wayne Cox

Description: An introduction to the major issues in the study of international political economy, including transnationalism, integration, globalization, and underdevelopment.

POLS 264: World Politics in Historical Perspective

*Not offered in 2019-20

Description: This course examines the evolution of global politics in the modern era, from the institutionalization of sovereignty in the Peace of Westphalia to the contemporary period.

POLS 280: Introduction to Women, Gender, and Politics

Instructor: Yolande Bouka

Description: This course analyzes the status of women and men in domestic and global politics. It presents primary concepts used in political science to address: What is gender? How is it political? How have the women’s movement and other collectivities addressed inequality and oppression? What does gender equality look like, and how can it be obtained?

300 Level Courses

IMPORTANT NOTE: POLS 385 will be offered in conjunction with GPHY 247 in the Winter Term 2019. The course will still include explicit links to political studies and the requirements do not change: Majors and Medials will still require the course.

POLS 310: Principles of the Canadian Constitution

*Not offered in 2019-20

Description: Canadian Political Institutions: Formation and Reform This course introduces students to several of Canada’s core political institutions in two-week clusters. The first week describes the initial rationale for the institution and how it has evolved through Canada’s history to its current state. The second week explores criticisms of the institutions’ current forms and discusses possibilities for reform to better reflect modern political needs, values, and contexts. The course will blend a classical lecture format with large-group active learning activities where students will engage directly in a hands-on fashion with the logic and function of institutions. Institutions to be examined include the constitution, the House of Commons and its procedures, the Senate, the First-Past-the-Post electoral system, political parties, and the courts.

POLS 312: Political Behaviour

Instructor: TBD

Description: Can citizens make informed choices? Does it matter? This course considers the principal theories and current debates in the study of elections, public opinion, and political participation. It will focus on the effects of political psychology, media, and identity on the behavior and choices of citizens. While the readings will primarily be Canadian and American, the course will also consider how the material relates to other established and emerging democracies.

POLS 313: Mass Media and Politics in Canada

Instructor: Jonathan Rose

Description: A critical examination of the relationship between the mass media and politics, focusing on the functions of the media in modern liberal democracies and the ways in which news stories are created and packaged.

POLS 317: Charter Politics

Instructor: TBD

Description: How courts are responding to their responsibility to review legislative and executive decisions in terms of their impact on citizens; the impact of the Charter on the way government is viewed.

POLS 318: The Canadian Welfare State

Instructor: TBD

Description: An examination of the character and functions of the Canadian welfare state. Theoretical explanations of the welfare state. The historical development of the Canadian welfare state. Proposals for social policy reform and their implications. Offered in alternate years.

POLS 319: Public Discourse in Canada: Issues and Debates

Instructor: TBD

Description: An introduction to Canadian political thinkers who have addressed important themes in contemporary Canadian public, legal and theoretical discourse, including multiculturalism, critical race theory, antipornography campaigns, sexual violence, globalization and modern alienation.

POLS 320: Indigenous Politics

Instructor: Danielle Delaney

Description:

Lakota scholar and indigenous activist, Vine Deloria Jr, once said: “I do not believe that demonstrations can carry a group of 1 million in a nation of 203 million very far without getting them squashed.” Deloria neatly encapsulated the political reality facing indigenous peoples—numerical small, politically limited, and yet deeply resistant to the systems of political control placed over them. This course explores the impacts of and responses to colonization by indigenous peoples in a comparative context. Within the framework of political science methodology, this course explores a variety of themes including: land rights, sovereignty, self-determination, and the Indigenising of democracy and social protest. Students have the opportunity to develop International and cultural perspectives.

As an introductory course, we explore these themes in broad strokes to understand the underlying theories and logics guiding the political and legal discourses of indigeneity. While this course foregrounds the impact of and responses to colonization by Indigenous peoples in North America, we will also study the development of these discourses in both international and comparative contexts.

POLS 327: Topics in Comparative Politics

Offered only at the Bader International Study Centre, Herstmonceux

Description: An examination of key issues in comparative politics. Topics will vary from year to year; consult BISC website for availability

POLS 328: Topics in European Politics

Offered only at the Bader International Study Centre, Herstmonceux

Description: An examination of key issues in European politics. Topics will vary from year to year; consult BISC website for availability

POLS 329: European Politics

*Not offered in 2019-20

Description: An introduction to European politics. The themes and geographic focus vary from year to year; they may include current political institutions and forces, the historical evolution of the European polities, and both Western and Eastern Europe.

POLS 331: American Government

Instructor: Fan Lu

Description: This course introduces students to the constitutional foundations of American government and the ways in which these foundations have changed in response to new demographics, technology, and ideological beliefs. It situates the challenges that confront the American government within broader concepts such as collective action and principal-agent problems. Through the lens of contemporary issues such as health care, immigration, climate change, and government shutdowns, students gain insight into the complex feedback loop between public opinion, media, the president, congress and the judiciary.

POLS 332: Post-Communist Politics

Instructor: Kate Korycki

Description: The politics of the Russian Federation and selected countries of Central and Eastern Europe.

POLS 335: Topics in British Politics

Offered only at the Bader International Study Centre, Herstmonceux

Description: An examination of key issues in British politics. Topics will vary from year to year; consult the department homepage. NOTE Offered only at the Bader International Study Centre, Herstmonceux.

POLS 336: British Politics

*Not offered in 2019-20

Description: Contemporary problems facing Britain as a result of its historical evolution: economic stagnation, centrifugal forces of nationalism and communal violence, and the decline of the two-party system.

POLS 338: European Integration

Instructor: G. Grant Amyot

Description: An introductory overview of the European Union and major issues facing the EU today. The course presents the history and institutions of the EU, as well as theories of European integration. It then discusses current issues, such as enlargement of the EU to new members, the "democratic deficit" of its institutions, European identity, immigration, and the Eurozone debt crisis, which threatens the very future of European integration.

