The Sacred Nature of Signs: A Study of Christian Symbolism at the Site of Humayma, Jordan.
This project presents a catalogue of symbols that are (or could be regarded as) Christian from the archaeological site of Humayma – a town in southern Jordan that transitioned from a Nabataean caravan stop and Roman military fort into a prominent Christian settlement during the Byzantine period. The aim of this study is to contextualize the presence of Christianity within the multi-cultural framework of Humayma, to highlight the role of symbolism in the practice of Christianity, and to create a concise and comprehensive guide to both obvious and possible Christian symbols for future researchers in this field. The catalogue includes symbol types with documented Christian value from the Byzantine period, including crosses, stars, and monograms, which are presented on a variety of media throughout the site, including marble panels, jewellery, amulets, tomb stones, and coins. My contribution to this field is predominantly based in the assessment of style, symbolism and meaning for those symbols identified as Christian. Based on the evidence presented within this project, I suggest that a petroglyph carved into the Eastern Cascading Plateau of the Jebel Qalkha is a monogram for Saint Michael the archangel. This is a particularly significant finding, because the Plateau, an area with a long history of Nabataean, Roman and Islamic use, has never before been associated with Christianity. I also show that the area west of the Roman fort, D128, may contain a Christian cemetery and/or church, based on the high concentration of Christian symbols found on spolia in that particular field.
Minoan Funerary Practices During the Bronze Age: With a Study on the Introduction of Cremation to Crete.
The funerary practices on Crete during the Bronze Age are very diverse in nature. Tomb architecture in the Early Minoan period is characterized by regional variations. In the Middle Minoan and Late Minoan periods the regional variations, present in the Early Minoan period, are not as palpable due to the increased trade within the island that allowed for better circulation of ideas. With the introduction of the palaces there is a shift in the communal burials of the Early Minoan period that left commingled remains. The shift towards a more individualistic nature of burials in the Middle Minoan period saw the introduction and use of pithoi and larnakes to further divide the space within a tomb. The Late Minoan period is the height and fall of Minoan power on Crete. It is also a time when new people were arriving on Crete and this is reflected in the funerary remains. The introduction of cremation to Crete is a drastic change to the island where the main form of burial has been inhumation since the Early Minoan period. Cremation is first noted in areas that have strong trade connections. Cremation is commonly used in the Near East and I attempt to track its progression and appearance on Crete from the East. The Iliad is also consulted on the basis of plausibility for the funeral of Patroklos and the cremated remains that are found within the Mediterranean context during the Bronze Age.
Similarities and Disparities Between the Mycenaean Palace Sites: A Comparative Analysis of the Layout, Content, and Diversities of the Palace-Citadels of Ancient Pylos and Mycenae During the Late Helladic IIIB Period.
This research essay is a comparative analysis of the Mycenaean palace-citadels of Mycenae and Ancient Pylos, examining the artefacts, architecture and layouts of certain buildings and contexts within both sites to determine how influential Mycenaean culture may have been over their occupants. Which will be examined by classifying certain elements from their remains according to a set of behavioural characteristics in-relation to Mycenaean culture: cultural behavioural adaptations, elements that are different between both sites, and cultural behaviours regularities, which include detailed characteristics that are consistent between both sites.
Mycenae and Ancient Pylos are among the most heavily examined and referenced sites in Mycenaean scholarship. Mycenae was the first palace to be excavated and has over the previous century occupied an “archetypal” role among Late Helladic sites, with a longer habitation period than most of its contemporaries. Ancient Pylos lacks some iconic characteristics shared between Midea, Mycenae and Tiryns, yet it does have the most intact palatial megaron ever found alongside crucial textual and archaeological evidence for the society, economy and beliefs of the Mycenaean people.
The parameters of this report will be confined solely to the LHIIIB period, as both sites contained multiple periods of occupation and to examine each one in-tern would be too large and complicated for a 50-page research paper. Additionally, only the remains inside the different hilltops of Mycenae and Ano Englianos will be addressed in this report, within the Cyclopean walls at Mycenae and the LHII ashlar walls at Ancient Pylos. This will include the relative layouts of the palaces, surrounding palace-complex ,and additional houses within the sites, examining their proximity and roles towards each other, followed by the contexts and functions of certain rooms, to identify the different activities, procedures, techniques and methods that were shared or diverse between both sites, such as security, economic, open spaces, cult-associations, etc.
Moving on to the methods of analysis for this report, it was initially meant to apply Cognitive Archaeology, since according to Marc Ambramluk, it can be possible to study certain behaviours and remains evidenced in the archaeological record to hypothesize the cognitive capabilities and intentions that were involved in their creation.1 However, after examining the principals and analytical techniques of this paradigm in-depth, it proved to lack compatibility with the limits of this report or would result in too much speculation. Instead, a new approach related to Behavioural Archaeology was utilized for this study, distinguishing between certain behavioural characteristics present at both Mycenae and Ancient Pylos.
Cultural behaviours encompasses certain activities or traits that are prevalent throughout an entire culture, marked by their repetition and transmission across geographical and temporary spaces. Such behaviours were the results of human decisions and activities, and created certain products, artefacts, or contexts that can be studied by archaeologists. However, intricate and surprising characteristics exist in the differences and similarities between their layouts, artwork and the artefacts assemblages of both palaces. These remains can be classified either as cultural behavioural regularities, or cultural behavioural adaptations. Recognizing these different behaviours can allow archaeologists examine how encompassing or influential the cultural identities and characteristics of a particular civilization were.
Photogrammetric Documentation of the Theodosian Palace at Stobi, Republic of Macedonia
The so-called “Theodosian Palace” is one of the most significant Late Antique structures at the site of Stobi, in the Republic of Macedonia. Popularly thought to be a stopping-place of Theodosius I on his way through the province of Macedonia Secunda, according to the evidence of the Codex Theodosianus, the Theodosian Palace is in dire need of conservation with the abundance of stone and mortar walls threatening to collapse onto the mosaic floors below. Any conservation effort in the Republic of Macedonia must produce rigorous documentation before any physical conservation work can take place. The most important and time consuming component of the project preparation are section and elevation drawings documenting each of the walls stone-by-stone, with elevations and scales indicated in a format prescribed by the state. These drawings are usually done manually on graph paper in the field, with the assistance of time-honoured manual tools – the plumb-bob and tape-measure – but this method is enormously time consuming and has considerable room for error. The present project, begun in 2016 and the subject of this paper, endeavoured to show that new, photogrammetric methods could not only improve the accuracy of these drawings, but also the speed with which they are made. Our results demonstrate an increase in accuracy by an order magnitude, from 3 cm to 3 mm, and an improvement in the time to deliver the final product from an estimated 8 months to 2 months.
Women in Etruscan Tomb Painting
Previous scholarship on women in Etruscan tomb painting has grounded its conclusion on a number of select, well distinguished tombs that have been used to support or disprove the claim that women held a prominent position in Etruscan society. This research paper aims to expand the literature by compiling an extensive catalogue of tomb paintings at the Etruscan site of Tarquinia, to examine the representation and iconography of women between the sixth and fourth centuries BCE. Of the 135 painted tombs known in the Monterozzi necropolis of Tarquinia, there are 62 tombs that contain the depiction of women in various settings, including scenes of dance, athletics, the journey to the afterlife, and most frequently, the banquet. By analyzing the 24 tombs that contain scenes of the banquet where women are present, through their positioning, attire, and iconography, it is evident that the elite women in Etruscan society played an important role in the family. In comparison to scenes of the banquet in Greek art, as well as the accounts from ancient authors who comment on the scandalous actions of Etruscan women, a different picture emerges. The women depicted on the walls of these Etruscan tombs are not entertainers or subordinate companions. They are wives and mothers who, as members of the aristocracy, were essential figures in maintaining the family lineage and as such held greater authority and power. It is within these family tombs that they were honored and respected in this role.
The North African Influence on the Mosaics of Piazza Armerina
This study begins with a discussion regarding the military crises of third and early fourth century Roman Empire and how they appear to have missed Sicily entirely, resulting in the island entering a period of prosperity, especially in the rural regions. The direct link between the establishment of Constantinople as capital of the Empire and Sicily’s subsequent economic boom is also examined. Within this historical context, the relationship between the mosaics of North Africa and those of Sicily begins with a survey of the richly-decorated Villa Romana del Casale near modern-day Piazza Armerina. The extensive collections of mosaics adorning this villa are examined in depth and grouped thematically. Finally, comparisons of the motifs, and the methodologies used for creating these mosaics are made with similar, and in some cases even identical works found in North Africa, especially around Carthage. From this, it can be determined that not only were the mosaics of Piazza Armerina influenced by North African design, but they may have even been made by North African mosaicists themselves.
Etruscan Religion and Divination: Examining the Etruscan Gods and Demons, Divination and Haruspicy
The Etruscans are described by Roman and Greek sources as a people devoted to religious practices above any other. A facet of Etruscan religion is divination, a field in which they had a reputation for excellence in ancient Italy. This caused many Etruscan priests to be summoned to Rome to explain phenomena that local experts could not. The Romans turned to the practices of the Etruscan haruspices as a way to provide a procuration or a way to “find remedies” for the disturbances between man and the gods. For the purpose of this paper, the focus will be on Etruscan religion. Main points of discussion will include: 1) where our understanding of Etruscan religion stems from and an overview of the foundations of Etruscan Religion; 2) the Etruscan pantheon and the features distinguishing the Etruscan gods from the Greek and Roman gods; 3) divination and haruspicy in Etruria. For all three subjects archaeological evidence will be presented. A catalogue of select artifacts associated primarily with divination provides additional material in support of the discussion.
A Timeline of the Decans: From Egyptian Astronomical Timekeeping to Greco-Roman Melothesia
The decans were a set of thirty-six stars or constellations selected by the Egyptians in the First Intermediate Period as a means of marking the progression of the hours during the night. The rising of each decan on the horizon would mark the beginning of a new hour. The decans were depicted most often by the Egyptians in a funerary context, which led scholars to believe their initial function was not just astronomical but deeply religious as well. Once Egypt became colonized by Hellenistic rulers, the decans were adapted into the imported Babylonian zodiac. Once incorporated into the Hellenistic astrological system, which synthesized elements of both Egypt and Mesopotamia, the decans were believed to influence human health through the bonds of cosmic sympathy – the idea that all celestial bodies impacted human life in one way or another. The decans were each assigned to various sub-sections of the human body in a practice called melothesia. Once this assignment was established, a tradition of creating medical amulets emerged, allowing individuals to create folk remedies to alleviate disease and injury. The purpose of this paper is to review, synthesize, and contextualize the existent research on the decans.
A Virtual Reconstruction of the Baptistery of the Episcopal Basilica at Stobi (Republic of Macedonia)
In the last decade of the sixth century CE, the baptistery of the Episcopal Basilica at Stobi, presently located in the Republic of Macedonia, collapsed, which destroyed the roof and the interior support structure of the baptistery. When the building was excavated in 1971, the stratigraphy was difficult to interpret; scholars originally believed that the baptistery had been undisturbed, even though there was no evidence of the roof present in the stratigraphy. To date, two very different reconstructions have been made. The first (figs. 7-8), made by William Dinsmoor in 1975, was disproved by subsequent archeological discoveries. A second reconstruction (fig. 9) was published in 2006 by James Wiseman, but failed to include any supporting evidence from comparanda. Since no adequate reconstruction attempt has been made, this paper will put forth a new reconstruction for the baptistery, supported by a photogrammetry-derived 3D model and evidence of similar baptisteries from the same period. Additional research topics which have not been addressed in the existing scholarship of the baptistery will also be discussed, including the provenance of the kantharos and the function of the structure found underneath the baptistery.
Greek Tholoi of the Classical and Hellenistic Periods: An Examination
This research aims to examine the Greek tholoi of the Classical and Hellenistic period focusing on the monuments from Olympia, Delphi, Epidauros, Samothrace, Cyrene, Limyra, and Knidos. These buildings have been examined separately and the similarities of each structure and the influences they may have had upon the others have been stressed. Comparing information from primary sources (literature and inscriptions) and archaeological evidence it seems that the round shape of these buildings is related to the heroic and dynastic cult, which started with Philip II and Alexander the Great and was later continued by the Ptolemies. I believe that the antecedent to the tholos used as a building for the dynastic cult may be identified in the heroon dedicated to Herakles Patroos (Fatherly) in the Macedonian Palace at Verghina. The Macedonian Royal House believed that Herakles was an ancestor of them and worshipped him as such.
Fourth-Century Gothic Settlement and the Late Roman Economy
Settlement and integration of non-Romans within Roman territory, political institutions, and culture were driving factors in the success of the Roman Empire since its foundation. This paper aims to examine the changing dynamics of settlement through the fourth century. One such group that were settled in the Roman empire, first recorded in 284 CE, were called the laeti. Laeti had the obligation to serve in the army in exchange for land – a situation that recalls idealized solider-farmer in Roman thought. The land they were settled on, however, some of which had been abandoned by aristocrats. This land was appropriated by the state and give to settlers. The phenomenon of agri deserti “(deserted land)”, was land not enrolled on the tax register, and became a source of conflict between the state and aristocrats, as well as the newly settled non-Romans and the aristocrats who still claimed the land. The aristocrats had to abandon the cultivation of this land due to labour shortages since their tenants had to serve in the army. Institutionalized settlement of non-Romans, such as the laeti, competed directly with the aristocratic economic aims. The institution of a new gold currency, the solidus, under Constantine, motivated the aristocrats to commute their in-kind taxation to gold (aderatio) due to the stability of the currency against inflation that the solidus brought. Landholders were willing to pay ten to twelve times the annual salary of a labourer in taxes to the state to retain these tenants. As less land was subsequently declared agri deserti, the state had large sums of money but few recruits. Furthermore, land that was traditionally given to non-Roman settlers was eliminated since tenants of large estates were not being recruited into the army. Thus, when the Gothic tribes sought asylum in the Roman Empire, the perfect source of manpower presented itself. However, after the almost complete destruction of the Roman army at the battle of Adrianople (378 CE) the process of aderatio was cemented as de facto state policy.
The “Hippocratic” Stance on Abortion: The Translation, Interpretation, and Use of the Hippocratic Oath in the Abortion Debate from the Ancient World to Present-Day
Olivia De Brabandere
The Hippocratic Oath was written in the fourth or fifth century BCE and was an esoteric document until hundreds of years after its creation. Physicians were not required to be familiar with this document in the ancient world, and its prominence in later history was mainly due to its association with Hippocrates, though the famous doctor is likely not its author. The document was adopted in the medieval and renaissance periods, however, and adapted to conform to Christian ideals that physicians were expected to abide by. In present-day society the oath has been used in legal trials such as Roe versus Wade, and continues to be used by many pro-life associations to argue that abortion should not be permitted under any circumstances. It is the purpose of this essay to examine the oath’s stance on abortion in the context in which it was written, to reinforce the fact that it largely disagreed with moral and medical standards which existed prior to the rise of Christianity. This is demonstrated through an examination of the use of the oath by physicians in antiquity as well as the medieval period, changing moral and religious concerns with induced miscarriage, and laws associated with abortion throughout the procedure’s history in relation to changing cultural norms. Though the intended meaning of the line in question may be uncertain, it is clear that abortion was an accepted procedure in medical circles in antiquity, and that the adoption and use of the Hippocratic Oath to advance pro-life argumentation was aided by changing social, moral, medical, and religious beliefs.
Selections from the Lexicon of Sextus Pompeius Festus, On the Meaning of Words: Translated with Introduction and Notes.
The Lexicon of Festus has never been published in English translation. Although several modern editions were prepared in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, Festus is accessible only to those who can read him in the Latin original or who can read a nineteenth-century French translation based upon a now-obsolete Latin edition. While this state of affairs may have sufficed in the past, the general decline of Latin reading ability and the delaying of Latin language study to the university undergraduate level has rendered this untranslated text inaccessible to a large swathe of students and enthusiasts in the English-speaking world. This is unfortunate not only because the Lexicon of Festus is a fascinating text in its own right, being an early example of a dictionary and encyclopedia, but also because it contains much information which will be of use to those interested in the institutions and religion of Rome, the peoples of ancient Italy, and Latin linguistics, among other topics. My edition of translated selections includes scholarly notes and a full introduction setting the Lexicon in its historical context. It makes parts of this text accessible for the first time to those without Latin reading ability.
Ancient Macedonian Ethnic Identity: A Study with Emphasis on the Literary Sources From the 5th c. B.C. to the 2nd c. A.D.
The ethnic identity of the ancient Macedonians continues to be the most debated subject within Macedonian historiography. The debate has fixated on a simple question: were the Macedonians Greeks, or a separate ethnic group? Rather than attempting to trace the exact origins of the Macedonians – an exceedingly difficult task in dealing with any ancient people – this thesis will focus on the ethnic presentation of the Macedonians: how do the ancient literary sources identify the Macedonians? How did the Macedonians identify themselves? What factors shaped the Greeks’ perspectives towards the Macedonian kings and their people? How much can we reasonably infer about the Macedonians’ ethnic self-perception and identification in the absence of their own literary testimony? This thesis will seek to answer these essential questions by providing a comprehensive analysis of the relevant ancient literary sources dating from the mid-late 5th c. B.C. to the early 2nd c. A.D., devoting careful attention to all of those passages which particularly relate to the subject of Macedonian ethnic identity. It will be demonstrated that the first established ruling dynasty of Macedon, the Argeads, may be considered Greek according to both modern and ancient Greek criteria for ethnicity; they held a conscious identity as Greeks and were accepted as such at a fairly early point by the intellectual and literary elite of southern Greece. Regarding the wider Macedonian populace, however, more direct evidence is required for us to readily ascertain their sense of ethnic identity. While an ethnocultural merging of Greeks and Macedonians does appear in literature by a later point in antiquity, the Greeks of the Classical period were consistent in designating the Macedonian people as ‘barbarians.’ Although further literary evidence (especially in the form of an average Macedonian communicating their sense of ethnic self-perception) is needed before any definitive conclusions can be drawn, we may perhaps best understand the Greeks and Macedonians as ethnically related yet distinct groups, gradually placed in close ethnocultural alignment by Greek writers only in the centuries following Alexander the Great’s conquest of the Near East.
Gallicization In Rome: A Study of Lexical Borrowing as Evidence for Gallo-Roman Cultural Diffusion
Following in the footsteps of Karl Schmidt’s 1967 article, Keltisches Wortgut im Lateinischen, and J.P. Wild’s 1970, Borrowed Names for Borrowed Things?, this thesis examines a total of twenty-one Gallic lexical items that were borrowed by the Latin language during the period of Roman hegemony over the whole of Gaul and, from that point, discusses whether the borrowing of these terms is proof of corresponding instances of cultural diffusion. In an effort to examine lexical and cultural integration in tandem, this study has selected terms from three semantic categories of material culture, specifically ‘food and drink’, ‘clothing’, and ‘wheeled vehicles’, and uses contextual evidence from the literary record to gauge the integration levels of the terms within both the Latin language and Roman culture. As a result, this thesis not only reveals much valuable information pertaining to both lexical and cultural integration, but also the effect which factors like perceived social status and the search of prestige had on the entire process. Furthermore, as a form of linguistic archaeology, this study succeeds in reconstructing certain aspects of Celtic culture which may have otherwise been lost to the passage of time.
The Beersheba Edict and Travel in Late Antique Palestine
Ever since its first edition and commentary in 1921, the Beersheba Edict has been regarded as a collection of four inscriptions. It continues to be debated amongst scholars, such as Denis Feissel, because it records a collection of yearly sums from settlements across all three Palaestinae in the sixth century. As the Beersheba Edict does not specify a reason for the annual collection of solidi from these settlements, scholars have put forth numerous hypotheses in order to explain them. This paper does not aim to propose a new hypothesis, nor does it seek to disprove the latest interpretation of the Edict by Leah Di Segni. This paper, instead, prefers to work with the hypothesis of Di Segni by investigating the evidence for hospitality services and general travel along the roman roads connecting settlements recorded in the Beersheba Edict.