POLS 341: Chinese Politics

*Not offered in 2019-20

Description: The course begins with an historical overview of the late Qing dynasty, the origins of the Chinese revolution, and 50 years of the People’s Republic of China. It then focuses primarily on political science concepts and approaches to the study of Chinese politics as well as issues of reform in various sectors of China’s economy and polity.

POLS 342: Latin American Politics

*Not offered in 2019-20

Description: Comparative study of Latin American politics. Topics include the political legacies of colonialism and independence, the evolution of class structures, populism, the role of the military, and the transition to democracy and free market policies. Emphasis is on the countries of continental South America.

POLS 346: Development Theory

*Not offered in 2019-20

Description: A critical examination of the current theories of development influenced by various post-Marxist, postmodernist and postcolonial tendencies. Growth strategies practised by the state and alternative visions offered by the social movements will also be discussed.

POLS 347: The Politics of Africa

Instructor: TBD

Description: This course provides an introduction to African politics by exploring a broad range of issues from both historical and contemporary perspectives. It examines major themes and issues of importance to African politics, including the legacy of colonialism, post-colonial politics and authoritarian rule, economic development and foreign aid, democratization and ‘good governance’, violent conflict and state failure, environmental issues and challenges, and the relationship between Africa and emerging powers such as China and India.

POLS 348: Middle East Politics

Instructor: Oded Haklai

Description: An examination of the politics of the Middle East, including the legacy of the Ottoman Empire and European colonialism, the rise of nationalism, the role of religion, the nature of the state and political participation in different countries in the region.

POLS 351: Liberal Theory

Instructor: TBD

Description: An examination of the major theories and critiques of liberalism, focusing on the rival conceptions of freedom and equality that animate classical ‘laissez-faire’ liberalism, egalitarian liberalism, left-libertarianism, and perfectionist liberalism, and the critical responses these various kinds of liberalism have provoked from communitarians, feminists, Marxists, and others.

POLS 352: Women and the History of Political Thought

*Not offered in 2019-20

Description: Drawing on historical texts, this course explores the representations of women and the constructions of femininity and masculinity, the body, and gender relations in the history of political thought, and explores contemporary feminist responses to these texts and ideas.

POLS 353: History of Political Thought

*Not offered in 2019-20

Description: An analysis of the origin and development of certain major ideas in the western political tradition.

POLS 354: Democratic Theory

*Not offered in 2019-20

Description: An exploration of the normative underpinnings of democracy, based on a survey of selected historical texts, contemporary theories, and current problems.

POLS 355: Issues in Contemporary Political Theory 

Instructor: Colin Farrelly

Description: This course will introduce students to some of the basic normative categories, arguments, and tools that are essential for addressing questions of collective decision-making. Normative questions are those that concern whether actions, characters, or states of the world are right or wrong. A significant degree of political, legal and policy disagreement stems from different assumptions and aspirations concerning different normative values. The course is divided into three sections- consequentialism, rights-based theories and deliberative democracy. Topics addressed include cost-benefit analysis, happiness, rights, judicial review, free speech, democracy and voting. The course will also examine Supreme Court decisions dealing with the right of prisoners to vote and freedom of expression.

POLS 358: Critical Perspectives on Contemporary Capitalism

*Not offered in 2019-20

Description: Selected topics in the critique of capitalism, e.g. Marxism, democracy, the environment, globalization, employment and popular culture.

POLS 359: Issues in Political Theory

Instructor: Margaret Moore

Description: The course will focus on central issues that arise in political theory: citizens relation to the state and to each other. Specifically, the course will discuss problems of liberty, toleration, punishment, and multiculturalism; and inter-state problems such as global justice, just war, justice and the environment, and inter-generational justice.

POLS 360: International Relations Theory/Asian Studies

Instructor: Stéphanie Martel

Description: This course examines the theoretical approaches, concepts, and debates (e.g. levels of analysis, causality, methodology, historiography) that shape the evolution of International Relations as a discipline, including subfields (e.g. international security and international organizations) and how they relate to the conduct of international politics. 

POLS 361: Regional International Organizations

*Not offered in 2019-20

Description: A survey of selected regional international organizations for political cooperation, military security and economic integration in Europe, Latin America, Africa, and the Asia-Pacific region.

POLS 364: International Peace and Security

Instructor: Daniel Troup

Description: An examination of the concept of international security and the causes of war and conditions of peace. Topics include: the role of nuclear weapons after the Cold War; the economics of security; new security themes (environmental and ethnic factors); regional security and peacekeeping; alliance dynamics; and European security and the future of NATO.

POLS 366: The United Nations

Instructor: Sam Twietmeyer

Description: An examination of the principles, institutions and politics of the United Nations, assessing its effectiveness in maintaining international peace and promoting cooperation among states.

POLS 367: American Foreign Policy

Instructor: David Haglund

Description: An examination of American foreign policy, with particular emphasis on the analysis of concepts and issues and the study of decision-making processes.

POLS 369: Canadian Foreign Policy

*Not offered in 2019-20

Description: An analysis of Canadian foreign policy, its major objectives and orientations. Topics covered include Canada's role and interests in major international organizations and its relations with key countries and regions.

POLS 382: Gender and Social Policy

Instructor: Rebecca Wallace

Description: Topics include theoretical perspectives on women and politics, patterns of women’s political socialization and political action, feminist movements, and feminist contributions to contemporary political discourse.

POLS 383: Law and the Governmental Process

Instructor: Paul Gardner

Description: An examination of the function of the legal system in a political and social context. We will begin with the proposition that courts resolve bilateral legal disputes. Within this simple framework, courts make legal decisions that affect the lives of individuals in ways large and small. The course will cover the great number of factors that affect the usage of courts in different contexts, with a particular focus on how the institutional features of courts both support and inhibit their use in service of social and political goals of various actors. The course will be international in concept, but will primarily draw from the U.S. and Canadian cases.    

POLS 384: Strategies of Political Research

Instructor: Christian Breede

Description: An exploration of major issues and schools of thought in the philosophy of social science and in examination of contemporary approaches to the study of politics.

POLS 385: Introduction to Statistics/Quantitative Approaches to Political Studies

Instructor: Bill Nelson

Description: An introduction to the analysis of data from real life situations, POLS385 covers study design, descriptive and inferential statistics. Topics include probability, t-tests, regression, Chi-square tests, analysis of variance.  Emphasis is on the foundation of statistical inference and practical application of statistical methods using statistical software.

POLS 386: Political Economy and Mass Media

*Not offered in 2019-20

Description: An examination of the history and political economy of the mass media, exploring the impact of a partisan press, ownership and use of technology on how our identity has been shaped. It will draw upon a comparative assessment of the mass media in advanced liberal democracies.

POLS 387: Politics and Culture

Instructor: TBD

Description: The course explores contemporary approaches to understanding the politics of culture. In the everyday behaviours, attitudes and practices that form our culture, politics play a role. The course considers a range of diverse theoretical perspectives on the interrelationship of culture with social, political, and economic power.

POLS 388: Citizenship and Non-Citizenship

Instructor: TBD

Description: Focusing on issues of citizenship and non-citizenship in the modern world. How issues of nationality and nationalism, minority rights, gender, class, race and ethnicity, and immigration status impact on the rights and obligations of citizenship and central to the politics of these debates. The relevance of these issues to the current Canadian context will be an ongoing theme of the course.

POLS 391: Introduction to Electoral Systems

*Not offered in 2019-20

Description: This course introduces students to the various families of electoral systems in use around the world. It examines their variations and assesses the consequences of electoral systems on political parties, legislatures and governments.

POLS 392: Topics in Canadian Politics

Instructor: TBD

Description: An examination of selected aspects of Canadian politics and government, including institutions and behavioural approaches. The focus of this course will vary from year to year.

POLS 393: Topics in Comparative Politics: Politics of India

Instructor: Poulomi Chakrabarti

Description: This course provides an overview of the society, economy, and politics of India through the lens of some of the most influential theories in comparative politics. Each week, we will read seminal texts in the field along with empirical works on India that speak to the underlying theme. This format is designed to engage with key debates in the field as well as challenge the canonical texts, most of which are based on western democracies, by drawing on the experience of a large multiethnic society. We will focus on six key themes during the course of the semester – i) Colonialism and its legacies, ii) Nationalism and Nation-building, iii) State Formation and State Capacity, iv) Democratization, v) Identity and Ethnicity, and vi) Political Economy of Development. These themes reflect the most researched and debated ideas in the social sciences, as well as the key drivers that have shaped the trajectory of contemporary Indian society and politics. Empirically, the following key questions will guide the course: How did a country with hundreds of ethnic, religious and linguistic cleavages manage its diversity when other multiethnic countries have disintegrated? How should we make sense of India’s democracy in the context of high rates of poverty, illiteracy, and diversity? How has the country’s history of colonialism shaped modern day institutions? How has Indian democracy responded to centuries of discrimination based on caste and gender? And how has the Indian state fared in promoting economic growth and social inclusion? This course is designed to be of interest to students of comparative politics and political sociology as well as students with a regional interest in India.

POLS 394: Topics in Political Theory

*Not offered in 2019-20

Description: An exploration of different aspects of political thought, political theory, and political philosophy. The focus of this course will vary from year to year.

POLS 395: Topics in International Political Economy

*Not offered in 2019-20

Description: An examination of different topics and issues in global political economy, such as the role of international financial institutions, the politics of global trade, or the global distribution of wealth. The focus of this course will vary from year to year.

POLS 396: Topics in International Relations/Questions and Challenges: Migration Governance

Instructor: Ali Bhagat

Description: The aim of this course is to understand migration—forced, (in)voluntary, constrained, cyclical—within contemporary debates of International Relations, and specifically, in International Political Economy (IPE). The key assertion of this course is grounded in the fact that migrants are not passive victims of violence and are, in fact, embedded in multi-level forms of governance from the regional and national to the urban. This course will historicize contemporary refugee events in the global North and South with a particular focus on the European, Middle Eastern, and East African migration crises. Students will read both scholarly and policy texts to understand the roles of various states, international organisations, civil society organisations, and migrants themselves in the complex interplay of migration governance. The readings will be framed around dominant conceptions of migration and the critiques of these perspectives. In so doing, the institutional and organisational features of migration will be placed in tension with everyday lived experiences of migrants, refugees, and internally displaced persons. By the end of the course, students will be able to apply theoretical perspectives in IR and IPE on the empirical cases surrounding migration.

POLS 397: Topics in Gender and Politics

*Not offered in 2019-20

Description: An investigation of selected problems in feminist and gender analysis, examining the different authors and issues. The focus of this course will vary from year to year.

POLS 398: Introduction to International Law and Politics

Offered only at the Bader International Study Centre, Herstmonceux

Description: The Specialized Program in International Law and Politics is specifically designed for upper-year undergraduate students (ideally in their third or fourth year), and offers foundational knowledge about the relationships between international politics and international law. It explores specific aspects of international law, including international criminal law and the law of armed conflict, examines the phenomenon of genocide and other forms of mass violence in historical and contemporary contexts, and situates the central statutes, customs, and institutions of international law within the broader context of global governance.

This unique team-taught program is divided into three modules and offers three three-hour classes each week: 

Module 1 - International Law and Politics (weeks 1 to 4)
Module 2 - Genocide, Crimes against Humanity and War Crimes (weeks 5-8)
Module 3 - The Law and Politics of Armed Conflict (weeks 9-12).

In Week 7, students take part in an exclusive seven-day journey (included in your fees) through key sites of interest in the field of international criminal law located in Continental Europe. See the BISC website for more details.

400 Level Courses

IMPORTANT NOTE: In 2019-20, the Department of Political Studies will be organizing enrollment in 400-level courses by a balloting system. Students will be asked to submit a form listing their preferences for 400-level courses. Based on this information the department will assign students to courses manually, prior to the July registration period. The purpose of this system is to ensure that (to the extent possible) every student gets some of their top choices of courses. 