ANGUEM ENIXA MULIER - Near Eastern Snake Omens and Roman Literature
Comparative work in the divinatory traditions of the Near East and the classical world, aside from the sub-discipline of astrology, has not been forthcoming. John Jacobs’s 2011 article, “Traces of the Omen Series Šumma Izbu in Cicero’s De Divinatione,” is a notable exception. In this work, Jacobs compared Mesopotamian birth omens with those found in Graeco-Roman literature, and discovered a concordance in the category of lion births. This concordance, however, is not exclusive to omens concerning the birth of lions. Snake omens drawn from the Šumma Izbu, the Mesopotamian omen corpus of birth omens, focus on two portents: the rise of a powerful leader and a negative change in social status. When snake omens in Roman literature are examined alongside these Mesopotamian omens, it is evident that the apodoses of the Roman omens likewise portend either or both of these events. The secondary focus of this work is to provide a history of snake omens in Roman sources, and to that end, this work draws on virtually all snake omens in classical Roman literature, although some late sources may have escaped notice. Ultimately, this analysis of the Roman snake omens provides evidence that several ideas about snake omens—that they predict eminent people and social discord—migrated from Near Eastern omen literature and surfaced in Roman literature. While this investigation does not theorize the means of this transmission, it reaffirms the complex relationship Mesopotamian omen lore has with the classical world.
The Peloponnesian Fleet: Disputing Thucydides' Land versus Sea Dichotomy
The clash between Sparta’s Peloponnesian League and the Athenian Delian League is considered one of the most famous events in Classical history. Lasting over two decades, the Great Peloponnesian War engulfed the greater part of the Greek mainland and Aegean, and extended to Sicily and Italy to the West, and Persia to the East. In essence, to the Hellene of the ancient world, this was a Greek World War. One of the major themes which the Peloponnesian War continuously iterated, and one which is emphasized in Thucydides’ narrative, was the dichotomy between the two πόλεις. Thucydides insinuated that the war was based on a polemic juxtaposition of Sparta, the predominant land power, and Athens, the naval juggernaut. Thucydides ultimately used the land versus sea motif to explain how the two city-states intended to fight. However, by doing this, Thucydides heavily disregarded Sparta’s maritime capabilities and even downplayed the Peloponnesian fleet’s role in the war. This paper will argue that Thucydides misconstrued the reality of the war. I believe Sparta pursued naval hegemony during the war and there is evidence for a deliberate naval program.
A Roman Frontier Exhibit in Northwestern Ontario: A Theoretical Foundation for Future Work
This research project provides a foundation for a travelling museum exhibit about life on the Roman frontier, for display in Northwestern Ontario. An effective exhibit depends on an understanding of the many roles museums play in modern society, and the unique challenges they face. This paper examines how today's museums function as centres of tourism, entertainment, and education. It discusses how desired learning outcomes and market data can affect exhibit design, while emphasizing the importance of cooperation with universities for research. A brief examination of how museums approach contemporary issues is followed by a broader discussion on effective exhibit design; topics include accessibility, labels, visitor movement patterns, audio tours, interactive elements, and the use of reproductions. The benefits of cooperating with other museums when creating travelling exhibits are examined, and examples of travelling ancient world exhibits in Canadian museums, both large and small, are used to support the creation of a Roman frontier exhibit for Northwestern Ontario.
Three Dimensional Epigraphic Recording at Stobi (Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia): Creating a Virtual Lapidarium
There is an increased need for 3D recording of archaeological sites and digital preservation of their artifacts. Digital photogrammetry with prosumer DSLR cameras is a suitable tool for recording epigraphy in particular, as it allows for the recording of inscribed surfaces with very high accuracy, often better than 2 mm and with only a short time spent in the field. When photogrammetry is fused with other computational photography techniques like panoramic tours and Reflectance Transformation Imaging, a workflow exists to rival traditional LiDARbased methods. The difficulty however, arises in the presentation of 3D data. It requires an enormous amount of storage and enduser sophistication. The proposed solution is to use gameengine technology and high definition virtual tours to provide not only scholars, but also the general public with an uncomplicated interface to interact with the detailed 3D epigraphic data. The site of Stobi, located near Gradsko, in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) was used as a case study to demonstrate the effectiveness of RTI, photogrammetry and virtual tour imaging working in combination. A selection of nine sets of inscriptions from the archaeological site were chosen to demonstrate the range of application for the techniques. The chosen marble, sandstone and breccia inscriptions are representative of the varying levels of deterioration and degradation of the epigraphy at Stobi, in which both their rates of decay and resulting legibility is varied. This selection includes those which are treated and untreated stones as well as those in situ and those in storage. The selection consists of both Latin and Greek inscriptions with content ranging from temple dedication inscriptions to statue dedications. This combination of 3D modeling techniques presents a cost and time efficient solution to both increase the legibility of severely damaged stones and to digitally preserve the current state of the inscriptions.
Trade relations between the Mycenaean Greeks and the civilizations of the Eastern Mediterranean in the Late Bronze Age
The Mycenaean Greeks are often assumed to have been in contact with the civilizations of the Mediterranean throughout the Late Bronze Age. The extent of this contact however is not as clearly understood, and the archaeological evidence that has survived provides a sample of what must have exchanged hands. This thesis will examine the archaeological, textual and iconographic evidence from a number of sites and sources, from the Anatolian plains to the Kingdom of Egypt and major settlements in-between during the Late Bronze Age to examine what trade may have looked like for the Mycenaeans. Due to the extensive finds in some regions and a lack of evidence in others, this paper will also try to understand the relationship between the Mycenaeans and other cultures to determine whether a trade embargo was enacted on the Mycenaeans by the Central Anatolian Hittites during this period, or whether other factors contributed to the paucity of objects in Central Anatolia.
A Well at Caere: Wells, Cisterns, and Ritual Practices in Etruria and Latium
After the discovery of a series of vases at the bottom of a well system at Caere in an apparent ritual closing, this study sets out to determine whether or not this practice was widespread across Etruria and Latium, and what the practice could possibly mean. A catalogue of 80 wells were collected from archaeological reports and articles published over the past 100 years of wells and cisterns in Etruria and Latium; some very interesting similarities and differences can be noted between them and the Caere well system. It seems that the practice of ritual deposits in wells was indeed done across the two areas. There seems to be some uniformity of wells during the Roman Republican period: most are equipped with footrests, and there seems to be a deposit of vases in varying degrees of completeness at or near the bottom; also, certain types of materials seem to recur in each well like the presence of lead, knucklebones, and writing styli. It seems that the ritual deposits were in some cases used to close off a well or cistern as it is a conduit that exists between the living and the world below, and leaving it exposed could be dangerous to the living population.
The Apophthegmata Lakonika and Greek Perceptions
There exists within the corpus of extant Greek and Roman literature a work by Plutarch, the Apophthegmata Lakonika that has been looked upon dubiously by scholars. However, the scholarly neglect of the Sayings of the Spartans has created another unnecessary barrier to gaining a better understanding of the Spartans. Although heavily influenced by the Spartan mirage, the Apophthegmata Lakonika represents a valuable source of insight into the mindset and personality of the average Spartan. The intent of this study is to examine key selections of the Sayings and comparing them to historical events that either reflect, or contradict, the values expressed in the Sayings. This study will focus on five fundamental areas: patriotism, nerves, obedience, contempt for wealth, and the Spartan relationship with death. The intended approach is to examine several Sayings that discuss each value, and then compare that evidence with the historical record to confirm or deny their authenticity as Spartan traits. By dissecting the Sayings and examining them in this way, we can begin to dissect features of the Spartan mirage that have developed over the course of thousands of years of scholarship. We can begin to divide the fictitious and fallacious aspects of the Spartan mirage from authentic fact, and in doing so gain a new avenue with which to interact with Spartan culture. The implications of such a study are wide-reaching. By affirming the validity of the Apophthegmata Lakonika we can both open it to further examination as well as reinvigorate an otherwise neglected area of scholarly study. The name “Spartan” has always echoed with authority within the ancient tradition – and such an echo deserves its due within academic scholarship, rather than its status as near anathema for much of the latter half of the 20th century.
Textile Production Tools from the Excavations at Caere, 2012-2014
It is the aim of this thesis to present the textile production tools from the 2012–2014 excavations at Caere, an Etruscan city northwest of Rome. While all textile tool finds — loom weights, spools, and spindle whorls — are presented, the discussion is focused on complete loom weights. The likely loom set-up, thread type, and appearance of the final fabric are suggested.
The Imperial Cult in Hispania: the Case of Tarraco
This essay is a case study of the imperial cult as it manifested in the city of Tarraco in Roman Spain. It begins with a discussion of what the imperial cult itself was and how it developed, through a look at the precedents for the cult and its origins starting from the death of Julius Caesar. The origin of the imperial cult in Spain specifically is then discussed. The architectural evidence for the cult is then examined. There is a focus on the location and dating of a municipal altar and temple, as well as the provincial temple, which has been the subject of scholarly debate for decades. Finally there is a study of the flamines or priests of Tarraco. This is done through the use of epigraphic evidence to discuss what patterns there were in the career of the flamines to gain an understanding of the type of citizen who gained this role, through their family history (if applicable) and the cursus honorum that they followed through their life.
In the introduction, chapter one, I seek to give a brief oversight of the thesis chapter by chapter.
Chapter two is a brief biography of Sir Richard Claverhouse Jebb, the still internationally recognized Sophoclean authority, and his much less well-known life as a humanitarian and a compassionate, human rights–committed person.
In chapter three I look at δεινός, one of the most ambiguous words in the ancient Greek language, and especially at its presence and interpretation in the first line of the “Ode to Man”: 332–375 in Sophocles’ Antigone, and how it is used elsewhere in Sophocles and in a few other fifth-century writers.
In chapter 4 I examine the “Ode To Man” itself, which has caused considerable academic discussion: Does it belong here? What role does it play in Antigone? Is it essential to the play?