POLS 400: Seminar in Political Science: Social Movements, Contentious Politics, and the Dynamics of Political Change

Instructor: Danielle Delaney

Description: 

In April of 2016 a group of young indigenous activists came to a small spit of land in the middle of the Cannon Ball River called Turtle Island where traditional healers and elders had been holding ceremonies and prayer-protest against the impending construction of the Dakota Access Pipeline. This meeting was the start of the Sacred Stone and Oceti Sakowin protest camps. Was this a flashpoint protest lead by indigenous activists, or was this the start of a new indigenous social movement? Was this an indigenous protest, an environmental protest, or something else entirely? At what point does political protest become a social movement? When does conflicting, collective political claims levied by polities against each other and third parties move from ‘normal’ politics, to contentious politics, to revolution?

This course grapples with these types of questions through a comparative lens. We will spend a little time surveying the social movements and contentious politics literature to build a theoretical base and shared language for describing the political phenomena as well as exploring current methodologies for collecting and analyzing evidence/data. The majority of our time, however, will be spent examining how such forms of contentious politics—and how we understand them as different types of political phenomena—have worked in different times and places, as well as thinking through parallels and differences among them.

This is an advance political science seminar, students are invited to think creatively and critically about not just the current theories around social movements and contentious politics, but how these theories apply. Students will be expected to write a seminar paper analyzing a specific moment of contentious politics.

POLS 401: Political Theory: Questions and Challenges

*Not offered in 2019-20

Description: This seminar is organized around a close, contextual and critical reading of Volume 1 of Capital, Marx's magnum opus and one of the foundational texts of modern social science. The immediate goal is to use Marx's own words, rather than those of his interpreters, to develop an understanding of his thought and method. In the process, some of the most important theoretical and methodological limitations of liberal theory and conventional political science will be addressed. As is appropriate for a seminar that takes places in a world which is in the process of being turned upside down, we will also try to explore Marx's way of thinking about the relationship between the world of liberal appearances - “Freedom, Equality, Property and Bentham” - on the one hand, and some of the main features of the contemporary context – growing inequality and social exclusion, increasingly authoritarian political forms and practices, and large-scale political upheavals - on the other. One of the primary effects of the way political science has developed has been to make capitalism disappear from view as an important determinant of political life. This seminar seeks to redress the balance, and to put capitalism and its social and political effects back under the spotlight.

POLS 402: Science and Justice

Instructor: Colin Farrelly

Description: Advances in biological knowledge bring us closer to a world where we may have the ability to directly manipulate our genetic make-up. With this ability comes new questions concerning the demands of distributive justice. This course examines key developments in biology (especially human genetics), and demonstrates why and how theories of justice may require revision in light of these changes. Issues addressed include insurance and privacy, the therapy/enhancement distinction, aging, the morality of inclusion, future generations, and reproductive freedom. The course is designed to explore the different challenges society faces as a consequence of the genetic revolution and to help equip students with the critical and analytical skills needed to think rationally and cogently about the regulation of new biomedical technologies.

POLS 403: Gender Politics: Questions and Challenges

Instructor: TBD 

Description: How do ‘gender’ and ‘sex’ relate to politics? What is the difference between gender and sex? Is gender and feminist politics just about women? Should it be? How do issues of gendering relate to issues of racism, colonialism, class, sexuality and desire, disability? Why does whiteness matter to the study of gender, feminism and politics? Can men be feminists? How can feminism be deployed to challenge violence against women, racism, transphobia, poverty and other social inequities? This course will explore these questions through the study of various political theories of gender and feminism. The first part of the course will examine some key debates and texts. Through a diverse theoretical approach to these debates, students will explore contemporary power relations, the social construction of gender and sex, the meaning and difference of identities, and gendered governance and political activism. The second part of the course will examine some contemporary political topics of gender, including issues related to violence against women (VAW), indigenous women, abortion rights and childcare in Canada, sex work, gender and labour, privilege and ally-ship, and feminist activism in the Black Lives Matter, #MeToo, and #TimesUp social movements.

POLS 404: Canadian Politics: Questions & Challenges - The Politics of Resentment in Canada

Instructor: Rebecca Wallace

Description: With the rise of populism and polarizing leaders in the international community, many have asked: Is Canada an exception to the rule? Is Canada susceptible to the rise of Trump-like leaders and policies? Will Canada’s supposed “sunny ways” prevail amidst increasing storms at home and abroad?

This course will examine the politics of resentment in Canada, broadly exploring the ways that perceptions of deservingness affect Canadians’ attitudes and political choices. With a focus on regionalism, immigration, Indigenous relations, and the status of women in Canada, this course will examine how increasing divisions in Canadian political culture are affecting national and regional politics, as well as critical elections. This course will assess mass and elite political behavior in the Canadian context and evaluate whether Canada’s multicultural ethos, party system, and political institutions can insulate it from the rise of divisive leaders and policies.

POLS 405: International Relations: Questions & Challenges - Climate Change and Global Politics

Instructor: Sarah Sharma

Description: At the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference (otherwise known as COP 21), UN member states signed the loftiest global agreement on abating climate change in history. Four years later, however, one of the largest emitters of CO2, the United States, has not ratified the agreement, and the most recent report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) stated that urgent changes still need to be made to cut the risk of extreme heat, drought, floods, and poverty across the globe. There thus exists tensions between global rhetoric and actions that address climate change. This course asks the following questions: Why is climate change a political battle at the global level? What are the challenges associated with addressing climate change? To explore these questions, students will situate debates on climate change within relations of power inherent to the global political economy. The course will first examine the politicization of climate change, the key global actors in climate governance, and global inequalities regarding the production of carbon emissions. Following, the course will examine global climate change policies and initiatives, including carbon pricing, taxation, and climate resiliency. From this course, students will be able to identify key political challenges associated with addressing climate change globally. Further, they will be able to situate present-day policies that aim to curtail climate change within the broader global political economy.

POLS 406: Comparative Politics: Questions & Challenges - Religion and Politics

Instructor: Dalal Daoud

Description: The aim of the course is to examine the intersection of religion and politics. In particular, the objective is to understand how religion shapes various phenomena in politics. Students are encouraged to think critically about the role of religion; how and to what extent does religion influence political behavior, identity, political institutions, and domestic policies? How much explanatory power does religion have to offer as an independent variable? Students are expected to draw on the broader theories of comparative politics. Accordingly, course readings draw on a wide range of literature reflective of theoretical debates and empirical cases of politico-religious resurgence.

POLS 410: Seminar in Canadian Politics: Canadian Political Parties

Instructor: Jacob Robbins-Kanter

Description: This course will examine the historical development of Canadian parties and key features of the party system. It will assess parties’ social bases of support and their ideological foundations. Additionally, the course will consider the organizational features of Canadian parties, such as candidate and leadership selection, as well as election campaign dynamics.

POLS 412: Provincial Politics

*Not offered in 2019-20

Description: Content varies from year to year.

POLS 414: Politics in Quebec

Instructor: Anne Lachance

Description: An introduction to the political history of Quebec: the development of ideologies (including nationalism), constitutional developments, and the building of the Quebec state during the Quiet Revolution. Some contemporary issues in Quebec politics, and the relationship between Quebec and the rest of Canada.

POLS 415: Canadian Federalism

Instructor: Jacob Robbins-Kanter

Description: An examination of the evolution and operation of the Canadian federal system. Topics include the concept and meaning of federalism, the implications of provincial/federal interdependence, and the politics of constitutional reform.

POLS 419: Political Communications

Instructor: Jonathan Rose

Description: A critical examination of the rhetoric of political persuasion, the framing and construction of political messages and the way in which meaning is interpreted and created in the political system. The mass media are an important, though not exclusive, focus of this course.

POLS 421: Elections

Instructor: TBD

Description: An examination of the importance of elections to the maintenance of democratic systems. Six themes are discussed: the history and theory of democratic participation; the legal framework; campaign organization; why people vote the way they do; the manifestation of social cleavages during campaigns; and the future of electoral participation. Canadian examples are placed in a comparative context.

POLS 422: Public Policy 

Instructor: Fan Lu

Description: This course examines the extent to which race has shaped American political institutions, public opinion, and behavior. It examines in chronological order the racial subjugation of Blacks, Latinos and Asian Americans during the 19th century; their fight for civil rights in the 1950s and 1960s; post-9/11 stigmatization of Muslim Americans; the presidency and legacy of Barack Obama; contemporary resentment against Latino Americans; the salience of White racial identification and its implications for the 2020 presidential election.

POLS 430: Seminar in Comparative Politics: Memory Politics 

Instructor: Kate Korycki

Description: This seminar explores how the past is politicized; how and when it gets used by political elites and democratic subjects; and how it intervenes in the creation of identities as well as imaginaries of common belonging. At the time when monuments of the past - and now discredited heroes - are falling off their pedestals in the United States, while race-based rhetoric makes and newly authorized come-back; and at the time when Canada attempts of reconcile its colonial relationship with Indigenous communities, while maintaining its sovereign control, the questions about the past, and its political productivity gain special poignancy and urgency.  This course attends to these questions, as it examines how the past is viewed as a burden to be overcome, and how it is dealt with by the provisions of the transitional justice; or how the past serves as a tool of identity making, and how it is conceived of by collective memory scholars.

POLS 431: European Politics

Instructor: G. Grant Amyot

Description: Following the 2007-2008 US subprime crisis, the European Monetary Union (EMU) was thrust into a prolonged crisis when several states (beginning with Greece) were accused of having built up unstable levels of sovereign debt. Since then, the future of the European Union, one of the most ambitious political projects undertaken, has frequently subjected to doubts about its very future.

This course uses the ongoing debt crises in the European Union as a lens to explore issues in contemporary European politics by utilizing both International Relations and Comparative Politics approaches, both mainstream and critical. Topics examined include: the structure and history of the European (Monetary) Union; the causes and consequences of debt crises in so-called 'peripheral' or Southern Europe; the changing nature of identity & nationalisms within the EU; the nature of governance and statehood within the EU; Germany's unique role; and the Euro as an international currency.

POLS 432: The Modern Welfare State

Instructor: Anne Lachance

Description: This course analyzes the politics of social policy in contemporary democracies. During the middle decades of the twentieth century, western countries developed a complex set of social programs protect individuals and families from the risks and insecurities inherent in the market economy and modern society. In recent decades, governments have restructured many of these programs, often in dramatic ways, in response to changing economic, social and political pressures. This course examines theoretical debates about the forces that have reshaped the welfare state, assesses the ways in which social programs have been restructured, and evaluates the implications for poverty, inequality and intergenerational fairness. The course will draw on the experience of western democracies in general and Canada in particular.

POLS 433: Problems of American Democracy

Instructor: Paul Gardner

Description: Donald Trump surprised political commentators and students of American politics when he secured victory in the Electoral College while losing the national popular vote. The Trump presidency has created a new set of challenges for American democracy, but even more, Trump’s election is a result of complex and growing dysfunctions in American government. This course seeks to examine American political life and the apparent dissatisfaction of the American electorate with its political leadership. What is it that Americans want from their government, and why are political elites unable to deliver on those demands? What are the sources of polarization in American politics and can political science suggest any solutions?

POLS 434: Multiculturalism

Instructor: Olga Talal

Description: This course explores the political implications of multiculturalism from a variety of perspectives, including theory, policy, and historical meaning. Issues include: history and policy of multiculturalism in the Canadian, US and global contexts; the construction of ‘race’ and anti-racism; and the role of multiculturalism in citizenship inclusion and exclusion.

POLS 435: The Palestinian-Israeli Conflict

Instructor: Oded Haklai

Description: This course introduces students to some of the important questions about the Palestinian-Israeli conflict. What is the history of the conflict? How did distinct national identities emerge? What issues are at stake for the actors involved? How do domestic factors shape Palestinian-Israeli relations? Why have peacemaking efforts been unsuccessful? The purpose of the course is to explain the political phenomenon of conflict in the Middle East. The course will seek to understand why political actors act the way they do, using theoretical lenses and analytical concepts that have been developed in the fields of nationalism, ethnic conflict, and conflict resolution more generally.