In chapter five I seek to discover the character of Antigone as Sophocles has drawn her. She is a fascinating woman, not only in her commitment to burying her brother Polyneices, but also in the subtleties in her that Sophocles has portrayed. When it comes to Sophocles, conclusions are most difficult, but I needs but try.
Finally, the two appendices examine first Eglantyne Jebb, Sir Richard’s niece who, with her sister Dorothy, founded “Save The Children,” and last of all, the “Apostles,” a secret society of Cambridge University of which Jebb was a member.
A Reassessment of the Roman Figure in the Central Scene of Augustus of Prima Porta Cuirass.
Since its discovery in 1863 there has been a great deal of scholarly debate concerning the Roman figure in the central scene of the Augustus of Prima Porta’s cuirass. Some have identified the figure as an abstract character, others as a specific deity or historical figure. Most past scholarship has avoided a detailed assessment of the Roman figure, including its physical features, its uniform, the object under its upper left arm, and the canine at its feet. Collectively, these features indicate Tiberius is the Roman figure. Historically, he was the recipient of the standards from Parthia and the commander of Roman forces in neighbouring Armenia. As the first successor to the emperorship, no opportunity could be lost for reminding citizens, even in the private sphere, that Tiberius, who personally secured the standards and peace, earned his place as the head of the Roman state.
Apulian Warrior-Heroes and Greek Citizens: Mortuary Constructions of Identity in Ruvo di Puglia and Metaponto.
The purpose of this thesis is to shed light on the socio-political ideology of the warrior- aristocracy of Ruvo di Puglia and the inhabitants of the Greek polis of Metaponto through observation of the motifs on the figured vessels placed in wealthy tombs. By examining the mortuary deposits of the Ruvo tombs alongside those from Metaponto, we will be able to see some similarities between the two cities. While these similarities imply a level of cultural sharing, they more succinctly show that the indigenous inhabitants of Ruvo were quite selective in borrowing from the Greeks. However, the differences provide the best insight into the fascinating practices of the Apulians. I show that the Apulian chieftains coveted a warrior-hero status and were not hesitant to liken themselves to the legendary Achilles or Herakles, while the Greeks saw such practices as a breach of the fundamental principles of their polis-centered egalitarianism. This is significant for the understanding of the cultural environment of Magna Graecia since only little remains in terms of primary sources on the subject.
Euripides' 'Antiope' and the Theban Trilogy.
This thesis is a discussion, reconstruction, and analysis of Euripides’ lost Antiope. Based on metrical studies which suggest a date much earlier than its usual date of 410 or 408 B.C., I specifically focus on the possibility that Antiope might be part of a larger Theban trilogy, produced together with Suppliant Women and one other play. I begin with a thorough look at the mythological material existing before Euripides’ version of the story, as well as the tragedy’s effect on later versions. From there I provide a translation of the existing fragments arranged in the order I believe they were written for the tragedy, and a reconstruction with discussion. The latter half of the thesis I devote to reading Antiope as part of a trilogy. I compare the similarities between the proposed Theban trilogy with the more firmly established Trojan trilogy, and I provide a discussion on Antiope and Suppliant Women, commenting on how reading the two plays together can drastically change an analysis of either. I conclude that even if Euripides did not have “trilogy” in mind when he wrote Antiope and Suppliant Women, the connection between the two tragedies is both too important and too subtle for them to have been produced in separate years and still have been appreciated by an ancient audience.
The Historiographical Viability of Cicero Regarding Gaius Verres
Underwater Photogrammetry: A unified approach for imaging underwater archaeological sites
A Rome Away from Rome: Isidorus Hipalensis and Roman Astronomical Traditions in Medieval Spain
Horresco Referens: Supernatural Horror and the Latin Vocabulary of Fear in Vergil's Aeneid
This paper has two basic aims: to identify and to explore those Latin words that connote fear ; and then to see how this vocabulary is used in Vergil’s Aeneid to describe scenes of supernatural horror. The first part of this investigation is mainly lexicographical. Building on MacKay’s 1961 article on fear-words in Roman Epic, I establish a set of eleven Latin word-groups that express or represent fear. Then, using both ancient and modern sources, I offer discussions of each word-group that consider issues of use, semantics, and etymology. The second part of this investigation focuses on how each word-group appears in Vergil’s Aeneid , with special attention paid to those words that appear in scenes of supernatural horror. I intend to show that Vergil, in the Aeneid , does in fact use a recurring set of fear-words when describing scenes of supernatural horror, especially when showing characters’ reactions to supernatural events; moreover, groups of particular words used in conjunction with one another often work together to establish the sense that there is a supernatural aspect to certain scenes in the poem. Further observation reveals that “fear of the supernatural,” at least as seen in the Aeneid , is bound up with Roman ideas about omens and human/god relationships.
Conceptions of Disease Contagion in Ancient Literature
Parysatis was queen of Persia during the late fifth and early fourth centuries B.C. She was the daughter of king Artaxerxes I, the half-sister, wife and queen of Darius II, and queen mother in the reign of Artaxerxes II. Details of her life have been preserved in a number of extant sources, including the works of contemporary Greek historians and philosophers, contemporary Babylonian documents, and later Greco-Roman authors. The relative abundance of these sources, when compared to the information available about other women of the ancient Near East and Greece, as well as the diverse nature of the sources, makes Parysatis one of the queens of Persia, and one of the women of the ancient Near East, about whom we know the most. They reveal a woman of both public and private power, who was actively involved and influential in the politics of the Persian Empire during her reign as queen and her time as queen mother.
The Rise of Nemausus from Augustus to Antoninus Pius: A Prosopographical Study of Nemausian Senators and Equestrians
Personal Hygiene and Urban Pollution in Ancient Rome, and their Role in the Transmission of Gastrointestinal Diseases
Versipellis: The Werewolf of the Satyrica
A Study of Queenly Power in the Reigns of Cleopatra II and III
Athens and the Thraceward District During the Pentecontaetia
Second to Fourth Century CE Structures from Hawara’s Vicus: Interim Report on Field E121 at Humayma
Sidera Augusta: The Role of the Stars in Augustus’ Quest for Supreme Auctoritas
Heroic Horses: Xanthius and Balius in the Iliad
Troilos Infelix: The Prevalance of the Achilles and Troilos Death Myth on Attic “Tyrrhenian” Group Neck-Amphorae and in the Etruscan Pictorial Tradition
The Role of Oppositio in Imitando in Prudentius’ Psychomachia
An examination of the creation and limitation of realism in the Elegies of Propertius
Jane M. C. Burkowski
This thesis is an examination of realism in the love elegies of Propertius: of how it is created, how it is limited, and how its limitations increase its effectiveness rather than diminishing it. The first half analyzes the variety and subtlety of the creation of realism in elegies 1.3, 2.29b, and 4.7, three poems that, because of shared features that link them to each other and set them apart from the rest of Propertius' elegies, represent a case study of realism. The second half begins by describing how the realism in these poems is limited, and how these limitations intensify the effect of their realism by drawing attention to the poet's agency in creating it. This effect is then related to larger trends in the creation and limitation of realism in Propertius' remaining love elegies, in which the same pattern is observed, by means of the analysis of recurring techniques. This examination of aspects of realism in Propertius's poetry provides insight not only into his poetic method, but into his attitude to his genre and potential.
Dealing with a massacre : spectacle, eroticism, and unreliable narration in the Lemnian episode of Statius' Thebaid
Kyle G. Gervais
I offer three readings of the Lemnian episode narrated by Hypsipyle in book five of the Thebaid, each based upon an interpretive tension created by textual, intertextual, and cultural factors and resolved by the death of Opheltes, the child nursed by Hypsipyle. In the first reading (chapter two), I suggest that Hypsipyle emphasizes the questionable nature of the evidence for the involvement of Venus and other divinities in the Lemnian massacre, which is on the surface quite obvious, as a subconscious strategy to deal with her fear of divine retribution against her and Opheltes. In the second reading (chapter three), I argue that much of the violence of the massacre is eroticized, primarily by allusions to Augustan elegy and Ovidian poetry, and that this eroticism challanges a straightforward, horrified reaction to the Lemnian episode. In the third reading (chapter four), which continues the argument of the second, I suggest that the reaction of Statius' audience to the Lemnian massacre was influenced by familiarity with the violent entertainment offered in the Roman arena, and that this encouraged the audience to identify with the perpetrators of the massacre rather than the victims. The problemization of the audience's reaction and of the divine involvement in the massacre is resolved by the death of Opheltes, which is portrayed as both undeniably supernatural in origin and emphatically tragic in nature. Thus, as the first half of the Thebaid draws to a close, Statius decisively affirms the power of the gods and the horrific tragedy of violence and prepares to embark upon the war in the Thebaid's second half, which will end ultimately with the double fratricide of the sons of Oediups and Statius' prayer for future generations to forget this sin.
Sitting as a Poetic Device to Enhance Character in the Apologus of Homer's Odyssey
Timothy James Holt
Ҫatal Hüyük - The Remains of a Neolithic Culture
Joy Isabell Livingston
The Neolithic culture of Catal Huyuk in Anatolia is remarkable and above all unique. The height of this settlement dates to the 7th millennium B.C. The excavations for this settlement began with James Mellaart in the 1960’s and have been continued by Stanford University’s Ian Hodder. Together their research has been the primary source of information for all discourse. The architecture of Catal Huyuk exhibits excellent workmanship and uniform building plans throughout all layers of the site. It is the core of this settlement, built mainly from mud-brick and plaster. The burials at this site are also consistent in all levels. Excarnation was practiced, and the graves that were located underneath the floors of each home were buried with grave goods. The walls hold spectacular artwork, boasted to be the earliest paintings to have been found thus far on man-made walls. Small finds were also abundant. The excess of tools and weapons as well as objects created from material not local to the site suggests trade. The fauna and flora retrieved also supports this theory, there were so many different kinds of cereals and grains, it seems the inhabitants were advancing in agriculture, creating hybrids and sustaining themselves very well. Although hunting was still going on animals such as the cow had been domesticated and it was proven recently that animals were being kept on site. The entire complex has been likened to a bee hive where a culture thrived in peace for thousands of years until its abandonment in circa 5700-5600 B.C.
Woven in Stone: The Use of Symmetry Analysis Methodology to Determine Underlying Patterns of Symmetry in the Polychrome Painted Decorations of Some Athenian Korai
Ainslie Elizabeth Thomson
An attic black-figure Pelike : a study of a Pelike from the Diniacopoulos Collection at Queen's University, its place in the known corpus of black-figure pottery
Shane O. D. Boyce
The primary focus of this thesis is a study of Pelike AA1635 from Queen's University, but originally from the Diniacopoulos Collection, which is housed primarily in Montreal, Quebec. As mentioned, the vessel being studied is a pelike, a shape that does not appear into the repertoire of Athenian vase makers until around the last quarter of the sixth century B.C., shortly before the beginning of the Classical period. This type of vessel served primarily as a container for holding either wine or oil and thus was relatively common because of its practicality.
This thesis is basically a study of all the comparanda available concerning pelikai, but also the iconography depicted on the vessel. In order to properly place this vessel into the corpus of known pelikai, the iconography will be extremely useful and may in fact be the most important tool in determining all the possible information about this vessel.
A study of Fulvia
Allison J. Weir
Who was Fulvia? Was she the politically aggressive and dominating wife of Mark Antony as Cicero and Plutarch describe her? Or was she a loyal mother and wife, as Asconius and Appian suggest? These contrasting accounts in the ancient sources warrant further investigation.
This thesis seeks to explore the nature of Fulvia's role in history to the extent that the evidence permits. Fulvia is most famous for her activities during Antony's consulship (44 BC) and his brother Lucius Antonius' struggle against C. Octavian in the Perusine War (41-40 BC). But there is a discrepancy among the authors as to what extent she was actually involved. Cicero, Octavian and Antony, who were all key plays in events, provide their own particular versions of what occurred. Later authors, such as Appian and Dio, may have been influenced by these earlier, hostile accounts of Fulvia.
This is the first study in English to make use of all the available evidence, both literary and material, pertaining to Fulvia. Modern scholarship has a tendency to concentrate almost exclusively on events towards the end of Fulvia's life, in particular the Perusine War, about which the evidence is much more abundant in later sources such as Appian and Dio. However, to do this ignores the importance of her earlier activities which, if studied more fully, can help to explain her actions in the 40's BC.
This thesis is divided into five chapters. The first provides an introduction to the topic and a biography of Fulvia. The second is a review of the modern scholarship on Fulvia. The third focuses on the contemporary sources, both the literary evidence from Cicero, Cornelius Nepos and Martial, as well as the surviving material evidence, namely the sling bullets found at Perusia and a series of coins that may depict Fulvia in the guise of Victoria. The fourth is a discussion of those authors born after Fulvia's death in 40 BC, of whom the most important are Plutarch, Appian and Dio. The fifth provides a conclusion to the thesis, and returns to the questions posed above in light of the analysis of the sources provided throughout the thesis. It concludes that Fulvia played a significant role in events, particularly from Antony's consulship onwards, and that her actions were deliberate and politically motivated. Moreover, while these actions were done on her husbands' behalf, she nevertheless exhibited a remarkable degree of independence.
Old age, ageing and death in Horace's Odes : a study of the interpretation and meaning of old age and death in the Odes of Quintus Horatius Flaccus
Aara E. MacAuley
This thesis explores Horace's representation and interpretation of old age, ageing and death in his four books of Odes. It attempts to disprove the presentation of Horace either as a pessimist or a careless hedonist, and instead explores the positive and meaningful messages to be found within his poetry.
The thesis begins with an introductory survey of the history and literature of old age in Greek and Roman times as well as a brief biography of Horace, and a survey of the relevant literature on the topics of both Horace and old age in the ancient world. This introduction is followed by three further chapters, which group Horace's odes on old age into three broad categories: seasonal poems (in which old age is associated with winter and youth with spring), moralising poems (in which Horace attempts to guide his friends towards a proper way of living before it is too late), and love poetry (in which Horace plays with the convention that old age is a time of free sexual activities and desires).
Each chapter will begin with a brief introduction to the major topic being addressed, and will follow with individual analyses of the relevant poems. The goal of this thesis is to reveal the positive message that Horace offers to his readers, and to argue that Horace's view of old age, far from being one of hopeless decline, loneliness or careless hedonism, is of a peaceful, contemplative and ultimately welcome time of life worthy of celebration and enjoyment.
The exordia of Cicero in select murder and extortion trials : a study of style, structure and correspondence
William G. Sirman
This thesis is a study of the exordia of four judicial speeches of Cicero, In Verrem actio prima, Pro Fonteio, Pro Cluentio and Pro Caelio. The purpose is to assess their correspondence with the precepts of oratory that Cicero advanced in his own writings on the subject of exordia and to determine whether any departures from those dictates may be related to the applicable strategy for the conduct of the trial.
The introductory chapter contains a brief chronology of the speeches followed by a review of current literature on the practice of assessing the correspondence of exordia. There is a detailed section on Cicero's writings on the exordium with the emphasis on the De Inventione and a section that describes the particular crimes and courts involved in each trial. Literary concerns are then addressed with a review of the Attic-Asiatic controversy as well as the issue of publication versus authenticity. This writer opines that the latter debate is insignificant in the case of exordia, since the beginnings of speeches were written out prior to delivery.
In the ensuing chapters, the speeches are placed individually in their respective historical context, and thereafter, their style, structure and diction are analyzed and conclusions drawn with respect to correspondence. Particular focus is placed in the analysis on whether the diametrically different rhetorical features known as Attic or Asiatic are present and their contribution to the discerned strategic approach.
In the overall summary, this writer concludes that in the exordia which have been examined, departures from Cicero's own tenets on how one should craft an exordium to achieve its desired ends can be explained with reference to forensic strategy and that the exordia exhibit a stylistic variety which consists of both Attic and Asiatic elements.
The lion and the mouse: fables in the satires and the epistles of Horace
Cara T. Jordan
Horace was well versed in the use of metaphors and exempla, and thus he takes advantage of the metaphorical use of fables for clever criticism in the Satires, or, conversely, in the Epistlesfor admonition with tact and gentle persuasion. Fables are particularly suited to Horace, as he does not acknowledge adherence to any philosophical school (Epistle 1.1.13-15: nullius addictus iurare in verba magistri), but rather draws his exempla from many quarters. He acquired his ideas not only through study but also through experience and contemplation. In his use of fables there is certainly a reflection of his common subject of daily life and country life, and of the masses who had little to do with Stoicism or Epicureanism, but whose philosophy was "vigorous common sense, and was learned from living, not from conning books."1 We get the sense that simple country wisdom is still the best. In examining each of these fables in regards to its form, context, purpose and source, it is possible to gain a deeper understanding of Horace's use of fables and their larger significance within the Satires and the Epistles.
Showerman 1922: 35.
A loutrophoros from the Diniacopoulos Collection : a study of acquisition, attribution and ritual function in funerary and wedding ceremony in classical Athens
Carolyn L. Grainger
The Diniacopoulos Collection itself is extremely important and interesting, not only because of the exciting biographies of the owners Vincent and Olga Diniacopoulos; but because of the variety of its contents and the enormity of the collection that now resides all over the world.
The primary focus of this examination is a ceramic now residing in the Queen's University Collection that was originally a piece from the Diniacopoulos Collection. This vase, specifically a fragmentary loutrophoros, was a special vessel produced for use in two very important Athenian ceremonies, mainly the wedding and funeral. The vase is an extremely interesting, impractically elongated ritual vessel that functioned as a nuptial bathwater carrier for maidens and bachelors before their wedding ceremonies. The vessel also functioned as a grave marker, that commemorated the graves of young females and males who died before marriage. Thus, theloutrophoros had a fascinating involvement in Athenian family rituals, and it also seems to have had a particular association with women. Evidently women were the most dominant characters in these two rituals, as reflected not only in literature but in vase paintings, especially those rendered on loutrophoroi, depicting women in various aspects of wedding and funerary rites.
After an exploration of these two significant Athenian rituals of weddings and funerals, follows an examination of other loutrophoroi with ritual scenes, and a detailed description of thisloutrophoros in the Queen's University Collection. The loutrophoros is certainly Athenian and dates approximately to the high Classical period, ca. 430-420 BCE. While there is a main scene depicting women in a wedding procession on the vase, there are physical characteristics that indicate its practical function as a funerary marker, rather than a nuptial bathwater carrier. A wedding scene on a grave marker seems an odd juxtaposition of content and form, which make this a particularly appealing loutrophoros.
Fundamentally this examination of comparable material evidence, such as other loutrophoroi, pottery fragments and ritual scenes on painted pottery, is useful in discerning not only the function of this loutrophoros, but also the importance of this piece in Greek vase painting. Essentially, due to stylistic and compositional similarities, it is possible to attribute a painted scene of this type to the renowned Washing Painter, a vase painter extremely practiced in the portrayal of Classical wedding scenes on ritual vases such as loutrophoroi.
Pius imperator : a study of the life, career and coinage of Sextus Pompeius prior to the establishment of the Triumvirate
This thesis studies the life, career and coinage of Sextus Pompeius before the establishment of the Triumvirate in November 43 BC. Sextus Pompeius was one of the most mysterious figures in Roman history, a man whose true role in the civil wars that ended the Roman Republic remains elusive. His reception by later generations has been largely shaped and determined through his portrayal by his enemies, most notably the emperor Augustus, the last man standing after the civil wars finally ended. As a leader in the opposition to Caesar, and Caesar's successors, the triumvirs, Sextus Pompeius held out longer, and posed a greater threat, than any of his fellow opposition leaders. History does not, however, remember him for his pietas and his military successes, but, beginning with the propaganda of Augustus himself, for his alleged role as a pirate king and leader of slaves. This thesis will seek to better our understanding of this unique figure in Roman history by studying the earlier life, career and coinage of Sextus Pompeius before the establishment of the Triumvirate and his occupation of Sicily from 42 BC to 36 BC. By concentrating on the period of his rise to power, which has been largely neglected and ignored by previous scholars, it is hoped that our knowledge of his development into the leading opposition figure will remove some of the mystery that surrounds Sextus Pompeius.