POLS 439: American Politics

*Not offered in 2019-20

Description: The purpose of this seminar will be to provide an in-depth examination of the United States to address whether it is in decline. Several of the topics the course will evaluate include: the 2012 presidential election, the polarization of American culture, the paralysis in Washington, the role of religion and race on foreign policy, the legacy of the war on terror, the Great Recession, and the rise of the rest, particularly China. The objective of course will be to present a holistic understanding of the United States in a global context.

POLS 440: Politics of Ethnicity and Nationalism

Instructor: Ognen Vangelov

Description: The goal of this seminar is to explore the sources of nationalism, the relationship between ethnicity and nationalism, and the contemporary challenges of nation-building in a globalized world. The latter part of the course will focus on the manifestation (and peculiarities) of the relationship between ethnicity and nationalism in post-colonial societies. Beyond critical evaluation of theories and arguments, the course also provides opportunities for students to hone their analytical written skills.

POLS 442: Latin America

Instructor: Catherine Conaghan

Description: 

POLS 443: Gender and Globalization

Instructor: TBD

Description: This course explores how gender offers epistemological and ontological positions to investigate conceptualizations of power relations and governance in local and global politics in the context of a globalized world. This course will examine how definitions of gender are negotiated and disseminated in the context of globalization and transnational flows and how they contribute to transformations in political processes, economic interactions and lived experiences of these phenomena.

 We will question the focus of existing scholarship, and attempt to decolonize the globalized constructions of gender in various geographies. We will focus on primary concepts used in political science to address key questions: What is gender/difference? How is it political? How can we conceptualize privilege and oppression locally and globally and how do these levels of analysis intersect notably in knowledge production? Whose values and ideals are implicated in globalization? What are the stereotypes mobilized to conceptualize geographies, how can we question them?

POLS 445: Dialectics of Development

Instructor: Poulomi Chakrabarti

Description: Across developed and developing countries, ethnic diversity is consistently associated with poor public goods provision. The negative relationship between social divisions and development has, in fact, been described as the “most powerful hypotheses in political economy”. But what exactly about diversity hinders development? This course will explore the dominant themes in the literature on ethnicity and development – the role of shared culture and social norms, differential preferences of ethnic groups, the effect of group-differentiated rights, the role of identity in electoral politics and patronage politics, the effects of group-based inequality, and finally the historical role of ethnicity in the state-building process and its long-term effects on development. We distinguish between public goods and common-pool resources and explore the distinct channels through which diversity shapes cooperation between groups in the maintenance of common resources at the community level as well as how identity can be instrumental in shaping the policy preferences of the political elite and hence state provision of public goods. The themes discussed in the course reflect some of the most cutting edge areas of contemporary research in the field of comparative politics and development.

POLS 450 Political Theory: Appeals to Human Nature

*Not offered in 2019-20

Description: An analysis of texts that take the nature of humans as the basis for political argument. Emphasis is on the search for foundations for political claims and the nature of 20th-century relativism, cultural and moral.

POLS 451: Seminar in Political Theory: Anarchist Political Theory

Instructor: Danielle Delaney

Description: Once described as the ‘art of not being governed,’ anarchist politics holds open the possibility of politics without rule, governance without a state, organization without a political order. Political science often treats anarchist politics as a problem to be solved: the end (or collapse) of the sovereign through corruption, war—civil or otherwise, or collapsing civil institutions means the end of politics itself. But is it possible to have politics without the social hierarchy of the ruler and the ruled? Rather than the end of politics and the indication of a failure of governance, can anarchic politics be a possibility?

This course considers the contemporary possibility of anarchist politics, attempting to illuminate the politics that might come from resistance to rule. Anarchist politics come in a multitude of forms—organized resistance to state authority and expressions of power to mutual aid societies and cooperative politics all fall within the umbrella of anarchist politics. Resistance and revolution have taken a central focus within popular conception of anarchist politics, but this class explores the broad history of anarchist political theory.

This is an advanced political science seminar; students will be asked to think both critically and experimentally about both anarchist political theory and practice. We will explore both through close engagement with anarchist political pamphlets, key texts in late modern and contemporary political theory—including Proudhon, Kropotkin, Bakunin, Sterner, Gen-Dor, and Rancière, amongst others—and current expressions of anarchist politics. In this manner we will trace anarchist political theory’s development as a constellation of resistant theories and techniques, as well as their place in contemporary politics.

POLS 453: Seminar in Political Theory

Instructor: TBD

Description: POLS 451 and POLS 453 will be the same course on the Ethics of Migration in 2018-19. Migration is at the centre of contemporary politics around the world, and we urgently need to develop well-reasoned, principled answers to the ethical questions posed by refugee crises, selective bans and deportations, migrant detention camps, temporary foreign workers, majority-group nationalism, and a host of other pressing concerns. The purpose of this course is to provide students with a broad and strong foundation for doing so.

The course is divided into three themes: (1) an introduction to the key concepts and debates in the ethics of migration; (2) migration; and (3) settlement. The first is self-explanatory. The second theme, which makes up most of the course, deals with ethical issues associated with the act of migration such as border control, asylum seeking, and deportation. Theme three addresses issues associated with settlement after migration, including non-citizen rights and migrant integration.

POLS 456: Theories of Identity Politics

Instructor: Eleanor Macdonald

Description: An investigation into different theoretical perspectives on the issue of ‘identity’ and the import of these perspectives for the ‘politics of identity’. Theories of gender, race, class, nation, and sexual orientation, from a variety of perspectives, including Marxist, feminist, postmodern, and psychoanalytic theory.

POLS 457: Issues in Global Justice

Instructor: TBD

Description: An exploration of issues in international politics from a theoretical, normative, and empirical perspective, including global redistributive justice, just war theory, normative theories of humanitarian intervention, and liberal peace theory. Among the questions posed are whether we are obligated to protect the citizens of foreign states, what solutions to civil conflict are justifiable, whether amnesty should be given to former combatants, and to what extent peace and justice are universally defined concepts.