A skyphos from the Diniacopoulos Collection at Queen's University : a study of an attic black-figure skyphos, its decoration and its place amongst the known corpus of attic black-figure pottery
Conor P. Trainor
This thesis studies an unpublished skyphos from the Diniacopoulos Collection which is currently on display in the Department of Classics, at Queen's University.
The skyphos, a drinking cup, is painted in the Attic black-figure style, which dates its construction to the period between the mid-sixth century BC and the mid-fifth century BC. Indeed, the vessel has also been unofficially connected with the CHC Group of Attic black-figure artists. The primary focus of this thesis will be to test the artistic attribution of the skyphos which will by extension considerably narrow the date range for the vessel's construction.
The initial stages of this thesis examine the known history and features of this skyphos, and the conservation process employed after its arrival at Queen's. The main body of the work, in keeping with the investigation's primary focus, compares the vessel to other contemporary works in order to assess its place amongst the known corpus of Attic black-figure pottery.
100 Days of Spectacle: What the Audience Saw at the Inaugural Games of the Flavian Amphitheatre
This thesis studies the inaugural games of the Flavian Amphitheatre, better known to us as the Colosseum. Specifically, it looks at the sources for this event and attempts to create a picture of what the audience would have seen over the 100 days of games. The introduction examines the previous scholarly work on the topic and the problems that require further study. The first chapter looks at evidence for animal hunts at the games, and other types of animal presentations, such as tricks for the crowd. The second chapter examines the midday spectacles, which were made up of executions. Various forms of execution are studied, including exposure to animals, re-enactments of mythological events, and naval battles. The third chapter discusses gladiatorial combat itself at the games as well as the ancient attitudes towards gladiators. The thesis presents a specific study of the audience's experience at the inaugural games. Such a presentation and examination of primary sources has not been attempted in this fashion, for the topic is only briefly touched upon in the various secondary sources on gladiators or the Colosseum. Re-examination of the evidence for the inaugural games is necessary in order to demonstrate a more comprehensive picture of the institution and its place in Roman culture and society.
Abstraction and Mycenaean Art: A New Look at Plant and Animal Representations in the Shaft Graves of Mycenae
Laura A. Gagné
Because decorated metalwork is not useful for establishing relative chronologies, it tends to be neglected by archaeologists and art historians. It is likely, however, that the most gifted craftsmen would have worked with the most precious materials, so a study of the designs on gold would represent a study of the highest art period. This thesis will discuss metalwork found in the Shaft Graves of Mycenae. These graves were so rich in gold and precious materials that the entire period of their use, spanning about a century from the end of the MH period to the beginning of the LH II period, has been called the Shaft Grave period after them. Within that time metalworkers produced a variety of decorations which range from naturalistic portrayals of plants and animals to highly abstract geometric patterns.
It will become clear that the metalworker has a much greater concern for ornamentation and composition than his colleagues who were working with clay. A particular motif, such as the octopus or butterfly, can be stylized within a coordinate system based on its composition, or it can be divided into parts of the whole which can in turn be multiplied by themselves and/or combined with parts of other motifs to create entirely new designs. It is possible to reconstruct the creative process once we see where the abstraction comes from and describe the thought which guides this process. For this reason the octopus on metalwork is compared to its companions on pottery, showing that the creativity of the metalworker is greater than that of the painter. Within a century the metalworker brought into existence the sophisticated abstraction that eventually migrated onto pottery over the course of four hundred years.
Once this process is established, it will be easier to understand the treatment of flying insects, other animals, birds and also of plants. The exploration of these motifs in chapters three to six will serve to verify that our interpretation is valid and applicable to all representations of flora and fauna in Shaft Grave art.
Antiochus IV and the Jews of Palestine: Causes and Effects of the Edict of Persecution of 167 B.C.E.
Antiochus IV's proclamation of an edict of persecution in 167 BC resulted in the killing of thousands of Jews who refused to abandon their ancient customs, and in the defiling of the Jerusalem Temple, their most sacred place. This edict is problematic because it contradicted the general tendency of Seleucid kings to be tolerant with their subject peoples, and, in particular, it ran contrary to the edict of Antiochus IV's father, Antiochus III, who made it very clear in 198 BC that the Jews of Palestine were free to practice their ancient traditions, and even granted various groups within the Jewish polity significant tax exemptions and legal privileges. The most recent trend in modern scholarship is to assign the responsibility for the edict to a group of Jews who wanted to introduce Hellenic institutions into Jerusalem. This study re-examines the historical background to Antiochus IV's edict against the Jews of Palestine and discusses the background, both Jewish and Seleucid, that led to so extreme a measure against a group that for Antiochus, as king of Syria, must have been small and insignificant. It is argued that the emphasis should be placed on such factors as Antiochus IV's concern for money and for the security of his kingdom rather than on the religious ideology of a certain group of Palestinian Jews.
Speaking Silences: Silence in Homer, Pindar, Apollonius and Vergil
This thesis examines each of the Iliad, the Odyssey, Pindar's Odes, the Argonautica and theAeneid independently and in detail for its use of silence, and finally the significance of silence in each passage.
In these poems silence does not have a meaning in and of itself: it can be, by context, either good or bad, show high status or low status. Silence is an intensifier: it gives emphasis to the moment, and its meaning comes from the context. In the Iliad, the Odyssey and Pindar's Odes silence is simply the lack of human speech: it is never used to describe the night, death or the landscape. In Apollonius' Arogonautica and Vergil's Aeneid, silence is not restricted to speech: nature can now be silent. The Odyssey introduces the extensive use of silence in his break-offs to effect swift transitions between stories. In the Argonautica Apollonius uses silence to enhance his major themes: it intensifies the scenes of eros between Jason and Medea, and is paired with amechanie, the word that so defines the mood of the poem. Vergil uses silence to create the ambiguity of meaning and interpretation that is so essential to the Aeneid.
The Divine Sickness: A Study of Madness in Greek Tragedy
The goal of this thesis is to explore the concept of madness as it is presented in Greek tragedy. The study begins with a review of fifth-century ideas about madness. Popular ideas about the composition and functioning of the human mind are examined, from the perspective of both lay people and the ancient physicians. The thesis then moves on to a comprehensive review of all the extant and fragmentary tragedies that feature manifestations of madness.
We first notice that most characters seem to descend into madness in one of two main ways: either instantly, or through constant, drawn out torment. Once maddened, characters exhibit physical attributes and behavioural traits that link the different manifestations together.
Recovery from madness is also an important aspect of Greek tragedies, since it is here that the playwrights are able to explore the effects of mental illness on the heroes.
The tragedians provide clear examples of the causes and effects of madness, and the drastic impact that this disease has on its sufferers. There is also some indication of the effect that madness has on the community, both while the sufferer is mad, and after he or she has begun the recovery process.
Art and Politics Under the Tyrants of Athens: A Study of Attic Black-Figure Iconography Between ca. 560 and 510
Sean D.W. Lafferty
Peisistratos and his sons ruled over Athens as tyrants, determining Athenian politics for nearly half a century. Between ca. 560 and 510, under Peisistratid dominion, Athens emerged as a leader in the affairs of Attica and the Aegean world. In this sometimes turbulent period of social, political, and economic flux, Attic black-figure artisans perfected their craft for ever-increasing markets throughout the Mediterranean. The works of such eminent craftsmen as Lydos, the Priam Painter, and Exekias among others, were unprecedented for their innovation in style, craft, and above all, subject matter. Under Peisistratid rule, Attic black-figure artists expanded considerably their repertory of subject matter, particularly that drawn from mythology, and the stock of myths from which these artisans drew upon differed completely from that which characterized Attic black-figure pottery prior to 560.
During the nearly fifty years of Peisistratid rule in Athens, Attic black-figure artisans rendered countless stories associated with various gods and heroes of Greek mythology. Of all the gods and heroes depicted, however, none were more popular than Dionysos and Herakles. Between ca. 560 and 510, the assorted myths and episodes connected with these popular figures dominated the mythological repertoire of Attic black-figure artisans. It is the aim of this thesis to account for the unprecedented popularity of Dionysos and Herakles in Attic black-figure art of this period by considering particular scenes in relation to the historical context in which such art was produced, used, traded, and discarded. I will argue that the apparent prominence of Dionysos and Herakles in Attic black-figure art of the Peisistratan period was due, in part, to the deliberate identification among Peisistratos and his family with both the god and hero. Such a study will provide not only insight into Attic black-figure art of the sixth century, but also add to our greater understanding of Athens under the tyrants.
'Between free men and slaves' : a study of the helots of Sparta
Lorencz, Holly Anne
The Helots were the state-owned, enslaved, agricultural workers of Lakonia and Messenia from an early point in Greece's history until the time of Roman occupation. While the Helots' presence in the fields and in the military has been well-attested, other Helots lived in the homes of the Spartiates as personal servants and Helot women may have even been concubines. These details have been understudied in the past and their role in rebellions at Sparta has been overemphasized. Also, few writers have incorporated theories on slavery into their studies on Helots. These ideas provide new interpretations of underlying factors of the Helots' enslavement and how the conditions affected their behaviour. When we take into account the changes in the conditions of late classical Sparta, and the Helots who worked in Sparta, we notice that there was more interdependence between these groups than has been previously thought. With their agricultural produce, the Helots allowed the Spartiates to participate in the army, and Sparta to maintain her military state.
The role of the women in the frescoes from Akrotiri
Debbo, Nicola Jane
The excavation of the site of Akrotiri on the ancient island of Thera began in 1967 under Spyridon Marinatos. The discovery of this city, preserved in ash after the eruption of a volcano, has sparked a debate on the destruction of Akrotiri and the possible links to the destruction of cities on Crete. The frescoes found at Akrotiri are some of the most captivating wall paintings in Greece. The interpretation of these frescoes has become the subject of recent debate and the continuing excavations may yet add more material to the discussion. This thesis examines the roles the women play in the Theran paintings, as can be determined by their dress, hairstyle and jewellery. Analogies for each feature are obtained through the study of other wall paintings, seals, gemstones, rings and figurines, all from Crete and the mainland. Secondary evidence, mostly in the form of later literary material and material from Egypt and the Near East, will prove helpful for interpretation. The last chapter presents and critiques the prevalent scholastic interpretations of the paintings, specifically those that deal with the stages in the life of the women. In the conclusions, a new interpretation of the frescoes will be presented.
'Speech is the concern of men,' or is it? : an analysis of female speech in the epics
Jupp, Catherine Anne
The perception that women and men speak and use language differently is long-standing and evident in many cultures and languages. In the early 1970s, the study of gender and language became a widely discussed and criticized topic. Sociolinguistic findings and theories have recently become of interest to classicists and have served as models for the study of language and gender in ancient Greek and Latin literature. Scholars have definitively shown that differences in gender and language are evident in various ancient authors and genres, particularly in tragedy and comedy. The intent of this thesis is to explore the idea of gender and speech in the earliest surviving works of Greek literature, namely the Iliad and the Odyssey. This exploration of gender and speech focuses on genres of speech, linguistic and non-verbal distinctions, as well as the genre of ritual lamentation as a female-exclusive discourse. In addition, this thesis explores the concept of women's wool-work as a medium of communication. In ancient Greek thought, wool-work becomes a metaphorical image for speech and thought. In the epics, wool-work is strongly emphasized and connected to all female characters. Thus, I examine the connection between women, wool-work and speech.
The legacy of the family of Pompey the Great in Sicily : a study of the clientela, property and reputation of the Pompeii Magni in Sicily, with comparisons to their legacy in the province of Asia, to Julius Caesar's in the province of Aquitania and to that of other families in Sicily
Lo Dico, Mauro
This dissertation studies the impact that Pompey the Great and his family had on Sicily. Many of the island's inhabitants became their clients and even adopted their names if they were granted Roman citizenship by the Pompeii. The extent of the family's influence on the Sicilians is examined through that relationship, both as a process of Romanisation in a province and as a province's contribution to the Roman world. The first chapter surveys all the members of the gens Pompeia involved with Sicily, since they could make the provincials Roman citizens. The second chapter examines the Sicilians granted citizenship by the Pompeii, for the status of the former in their locality reveals the type of relationship that both parties shared and thus the kind of influence that the Pompeii had there. The third chapter contrasts those Sicilian Pompeii with other groups, so that they are viewed within the greater context of the Roman Empire. Comparison are made with (a) the Pompeii from another province, noting any regional similarities or differences; (b) another distinguished gens from yet another province, to gauge the degree to which the Sicilian Pompeii were established in the Empire; and (c) other prominent gentes in Sicily, thereby determining the status of the Pompeii both on and off the island.
Fora of Africa Proconsularis : a study of their development, types and architecture from the conquest to the end of the Antonine age
In the last thirty years there have been several important studies of public buildings, and particularly fora and their associated annexes, of Roman Britain and the western Empire. Yet neither the older surveys and monographs nor the recent publications focus on the fora of Africa Proconsularis. The fora of this province have rarely been the subject of a regional survey. This thesis is a study of the origins, development, architecture and types of Romano-African fora. Such a study is useful in providing an understanding of the architectural characteristics of Romano-African fora, the manner in which they differed from and resembled those in Europe (Italy, Gaul, Britain and Spain) and of the types of activities for which they were used. Chapter one provides a summary of the origin and development of Republican fora, with particular emphasis on examples from Italy. Chapter two covers the first imperial period, from the conquest of Africa in 146 BC until the end of the Julio-Claudian period. Chapter three focuses on developments of the Flavian period in Africa Proconsularis. Chapter four centres on developments in the fora of Africa Proconsularis from the end of the Flavian period to the early third century.
The Parthenon frieze : problems in scholarship
McCall, Walter F.
The Parthenon is arguably the greatest monument in western civilization. This temple, erected on the Acropolis in Athens between 447 and 432 B.C., was a symbol of the power of Athens which, at this time, was the leader of a large empire. In ancient times, authors such as Plutarch, Pliny and Pausanias have made specific references to its beauty and significance as a work of art, providing firsthand accounts and observations of many important aspects that are no longer available. These accounts were then supplemented, following the temple's destruction by the Venetians in 1687, by such notable visitors as Jacques Carrey, William Pars, James Stuart and of course, Lord Elgin, who transplanted much of the temple's sculptural decoration to London. This fascination with the Parthenon has not dimished in modern times as the enormous quantity of scholarship, especially following the Second World War, would seem to suggest. These works by modern scholars cover almost every aspect of the edifice, including such topics as the temple's architecture, artistic programme, influences and historical significance. Perhaps the most interesting branch of scholarship on the Parthenon, however, is that which deals with the Parthenon frieze, the continuous band of figures sculpted in relief that was incorporated into the temple's architrave. It is the intention of this thesis to investigate the current state of this scholarship, looking particularly at the opinions and theories that have arisen since W.B. Dinsmoor accounted for all existing portions of the frieze in 1954 up to the present. More specifically, this investigation will evaluate two opinions that have been commonly accepted by modern scholars and subsequently reamin prevalent throughout the entire body of scholarship. The first involves the identification of the frieze as an element of standard Ionic architecture and its incorporation into a Doric temple. Whereas most scholars have accepted this observation as fact and thus have attempted to contrive compelling theories accounting for this unusual combination of canons, this theory will reexamine the evidence on which this supposition has been based in an attempt to evaluate the validity of these theories. Second, this thesis will investigate the identification of the figures on the frieze as those engaging in the Panathenaic procession that accompanied the annual festival of Athena in Athens. Despite many flaws and inconsistencies, this interpretation remains the one most widely accepted among modern scholars. Finally, this thesis will conclude with a new analysis of the frieze in an attempt to stimulate new and innovative approaches in its interpretation and shed new light on a work of art that has been shrouded by the obscurity of the legacy it has left behind.
'Come on up, my friend': a study of friendship in the Greek novels of the Roman period and Luke-Acts
Walsh, Kelley Ann
The five extant Greek novels and Luke-Acts offer an excellent opportunity to study friendship in antiquity. The authors of the novels and Luke-Acts all portray friends and friendships without discussing them as philosophy. Although it is not a central theme of these stories, this dissertation will show that without forming friendships, the protagonists of these stories could not have accomplished their goals. The most important common theme that four of the five Greek novels and Luke-Acts share is that of travel. The heroes of the novels, as well as Jesus and his disciples, form friendships with the people they encounter as they journey and must depend on the kindness of strangers to continue their travels. Without the willingness of others to assist them, neither the heroes of the novels nor the apostles of the New Testament could have been successful in their journeys. It will be shown, then, that a change of friendship traditions from those centered around the polis to friendships that extended to the entire human race are the friendships most common in the Greek novels and in Luke-Acts.
Amphitheatres of Roman Britain : a study of their classes, architecture and uses
The last decade has seen renewed interest in amphitheatre studies and the publication of several important monographs. However, neither older works nor the recent publications focus on the amphitheatres of Roman Britain. The amphitheatres of this province have never been the subject of a regional survey. This thesis is a study of the classes, architecture and uses of Romano-British amphitheatres. Such a study is useful in providing an understanding of the architectural characteristics of Romano-British amphitheatres, the manner in which they differed from and resembled those in other parts of the Empire and of the types of activities for which they were used.
Chapter One centres on the military amphitheatre class. It opens with general information on the sites of military amphitheatres and with an architectural study of the three monuments ( the Chester, Caerleon and Tomen-y-mur amphitheatres) belonging to this class. The information provided in this section was obtained from archaeological reports, works on amphitheatres and works on Roman Britain. The chapter concludes with an examination of physical, epigraphical and literary evidence, the aim of which is to gain insight into the function of these buildings.
Chapter Two focuses on urban amphitheatres. It begins with an architectural study of the ten facilities of this category (the amphitheatres at Silchester, Dorchester, Cirencester, Chichester, London, Richborough, Carmarthen, Aldborough, Caistor St. Edmund, Caerwent). The information found in this section also comes from excavation reports, works on Roman Britain and works on amphitheatres. This chapter likewise concludes with an examination of physical, epigraphical and literary evidence, the purpose of which is to shed light on the function of urban amphitheatres.
Chapter Three focuses on rural amphitheatres, an enigmatic group of buildings. Five monuments, including three positively identified amphitheatres (those at Charterhouse-on-Mendip, Frilford and Catterick) and two earthworks tentatively identified as amphitheatres (the Woodcuts and Winterslow earthworks) are considered. The chapter begins with an overview of the monuments' sites and a study of their architectural characteristics. Excavation reports constitute the chief source of information. A brief discussion of various hypotheses as to their uses concludes the chapter.
Vergil's dreams : a study of the types and purpose of dreams in Vergil's 'Aeneid'
By the time Vergil was writing (40-19 B.C.) there was already a long tradition of dreams in ancient literature. From the beginning, dreams were a topic of interest for poets, historians and philosophers. We find in the literature of ancient Greece and Rome five main classifications of dreams: prophetic, anxiety, wish-fulfilment, oracular and incubation. Other dream-types existed, of course, but these seem to have been ones most employed by ancient authors. In the Aeneid Vergil employs anxiety-dreams six times, oracular-dreams three times and the incubation-dream once. His choice, we may be sure, was in part determined by the necessities of plot and in part under the influences of authors such as Homer, Apollonius, Euripides, Lucretius and Cicero. Without sacrificing narrative immediacy and the illusion of reality, dreams allow Vergil to reveal not only simultaneous events but also a character's emotions, with their causes and potential consequences. Vergil uses dreams in the Aeneid to great effect. Dreams introduct the three main characters in the epic, Aeneas, Dido and Turnus. They motivate the actions of the characters and help to advance the plot to its conclusion. Dreams not only set Aeneas on his journey and mark his arrival in Latium but they continually provide more information about his destination while on his journey. Dreams also bolster Aeneas' resolve in moments of emotional and physical crisis. In a grander and more enigmatic way, Book 6, as a sustained dream-vision, conveys to the reader, at least, Vergil's vision of both the tragedy and greatness of Rome's mission and history.