POLS 458: Ethics of War and Intervention

Instructor: TBD

Description: An examination of the debates about when it is (morally) justified to go to war - and when it isn’t. Topics will include war as self-defence, humanitarian intervention, preventive war, and different conceptions of the morally proper way to wage war.

POLS 460: International Relations: South East Asia

Instructor: Stéphanie Martel

Description: TBD

POLS 461: International Regimes

Instructor: Raynold Alorse

Description: Problems of order and change in international politics, exploring the theory and practice of international institutions from early critiques of the Westphalian state system, through the emergence of modern international organizations and regimes, to current problems of global governance.

POLS 462: Studies in National Security

Instructor: Thomas Hughes

Description: Contemporary aspects of Canadian international security policy. Topics include: the evolution of policy towards NATO; bilateral defence arrangements with the US; collective security and cooperative security; peacekeeping; defence economics; the role of domestic factors in the shaping of strategy; and aid of the civil power.

POLS 463: International Relations Theory

Instructor: David Haglund

Description: Critical examination of selected themes, issues and works in classical and contemporary international relations theory.

POLS 464: Russian Foreign Policy

*Not offered in 2019-20

Description: An examination of the determinants of Russian Foreign Policy, and the extent to which they have changed over the last half-century. The course will cover both historical and contemporary issues in Russian foreign relations.

POLS 465: The Politics of War

Instructor: Christian Breede

Description: An exploration of the causes of war, sampling the literature on war causality and using a case study approach. A number of contemporary cases in contemporary interstate and intrastate war will be examined to illustrate why war and the use of force continue to be a favoured method of advancing political interests.

POLS 466: Politics of War in Africa

Instructor: TBD

Description: This course challenges students to consider African conflicts in historical perspective and to rethink commonly held assumptions and narratives. Using a case study approach (Darfur, Rwanda), this course will challenge students to consider historical context and what it means to impose labels like genocide onto conflicts with long and complex histories. Students will also be introduced to ongoing debates on topics such as justice and reconciliation in Rwanda, humanitarian intervention in Darfur, and the role of history in shaping current narratives and labeling of conflicts. In the final part of the course students will consider the so-called ‘Arab spring’ in North Africa and the ‘humanitarian’ intervention in Libya. Students will be challenged to use the questions and debates from earlier in the course to think about the evolving situation in North Africa.

POLS 467: International Political Economy

Instructor: Wayne Cox

Description: This course highlights the linkages between economic, social, and political change through an examination of various theoretical approaches in the field over the past two centuries. Students will engage with a range of classic and contemporary texts – ranging from classical liberalism to feminism and post-colonialism – with attention to issues of global inequality, trade, finance, and labour.

POLS 468: The International Relations of the Middle East 

Instructor: Wayne Cox

Description: This course offers an analysis of Middle Eastern politics from the perspective of the field of international relations. Themes covered in this course include, the historical evolution of various identities in the region, the history and role of outside actors in the Middle East, contemporary Middle Eastern state and social relations, and the role that Middle Eastern states play in contemporary world politics.

POLS 469: Issues in Canadian Foreign Policy

*Not offered in 2019-20

Description: This course focuses on Canadian-American relations, emphasizing the interaction in both bilateral and multilateral contexts. Primary concern with issues of trade, investment and resources, with some attention paid to security issues.

POLS 470: Seminar in International Politics

Instructor: David Haglund

Description: The theoretical focus will be on power-transition theory (PTT), with three case studies rounding out the semester's work: Anglo-American special relationship, German reunification of 1990, and the US-China relationship.

POLS 471: Politics and Science in Technological Societies

Instructor: TBD

Description: An examination of connections between politics, science and technology. Topics include: ideologies and the autonomy of science; science in the Warfare State; controlling the social uses of science.

POLS 482: Seminar in Public Policy - The Politics of Prisons

*Not offered in 2019-20

Description: The growth and transformation of prison systems and punishment regimes, and their increasing use as tools for maintaining social order, managing class, racial and ethnic conflict and dealing with the problem of globalization-induced migration is an important political tendency in western liberal democracies. Yet it is a tendency mostly neglected by mainstream political science, perhaps because it questions the discipline's core liberal assumption that order rests upon consent rather than coercion, inclusion rather than exclusion. POLS482 seeks to fill this gap, using historical, theoretical and comparative analysis as means of investigating the changing politics of prisons, and is organized in seminar, research and audio-visual streams. Topics for discussion include: global patterns and national variations in punishment regimes and prison systems; law, punishment and class formation; the prison as a disciplinary institution; punishment and the labour market; punishment and global post-fordism; the ideology of authoritarian populism; the prison-industrial complex; race and incarceration; prison-building and regional development; the prison and the welfare state; imprisonment and democratic exclusion; the camp and the exceptional State. The major assignment for the seminar is to write a substantial research essay on the politics of prison privatization in a jurisdiction of the student's choice, and to present the findings to the seminar in a conference-style format. POLS482 course outline Winter 2016(453 KB)

POLS 483: Justice and Gender: Incarceral Policy in Post-Colonial States

Instructor: Linda Mussell

Description: What implications do corrections systems in post-colonial states have on justice and gender? This course will examine corrections policy and critical literature from Canada, Australia, and Aotearoa/New Zealand. Particular attention will be given to the intersection of Indigeneity and gender. Key questions this course will examine include: What are the central guiding values and assumptions of these systems? How have they evolved over time? In what ways do bureaucracy, politics, courts, and public opinion shape policy and practice? What are the implications to diverse persons when using an intersectional lens? And, where here do we go from here to realize a better future?