The political phases of literary amicitia in Rome from the third century BC to the second century AD
There has been little investigation of the early origins of literary patronage and the role of drama in the development of Latin literature. During the third and second centuries BC, the curules aediles were the earliest literary patrons because they paid for the production and staging of plays. After the end of the second century BC, more powerful and wealthier politicians replaced the aediles and began to support poets. As a result, politics and Latin literature were not exclusive in Rome and Roman poetry came to afford more opportunities for political and social advancement to poets and patrons alike. Another period of literary patronage that needs to be re-explored by literary scholars and historians is the early Empire. The intent of this thesis, therefore, is to explore and chart the 'evolution' of literary patronage in Rome from its origins in the third century BC down to its 'decline' in the second century AD. Since the majority of the evidence comes from Latin poetry itself, special emphasis will be placed on what Roman poets say about their relations with their maiores amici. Emphasis will be placed on how the different political phases affected the development of Latin literature and language over these five centuries.
Greek arbitration : Homer to classical Athens
Manley-Tannis, Richard Michael
Greek arbitration was developed out of the community's need to resolve conflict. Earlier scholarship, however, has often used a legal framework with which to explain its development. The findings of previous scholarship have proven insightful in regard to the mechanics of the ancient process. Earlier scholarship, however, has not given sufficient emphasis to the role of the community in the development of arbitration. At its centre, Greek arbitration was a survival mechanism. The Greek community, from the Homeric period forward, was constantly threatened by both internal and external violence. In order to address these dangers, the community as a whole created a method designed to resolve conflict. Greek arbitration was an innovation because throughout the process the community was directly involved in the legitimisation of the process. The community itself developed arbitration. In order to illuminate this, a modern conflict resolution process, mediation-arbitration, is better able to clarify previously overlooked aspects of the process. The ancient arbitrator's primary task was to act as an acceptable neutral who was expected to first reconcile the disputants and, should that prove unlikely, to then bring forth a judgement. The neutral's task was first to attempt to mediate the dispute and, should reconciliation prove unattainable, he would then arbitrate. Public pressure was brought to bear in order to encourage the resolution of conflict. The oath was used in order to ensure the honesty of the disputants by involving the gods as witnesses to and protectors of the process. It was the expectation that disputants would resolve their conflict peacefully that ensured, in turn, the continued stability of the community.
"Haec est illa meis multum cantata libellis" : an investigation of female personae in the epigrams of Martial
McIntosh, Gillian Elizabeth
Much research and work has been done on both Martial and his epigrams. Most dated scholarship has tended to provide unduly narrow perspectives, neglecting much of Martial's art, and focussing instead on his "immoral" character, and "obscene" verse. Still, a great deal of progress has been made in recent decades in understanding the poet and his verse.
There has, however, been little investigation of the personae in his epigrams -- less still of the female personae, who appear in roughly twenty percent of Martial's 1600 epigrams. We should look now at the individual epigrams and notice what types of women appear, how often they appear, and in what capacity. (What are they doing? Do certain types share certain traits of representations? Are some always praised and others always frowned upon?) This can only be done by a detailed analyses of Martial's text.
The intent of this thesis is to explore objectively the female personae appearing throughout the fourteen books of Martial's epigrams. The end result will be a clearer understanding of the female-oriented poems, and of the female personae within those poems. The reader of Martial might then know what to expect, and what to find when embarking upon an examination of his leading ladies.
Other objectives include clearing away past moralizing, and opening up other possible lines of investigation -- into Martial, his epigrams, his male and female personae, as well as into other contemporary writers and their works.
I have begun by providing introductory tables and observations. The first table shows -- book by book -- the distribution of female oriented poems. As well as listing the individual epigrams on women, it separates the poems that focus on the woman from those that mention her in passing. The second table reveals the different female types that appear. It groups together and lists all the poems -- from all the books -- that pertain to a certain type.
Even though tables and statistics reveal when and how often certain types of women appear, they tell nothing of the meaning of such appearances; that is, there is no context. In the chapters following, then, I have placed these personae in context, and attempted to find patterns among Martial's various representations of similar types of women. Everything is gathered together and summed up in a concluding chapter. Here, too, there are some ideas for further investigation, research, and writing.
The glorious life of Agricola : a critical analysis of the literary form and political content of Tacitus' Agricola
Traditionally studied as an invaluable source document for the Roman conquest and occupation of Britain, Tacitus' biographical treatise on the life of Agricola also has great relevance to the study of elite society at Rome. Modern scholarship on the Agricola has been focused for the most part on the historicity of the work. As such, the work offers the historian an unparalled account of the Roman military campaigns and administrative initiatives in Britain. Consequently, the work has proven to be an excellent source document for both historians of the Roman military and Roman Britain. However, the literary, social, political and moral elements of the work have largely gone unnoticed or at the very least have been studued in a cursory manner. At the same time, the large body of twentieth century scholarship pertaining to the role and function of the works of Tacitus has for the most part dismissed the Agricola as a minor work of little significance that provides only a glance of the artistic genius which would emerge in his later and larger works, the Histories and the Annals. The present thesis is an attempt to show the importance of the Agricola in the study of the Senatorial class in the first century AD, portraying their views and aspirations, as well as the literary framework upon which these concepts were converyed.
The first chapter examines the literary form and how it affects the content of the work. In tradition of the eulogistic biography, a sub genre of history, Tacitus presents in the character of Agricola the ideal to which the majority of his class aspired. The second chapter is an account of the political and social changes that had occurred with the rise and evolution of the Imperial government and the resultant changes in the function and composition of the Senatorial class. Tacitus and the other members of his class had to create strategies to combine their ideals with this new reality. Finally, the third chapter examines the political content of the work. Viewed in moral terms, Tacitus sought to convey an important message about the proper conduct of both his class and the Emperors, as well as ingratiate himself with the new regime of Nerva under which he was writing. The appendices provide information about the life of Tacitus, Agricola, and general political events in the Empire, along with a more specific examination of the conquest of Britain. These have been added to provide the reader with a historical context within which to more fully understand both the writing of Tacitus and the impact of Rome and Agricola on the history of Britain.
An interdisciplinary perspective of urbanization in La Tene, Central Gaul : a reassessment of the oppida, aspects of landscape organization and the impact of long-distance trade
The process of urban development in non-Mediterranean Gaul during the Iron Age, from the sixth to the first century B.C., involved many social factors that were spatially expressed through the creation of central fortified settlements, oppida, and secondary agglomerations. The central Gallic chiefdoms were complex stratified societies engaged in production and exchange, controlled by an elite chieftain class. One of the results of centralized elite authority is spatial consolidation through settlements of resources and structures for the effective conduct of trade, accumulation of wealth and admininstration. The central oppida have been defined as urban, based on the significance of their fortifications, the extensive evidence of long-distance trade and the impact of interaction with the Mediterranean world. It has been further argued, based on these factors, that the central Gallic chiefdoms developed into urbanized states. Current theories of complexity suggest, however, that this view needs reassessment, perhaps with the corroboration of archaeological evidence. Recent regional surveys suggest that the requisite social complexity was not there. Urbanization requires both intra-site layout and inter-site connectivity, and consequently a spatial organization of the landscape. Full understanding of the process must involve a cross-disciplinary interpretation, including geographical and ritual-ideological aspects of the site that have previously been neglected.
Master, what sick thing is this? Cambyses' madness and analogies of the health of the state in the 'Histories' of Herodotus
This thesis will first examine Cambyses' role as a monster of sickness in Herodotus' Histories, and next discuss allied health themes as these are applied to the Persian Empire. It will not deal with the historicity or factual veracity of Herodotus' portraits, but will rather consider Cambyses and other prominent Persians from the point of view of the author's implied ethical philosophy. It will be found that Cambyses is more than the most marginal of Persian kings, an incomprehensible figure whose behaviour is purely arbitrary, but in many ways the polar opposite of the author himself in his reaction to the limited behavioral choices open to mortals. Consequently, an understanding of this explicit morbidity can thus prepare the reader to evaluate the more implicit instances of sanitary themes in the Histories. By "sanitary themes" is meant a complex of analogies relating to physical, moral, and mental intactness. Disease, injury and emotional impairment commonly figure in these analogies; without exploring ancient medical concepts per se, this thesis will examine how Herodotus alludes to what can be called the Persian Empire's state of general health, as it progresses through time, by describing the physical and emotional conditions of its most significant members.
Herodotus can be said to offer himself up as an example of good, "healthy" behaviour: throughout the text, the author comes across as someone who possesses an active curiousity about the world, ready to seek the lessons implicit in each experience, and who can be expected to act accordingly. Cambyses, for his part, is equally concerned with learning, experiencing and ascertaining; yet he does so out of a spirit of respect, but out of a persistent tendency toward subversion. Herodotus equates this tendency with the sheerest folly, a folly usually understood as the cause of Cambyses' misbehaviour. But a case can be made for equating the misbehaviour with the folly itself, and by extension, for equating Cambyses' misdeeds and insanity with the injudiciousness to which all mortals are at times prey.
Virgil and the countryside: land, landscape and country life in Virgil's poetry
Tough, Ian Carnochan Kerr
Countryside and country life were notable themes in Augustan poetry, themes which no poet handled more effectively than Virgil. This is a study of the ways in which Virgil used these themes in expressing his thoughts and ideas. Virgil, who was born in 70 BC, lived through one of the most turbulent and critical epochs of Roman history, and those events exerted a powerful influence on his poetry. An equally important influence was Virgil's own upbringing in agricultural northern Italy. Those country origins are clearly reflected in his poetic landscapes. His descriptions fequently depict his native countryside and he evokes, especially in the Georgics, a sense of intimacy with the landscape by his personification of both its animate and inanimate features. Virgil's readers are constantly reminded that the landscape he describes is Italian. Virgil used the themes of land, landscape and country life to portray the fertility and productivity of the Italian countryside, to promote the age-old values of the countryman, to condemn the excesses of civil war and to express his hopes for the future of an Italy united under Augustus.