POLS 484: Politics of Globalization

Instructor: Akif Hasni

Description: This course uniquely examines the politics of globalization from three key theoretical frameworks: political economy, political ecology, and international relations.  In doing so, the course explores the changing dynamics of globalization, including the emergence of China and India - and its impact on emerging political, economic and ecological trends through the use of salient empirical case studies including, for example, China’s Belt and Road Initiative.   The course also examines the historical forces that continue affect not only political and economic inequality but also globally asymmetrical ecological degradation.  In employing these perspectives, students are equipped with the theoretical tools to address a range of cases in globalization studies. 

POLS 485: Seminar in Gender and Politics

*Not offered in 2019-20

Description: “Queer Canada” explores how Canada perceives itself, and has become perceived by others, as a global leader on LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender) rights in the post-same-sex marriage era in the 21st century. The course explores LGBT inclusion and exclusion, and therefore what has been termed “sexual citizenship,” from multiple perspectives and along multiple dimensions. The course mostly attends to qualitative scholarship, but some quantitative scholarship on public opinion is also considered. What ties these diverse interventions together is that they are all looking at issues of LGBT politics (for example, the decriminalization of same-sex sexual activity, gays and lesbians serving openly in the Canadian Armed Forces, same-sex marriage, LGBT immigration and refugee status,” gay villages”, the persistence of heterosexism in the education system) in the Canadian context. An attempt is made in the course to cover some of the varied history of LGBT exclusion/inclusion in Canada before launching into contemporary issues of inclusion and exclusion. Students will be invited to weigh relatively more optimistic accounts of Canada as a “gay-friendly” country against those that are relatively more critical of the state of LGBT inclusion and the inclusion of “others” in Canada.
 

POLS 486: The Politics of Rights

Instructor: Andrew Nguyen

Description: A difficult challenge facing a liberal-democratic polity is how to distinguish allowable state action from the protected sphere of human activity. The course examines contemporary debates about whether rights provide an appropriate critical standard for evaluating state action and looks at different institutional methods to assess the justification of state actions.


Non-POLS Course Descriptions:

Courses from the following list of "substitutions" may be counted towards a POLS plan, up to a limit of 12.0 units for the Major and 6.0 units for the Medial and Minor

Substitution Courses
DEVS 230: The Global Political Economy of Development /3.0

Description: Applying global political economy perspectives to key aspects of development finance. Topics include the introduction of basic economic terms, the role of the International Monetary Fund, World Bank, World Trade Organization, and the growing roles of Transnational Corporations and financial markets in development NOTE    Also offered online. Consult Arts and Science Online. Learning Hours may vary

IDIS304: British Studies I /3.0

Offered only at the Bader International Study Centre, Herstmonceux

Description: An interdisciplinary introduction to the broad development of British life and culture, focusing on British national identity. The course usually combines British art history, history, literature and geography.

IDIS 305: British Studies II /3.0

Offered only at the Bader International Study Centre, Herstmonceux

Description: An interdisciplinary introduction to the broad development of British life and culture, focusing on cultural and political conflicts in British society. The course usually combines British art history, history, literature and geography.

INTS 300: Special Studies in Britain and Europe in a Global Context I /3.0

Offered only at the Bader International Study Centre, Herstmonceux

Description: This course will offer a unique opportunity to study a special topic in Britain and Europe in a global context. Topics will vary each term, and the course may not be offered every year. For detailed course description, see www.queensu.ca/bisc

INTS301: Special Studies in Britain and Europe in a Global Context II /3.0

Offered only at the Bader International Study Centre, Herstmonceux 

Description: This course will offer a unique opportunity to study a special topic in Britain and Europe in a global context. Topics will vary each term, and the course may not be offered every year. For detailed course description, see www.queensu.ca/bisc  

INTS 303: The Global Village: Case Studies of South Eastern England /3.0

Offered only at the Bader International Study Centre, Herstmonceux. 

Description: This course will examine ways in which South East England has been and is connected to the world. Students will develop an appropriate research methodology drawing on local archival and oral resources to investigate selected topics. Topics will vary yearly and may be examined from a variety of perspectives: historical, sociological, cultural or within a multidisciplinary framework. 

INTS312: Seminar in Modern European Studies I /3.0

Offered only at the Bader International Study Centre, Herstmonceux. 

Description: This course will offer a unique opportunity to study a special topic in Modern European Studies. Topics will vary each term, and the course may not be offered every year. For a detailed course description, see www.queensu.ca/bisc  

INTS313: Seminar in Modern European Studies II /3.0

Offered only at the Bader International Study Centre, Herstmonceux. 

Description: This course will offer a unique opportunity to study a special topic in Modern European Studies. Topics will vary each term, and the course may not be offered every year. For a detailed course description, see www.queensu.ca/bisc  

INTS320: Fascism in Europe: From Napoleon to Hitler /3.0

Offered only at the Bader International Study Centre, Herstmonceux

Description: An introduction to the growth of the fascist mentality in Europe from a cultural perspective. The course will treat the Third Reich as part of the broader conservative and nationalist challenge to liberalism.

LAW 201: Introduction to Canadian Law /3.0

Description: Law 201 is designed for students from all disciplines, but will be of particular interest to students in history, political science, or business.  The course provides students with an introduction to the Canadian legal and judicial systems.  Students will learn the sources of law in Canadian common law jurisdictions, as well as the basic workings of the Canadian court system.  Students will be introduced to the role of lawyers and judges, and legal ethics.

LLCU319: Roots of Fascism: Resistance to Liberalism in the 19th Century /3.0

Description: A survey of various currents of thought from 19th‐century Europe that illustrate conservative discomfort with industrial society and help to make the outbreak of fascism understandable after 1918. The course will distinguish between conservative, nationalist, aesthetic, and religious trends, illustrated by relevant readings from different countries.

LLCU320: Fascism in Europe from Napoleon to Hitler /3.0

Description:

An introduction from a cultural perspective to the growth of the fascist mentality in Europe and the emergence of fascist regimes. The course will treat Italian Fascism and the Third Reich as part of the broader conservative and nationalist challenge to liberalism.


Forms & Checklists

Please download the applicable PDF to ensure that you are keeping track of your degree progression and choosing appropriate courses as needed: